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1.
The Lancet. Global health ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045953

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, several international initiatives have been developed to strengthen and reform the global architecture for pandemic preparedness and response, including proposals for a pandemic treaty, a Pandemic Fund, and mechanisms for equitable access to medical countermeasures. These initiatives seek to make use of crucial lessons gleaned from the ongoing pandemic by addressing gaps in health security and traditional public health functions. However, there has been insufficient consideration of the vital role of universal health coverage in sustainably mitigating outbreaks, and the importance of robust primary health care in equitably and efficiently safeguarding communities from future health threats. The international community should not repeat the mistakes of past health security efforts that ultimately contributed to the rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic and disproportionately affected vulnerable and marginalised populations, especially by overlooking the importance of coherent, multisectoral health systems. This Health Policy paper outlines major (although often neglected) gaps in pandemic preparedness and response, which are applicable to broader health emergency preparedness and response efforts, and identifies opportunities to reconceptualise health security by scaling up universal health coverage. We then offer a comprehensive set of recommendations to help inform the development of key pandemic preparedness and response proposals across three themes—governance, financing, and supporting initiatives. By identifying approaches that simultaneously strengthen health systems through global health security and universal health coverage, we aim to provide tangible solutions that equitably meet the needs of all communities while ensuring resilience to future pandemic threats.

2.
BMJ open ; 12(8), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1990198

ABSTRACT

Objective Compliance with COVID-19 prevention measures limits infection occurrence and spread in healthcare settings. According to research conducted in Ethiopia, compliance with COVID-19 preventative strategies is inconsistent among healthcare providers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the national pooled proportion of healthcare workers (HCWs) who adhere to COVID-19 preventive measures and associated factors with good compliance. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of all identified studies with cross-sectional study design. Data sources A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, POPLINE, HINARI, Science Direct, Cochrane Library databases and Google Scholar search engines from January 2020 to September 2021. Data extraction and synthesis This review included all observational studies conducted in Ethiopia that reported the proportion of compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures and associated factors among HCWs. Two independent authors assessed the methodological quality of studies using Joanna Briggs Institute’s meta-analysis of statistical assessment and review instrument. The effect estimates for pooled proportion and pooled OR (POR) were determined. Results From retrieved 611 original studies, 21 studies were included in the meta-analysis with a total of n=7933 HCWs. The pooled proportion of good compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures among HCWs was 49.7% (95% CI: 42.3% to 57.1%). Being male (POR=2.21, 95% CI: 1.52 to 3.21), service years (>3 years) (POR=2.65, 95% CI: 1.94 to 3.64), training (POR=2.30, 95% CI: 1.78 to 2.98), positive attitude (POR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.66 to 5.94) and good knowledge (POR=2.36, 95% CI: 1.92 to 2.89) were factors significantly associated with good compliance towards COVID-19 preventive measures. Conclusion Our study indicated that approximately one in every two HCWs had good compliance with COVID-19 preventive measures. There must be more emphasis on providing further training sessions for the HCWs to improve their compliance with COVID-19 preventative measures.

3.
JMIR Form Res ; 6(7): e28510, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923838

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Referral linkages are crucial for efficient functioning of primary health care (PHC) systems. Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resource (FHIR) is an open global standard that facilitates structuring of health information for coordinated exchange among stakeholders. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to design FHIR profiles and present methodology and the profiled FHIR resource for Maternal and Child Health referral use cases in Ebonyi state, Nigeria-a typical low- and middle-income country (LMIC) setting. METHODS: Practicing doctors, midwives, and nurses were purposefully sampled and surveyed. Different referral forms were reviewed. The union of data sets from surveys and forms was aggregated and mapped to base patient FHIR resource elements, and extensions were created for data sets not in the core FHIR specification. This study also introduced FHIR and its relation to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) International Classification of Diseases. RESULTS: We found many different data elements from the referral forms and survey responses even in urban settings. The resulting FHIR standard profile is published on GitHub for adaptation or adoption as necessary to aid alignment with WHO recommendations. Understanding data sets used in health care and clinical practice for information sharing is crucial in properly standardizing information sharing, particularly during the management of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. Development organizations and governments can use this methodology and profile to fast-track FHIR standards adoption for paper and electronic information sharing at PHC systems in LMICs. CONCLUSIONS: We presented our methodology for profiling the referral resource crucial for the standardized exchange of new and expectant moms' information. Using data from frontline providers and mapping to the FHIR profile helped contextualize the standardized profile.

4.
AIMS public health ; 9(2):278-292, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871665

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused worldwide disruption to the entire educational system, including medical and health professions education. Considering the critical situation due to COVID-19, academic institutions shifted the entire pedagogical approach to the virtual learning mode. While delivering online teaching, educators experienced numerous challenges, including access to the internet, poor connectivity, and other technical issues. Some students did not have laptops and necessary devices to attend the Class. Besides, many educators were not confident enough to manage the online mode of delivery. In this perspective, we reviewed the evidence of best practices for the medical and health professions educators to deliver the curriculum through an online platform. Therefore, the current study aimed to review the best practices for effective online teaching and learning in medical and health professions education during COVID-19 and beyond. We reviewed the technical aspects of online teaching and educational strategies required for educators to provide quality training not just during the pandemic but beyond this crisis. The online literature search was performed on Medline, PubMed and google scholar databases for studies on online teaching in medical and health profession education and what are the best practices of teaching globally Online teaching and assessment must balance the requirements of technology, learning outcomes, delivery modes, learning resources, and learning resources. The study concludes that medical and health professions institutions strengthen technical infrastructure, promote continuous faculty development programs, and support indigent students to access digital technology.

5.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-336309

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a suite of international initiatives has been developed to strengthen and reform the global architecture for pandemic preparedness and response (PPR), including proposals for a pandemic treaty, financial intermediary fund, and mechanisms for equitable access to medical countermeasures, among others. These proposed initiatives seek to draw upon critical lessons gleaned from the ongoing crisis by addressing gaps in health security and traditional public health functions. However, to date, there is insufficient consideration of the vital role of universal health coverage and robust primary health care in sustainably, equitably, and efficiently safeguarding health systems from future public health threats. The international community must not repeat the mistakes of past health security efforts that ultimately fueled the COVID-19 catastrophe – in particular, by overlooking the importance of coherent, multisectoral health systems. This paper outlines major (though often neglected) gaps in PPR, and identifies opportunities to reconceptualize health security by scaling up universal health coverage. We then propose a comprehensive set of recommendations to help inform the development of key PPR mechanisms across three themes – legal governance, financing mechanisms, and supporting initiatives. By synthesizing approaches that simultaneously strengthen global health architecture for both health security and universal health coverage, we aim to provide tangible solutions that equitably meet the needs of all communities while ensuring resilience to future pandemic threats.

6.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742398

ABSTRACT

In late November 2021, a new SARS-CoV-2 Variant of Concern (VOC) named Omicron (initially named B.1.1.529) was first detected in South Africa. The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant became globally dominant, and the currently available COVID-19 vaccines showed less protection against this variant. This study aimed to investigate healthcare workers' (HCWs) knowledge and perceptions about the novel SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. A cross-sectional anonymous electronic survey concerning the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant was conducted among HCWs during the second week of January 2022. The survey instrument was distributed through social media among HCWs to explore awareness (2 items), knowledge (10 items), source of information (1 item), and perceptions (10 items). Respondents who answered ≥80% of the items correctly were considered as having good knowledge and perception. A total of 940 of the 1054 HCW participants completed the survey (response rate: 89.1%); they had a mean age of 31.2 ± 11.2 years, most were doctors (45.7%), and most were from Asia (64.3%). All the participants were aware of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant (100%). Only 36.3% attended lectures/discussions about Omicron and used news media to obtain information. Only a quarter of the HCWs demonstrated good knowledge (24.3%, n = 228) and perception (20.6%) about Omicron. However, while significant differences were observed in the knowledge and perception among HCWs, only a small proportion of doctors exhibited good knowledge (13%) and perception (10%) about the Omicron variant. HCWs who had participated in training/discussion related to the Omicron variant were more likely to have higher knowledge and perception scores (odds ratio: 1.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-3.11). As the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant spreads rapidly across the globe, ongoing educational interventions are warranted to improve knowledge and perceptions of HCWs.

7.
Journal of Asian and African Studies ; : 00219096221079310, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1701011

ABSTRACT

In recent years, India has established itself as the world?s ?pharmacy hub?, and this claim was proven once again when it delivered COVID-19 vaccines to its citizens, neighbouring nations and across the globe. Following the philosophy of humanitarianism through the principle of ?Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam?, India has decided to provide the COVID-19 health assistance to its immediate neighbouring countries. India?s immediate neighbourhood refers to the countries that are geographically adjacent to it. In addition, India?s vaccine diplomacy has exposed geopolitical fault lines in South Asia as China?s vaccine diplomacy aims to outpace India in the region. Against this background, the main objective of this paper is to explain and examine India?s vaccine diplomacy as an instrument of its ?Neighbourhood First? policy during the COVID-19 pandemic. It argues that India?s health-focused approach has proved effective and aligned with its national interests. This review demonstrates that India?s health diplomacy has had an impact on medical and humanitarian assistance reciprocation at the regional and international levels. As a result of this strategy, during the second wave of the pandemic, India received medical devices and vaccines from other countries in dealing with COVID-19.

8.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-8, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700210

ABSTRACT

The present study's aim is to find the prevalence of two of the common indicators of mental health - depression and anxiety - and any correlation with socio-demographic indicators in the Pakistani population during the lockdown from 5 May to 25 July 2020. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an online questionnaire sent to volunteer participants. A total of 1047 participants over 18 were recruited through convenience sampling. The survey targeted depression and anxiety levels, which were measured using a 14 item self-reporting Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Out of the total sample population (N=354), 39.9% suffered from depression and 57.7% from anxiety. Binary logistical regressions indicated significant predictive associations of gender (OR=1.410), education (OR=9.311), residence (OR=0.370), household income (OR=0.579), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.671), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=2.641). These were the key factors e associated with a significant increase in depression. Increases in anxiety levels were significantly linked to gender (OR=2.427), residence (OR=0.619), previous psychiatric problems (OR=1.166), and previous psychiatric medication (OR=7.330). These results suggest depression and anxiety were prevalent among the Pakistani population during the lockdown. Along with other measures to contain the spread of COVID-19, citizens' mental health needs the Pakistani government's urgent attention as well as that of mental health experts. Further large-scale, such as healthcare practitioners, should be undertaken to identify other mental health indicators that need to be monitored.

9.
Journal of Asian and African Studies ; : 00219096211069652, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1625763

ABSTRACT

The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic had left heart-wrenching impacts on all facets of life in general and the availability, accessibility, and affordability of medicines and vaccines in particular. Rather, the world has been divided into two groups regarding access to medicine and vaccines as haves and have-nots. The rich countries had pre-ordered the vaccines of COVID-19 along with the holding of the same. The pandemic situation was further worsened, given the Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in practice and restrictions on sharing technology of vaccines, medicines, and life-saving equipment. In this context, India and South Africa have proposed the joint proposal and garnered support for waiving off TRIPS to ensure equity, accessibility, and affordability of vaccines and the same as public goods. In this review, we emphasize that global justice is one of the important elements of normative international theories, which focus on all the moral obligations from the world?s rich to the world?s poor. The paper also questions and argues that if the rich countries fail to go by the principles of global justice, can the Indian and South African (SA) patent diplomacy play a catalyst role in global justice? The review concludes with an emphasis on global solidarity, and the acceptance of joint India?South Africa?s ?patent diplomacy? for TRIPS waiver would result in mass production and fair distribution, making the COVID-19 medicines and technologies available to everyone regardless of their poor?rich status.

10.
AIMS Public Health ; 8(4): 665-681, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524263

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emerged initially from Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in late December 2019, and since then, it has spread globally to be declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The Caribbean region started reporting COVID-19 cases in early March 2020, triggering new regional public health crises. The initial suspects and confirmed cases across the Caribbean countries were mainly imported cases and from cruise ships. The clinical manifestations varied from fever, cough, and malaise in mild cases to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock in severe cases. The Caribbean Public Health Agency has provided frequent updates on the preventive strategies and quarantine measures across the Caribbean member states. COVID-19 has had a serious impact on the Caribbean region's health system, economy, and psychology. This review presents the Caribbean perspective of COVID-19, detailing the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and preventive and surveillance measures. Vaccine hesitancy was found to be a major challenge that needs appropriate health education strategies to address the public. Strong leadership and regional collaboration among the Caribbean member states are necessary to provide optimal real-time data to the public and implement appropriate and effective guidelines in the island states.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512331

ABSTRACT

The African continent is home to 15% of the world's population and suffers from a disease burden of more than 25% globally. In this COVID-19 era, the high burden and mortality are further worsened due to inequities, inequalities such as inadequate health systems, scarce financial and human resources, as well as unavailability of inexpensive medicines of good quality, safety, and efficacy. The Universal Health Coverage ensures that people have access to high-quality essential health services, secure, reliable, and affordable essential medicines and vaccines, as well as financial security. This paper aimed at addressing the critical need for a continental African Medicines Agency (AMA) in addressing the inequities and the role of global health diplomacy in building consensus to support the ratification of the Treaty of AMA. A literature review was done in Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE/PubMed, and Google Scholar search engine to identify the critical literature in the context of study objectives. All the articles published after 2015 till 2021 in the context of AMA were included. African Health Strategy 2016-2030 highlighted the importance of an African regulatory mechanism for medicines and medical products. Through global health diplomacy (GHD), the African Union and its partners can negotiate and cooperate in providing infrastructural, administrative, and regulatory support for establishing the AMA. The paper emphasizes the South-South cooperation and highlights the contributions of India and China in the supply of medicines and vaccines to Africa. A strong AMA created through GHD can be a vital instrument in utilizing Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities extension and an ideal partner for European and other regional regulatory authorities seeking to stem the tide of counterfeit, sub-standard, or fake products.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , Global Health , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Universal Health Insurance
12.
Sustainability ; 13(20):11551, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1480978

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic COVID-19 has made it very clear that no one is safe until everyone is safe. But how can everyone be safe when the pandemic has broken every nerve of the economy and put an extra burden on the already crippled healthcare systems in low-income countries? Thus, the pandemic has changed the orientation of domestic as well as global politics, with many geopolitical shifts. The exponential growing infected cases and more than four million deaths has demanded a global response in terms of multilateralism. However, declining multilateralism and the need for its reforms was a much-delayed response. Given this context, this paper aimed to link the decline of multilateralism in the face of the pandemic by highlighting various instances of its failure and success;and highlighting the need for its revival. The article critically examines and evaluates the responses of multilateralism and global health diplomacy (GHD) during the pandemic. The ongoing black swan kind of event (an unexpected event) has obligated global leadership to think in terms of the revival of multilateralism through GHD. Historically, multilateralism through GHD has been shown to play an important role in managing and combating pandemics. The article further discusses various theoretical aspects such as sovereignty and hegemonic stability theory as reasons for the failing of multilateralism. The paper concludes by emphasizing the importance of foresight in reviving multilateralism in the pursuit of a more sustainable future.

13.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; 78(Suppl 1):A13, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480270

ABSTRACT

IntroductionHealthcare workers (HCW) working through the pandemic are in the front line for infection, psychological pressure and overwork.ObjectivesTo identify modifiable work factors associated with COVID-19 infection and mental distress, and to assess the effectiveness of provisions to mitigate their impact.MethodsA cohort study of HCWs was set up in the first weeks of the pandemic in Canada. HCWs from British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec completed an online questionnaire in the spring/summer of 2020, and a Phase 2 questionnaire from October 2020. They also provided a blood sample to assess SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. HCWs reporting a COVID-19 infection after the Phase 2 questionnaire were matched on job-type and province to 4 referents for a nested case-referent (C-R) study concentrating on exposures immediately prior to infection. Phase 3 is underway, with a final contact planned for March 2022.Results5135 HCWs completed the Phase 1 questionnaire with 93% (4539/4857) of those eligible completing Phase 2. By March 1st 2021, 157 cases had been confirmed by PCR and a further 10 found positive only on antibody testing (an overall rate of 3.3%). The odds of infection doubled for working one-on-one with known COVID-19 patients. Rates were lower in physicians and nurses, compared to personal support workers, health care aides, and licensed practical nurses. HCWs in a hospital setting had lower rates than those working in the community, where shortages of personal protective equipment were more widespread. High rates of anxiety (on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were recorded in both Phase 1 and 2. Only 1 in 4 HCW had used available mental health supports. By May 2021, 100 cases with 389 referents had been recruited to the on-going C-R study.ConclusionInformation collected prospectively has the potential to improve HCWs protection during this and future epidemics.

14.
Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ ; 11(4): 1269-1279, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470817

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian adaptation of the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) in Iranian adolescents. (2) Methods: Adolescents with a mean age of 15.10 (n = 3197; 47.1% males) were recruited from Qazvin city of Iran using a stratified cluster random sampling technique. All children completed the five-item Persian MDAS and information related to background characteristics. Psychometric testing was conducted using classical test theory (CTT) and Rasch models. For CTT, an item-total correlation of >0.4 was considered satisfactory while for Rasch analysis, infit and outfit mean squares (Mnsq) ranging from 0.5-1.5 were considered satisfactory. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was conducted to confirm the unidimensional structure of MDAS using various fit indices. Differential item functioning (DIF) was evaluated based on gender and time since last dental visit. Moreover, latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify the participants into different levels of dental fear based on their pattern of responses. Both item level reliability using Cronbachs alpha (α) and test-reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients were evaluated. (3) Results: Item-total correlations ranged from 0.69-0.78, infit MnSq ranged from 0.80 to 1.11 and the range of outfit MnSq was 0.84-1.10. The data confirmed a one-factor structure of MDAS with satisfactory fit indices. DIF analysis indicated that the scale was interpreted similarly across the genders and time since dental visit groups. LCA analysis identified three levels, low, moderate and high levels of dental anxiety. The groups with moderate and high levels of dental anxiety had more females (44.6% and 36.7%) than the group with low level of dental anxiety (18.8%; p < 0.001). α of the total scale was 0.89 and item test-retest reliability ranged from 0.72-0.86. (4) Conclusions: The Persian MDAS was unidimensional with satisfactory psychometric properties evaluated using both CTT and Rasch analysis among Iranian adolescents. The scale was stable across the genders and individuals with different dental visiting patterns. The Persian MDAS also demonstrated excellent reliability.

15.
Education Sciences ; 11(10):651, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1470816

ABSTRACT

Higher education is considered an important tool for the overall development of any country, and it holds true in the context of Afghanistan as well. At the same time, a good eco-environment in terms of political will, leaders’ farsighted vision, a fair budget, good infrastructure, and a good teaching community are some of the basic requirements for higher education to move in the direction of new and higher horizons. However, due to the ongoing war during the last couple of decades, the country’s education system has become out of reach for a substantial part of the population due to poverty, lack of infrastructure, refugees and internally displaced, digital division, etc., critically affecting the education equity. This systematic review examines India’s education diplomacy in addressing the inequities in Afghanistan’s education system and making them more equitable. Education was further dilapidated with the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Afghanistan is caught between a war and a pandemic and suffers from a double whammy in losses. Subsequently, given their chilling effects, higher education becomes devoid of multiples equities, including education. However, because of their historical and geo-civilizational ties, India has focused on development diplomacy in general and education diplomacy (E.D) in particular to improve educational infrastructures.

16.
Journal of Asian & African Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) ; : 1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1416760

ABSTRACT

India and Africa have been sharing a multidimensional relationship of cooperation and friendship since the ancient civilizations. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new possibilities and opportunities for India to leverage its soft power diplomacy towards Africa. The paper’s main focus is to analyze how India has made soft power part of its foreign policy and examine India’s relationship with the African continent through health diplomacy. A literature search was done in major databases, such as Web of Science, Medicine/PubMed, Scopus, OVID, and Google Scholar search engine to gather relevant information. Through humanitarian assistance and geopolitical influence, India had won the support and heart of Africans. Besides, India has become a global healthcare provider in the African continent through its global health diplomacy and vaccine diplomacy. India has achieved impressive gains through its soft power diplomacy and has become a compassionate and benevolent actor in the African continent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Asian & African Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) is the property of Sage Publications, Ltd. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

17.
Big Data and Cognitive Computing ; 5(3):41, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1390530

ABSTRACT

Artificial intelligence (AI) programs are applied to methods such as diagnostic procedures, treatment protocol development, patient monitoring, drug development, personalized medicine in healthcare, and outbreak predictions in global health, as in the case of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Machine learning (ML) is a field of AI that allows computers to learn and improve without being explicitly programmed. ML algorithms can also analyze large amounts of data called Big data through electronic health records for disease prevention and diagnosis. Wearable medical devices are used to continuously monitor an individual’s health status and store it in cloud computing. In the context of a newly published study, the potential benefits of sophisticated data analytics and machine learning are discussed in this review. We have conducted a literature search in all the popular databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, MEDLINE/PubMed and Google Scholar search engines. This paper describes the utilization of concepts underlying ML, big data, blockchain technology and their importance in medicine, healthcare, public health surveillance, case estimations in COVID-19 pandemic and other epidemics. The review also goes through the possible consequences and difficulties for medical practitioners and health technologists in designing futuristic models to improve the quality and well-being of human lives.

18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6658070, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376535

ABSTRACT

In light of the devastation caused by COVID-19, the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and vaccine research and development (R&D) have been occupying a prominent position in the field of global health diplomacy (GHD). Most countries, international organizations, and charitable organizations have been engaged in the R&D of COVID-19 vaccines to ensure timely affordability and accessibility to all countries. Concomitantly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) provides some provisions and enforcements regarding copyrights, patents, trademarks, geographical indications, and industrial designs. Given these safeguards, it is considered that intellectual property rights (IPRs) have become major barriers to the affordability and accessibility of vaccines/medicines/technology, particularly to the developing/least developed countries. Realizing the gravity of the pandemic impact, as well as its huge population and size, India has elevated this issue in its global health diplomacy by submitting a joint proposal with South Africa to the World Trade Organization (WTO) for a temporary waiver of IPRs to ensure timely affordability and accessibility of COVID-19 medical products to all countries. However, the issue of the temporary waive off had become a geopolitical issue. Countries that used to claim per se as strong advocates of human rights, egalitarianism, and healthy democracy have opposed this proposal. In this contrasting milieu, this paper is aimed at examining how the TRIPS has become a barrier for developing countries' development and distribution of vaccines/technology; secondly, how India strategizes its role in the WTO in pursuant of its global health diplomacy? We conclude that the IPRs regime should not become a barrier to the accessibility/affordability of essential drugs and vaccines. To ensure access, India needs to get more engaged in GHD with all the involved global stakeholders to get strong support for their joint proposal. The developed countries that rejected/resisted the proposal can rethink their full support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Diplomacy/methods , Drug Industry/methods , Global Health , Health Services Accessibility , Human Rights/methods , Humans , India , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Health Promot Perspect ; 11(3): 281-287, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374786

ABSTRACT

With over 4 million deaths worldwide, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)pandemic is regarded as one of the worst pandemics in history. With its wider devastating consequences, even so-called affluent countries could not provide full coverage for COVID-19vaccines and medications to all of their citizens. Against this backdrop, the main aim of this article is to examine how Global Health Diplomacy (GHD) can play a role in prioritizing vaccine equity in the global health agenda in the fight against COVID-19. The majority of developed countries' healthcare systems have been exposed and have reached a tipping point.After the completion of eighteen months of the pandemic, only five countries were able to produce vaccines for the treatment of COVID-19. This pandemic has divided the world into two blocs: those with vaccines, such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia, China, and India; and those without, such as the rest of the world. The greatest challenges are vaccine inequalities, inequities and distribution, which undermine the global economic recovery. Many poor countries are still waiting for the initial doses to be delivered to their citizens, while some rich nations are planning for booster doses. GHD plays a critical role in establishing successful global collaborations, funding mechanisms and ensuring international cooperation through the combined efforts of all stakeholders. Besides, global solidarity is necessary to lessen the wider gaps between the vaccination status of rich and poor nations. Therefore, through GHD, the vaccine gaps and inequities can be addressed to strengthen global health security and accelerate global economic recovery.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655021, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332149

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is not the first and most frightening global pandemic, and it may not be the last. At the very least, this phenomenon has though seriously challenged the health systems of the world; it has created a new perspective on the value of national, regional, and international cooperation during crises. The post-coronavirus world could be a world of intensified nationalist rivalries on the economic revival and political influence. However, strengthening cooperation among nations at different levels will lead to the growth of health, economy, and security. The current situation is a touchstone for international actors in coordinating the efforts in similar future crises. At present, this pandemic crisis cannot be resolved except through joint international cooperation, global cohesion, and multilateralism. This perspective concludes that the pandemic could be an excellent opportunity for the scope of global health diplomacy (GHD) and how it can be applied and practiced for strengthening five global arenas, namely (1) International Cooperation and Global Solidarity, (2) Global Economy, Trade and Development, (3) Global Health Security, (4) Strengthening health systems, and (5) Addressing inequities to achieve the global health targets. GHD proves to be very useful for negotiating better policies, stronger partnerships, and achieving international cooperation in this phase with many geopolitical shifts and nationalist mindset among many nations at this stage of COVID-19 vaccine roll-out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diplomacy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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