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Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480888


Ammonia (NH3) is a vital compound in diversified fields, including agriculture, automotive, chemical, food processing, hydrogen production and storage, and biomedical applications. Its extensive industrial use and emission have emerged hazardous to the ecosystem and have raised global public health concerns for monitoring NH3 emissions and implementing proper safety strategies. These facts created emergent demand for translational and sustainable approaches to design efficient, affordable, and high-performance compact NH3 sensors. Commercially available NH3 sensors possess three major bottlenecks: poor selectivity, low concentration detection, and room-temperature operation. State-of-the-art NH3 sensors are scaling up using advanced nano-systems possessing rapid, selective, efficient, and enhanced detection to overcome these challenges. MXene-polymer nanocomposites (MXP-NCs) are emerging as advanced nanomaterials of choice for NH3 sensing owing to their affordability, excellent conductivity, mechanical flexibility, scalable production, rich surface functionalities, and tunable morphology. The MXP-NCs have demonstrated high performance to develop next-generation intelligent NH3 sensors in agricultural, industrial, and biomedical applications. However, their excellent NH3-sensing features are not articulated in the form of a review. This comprehensive review summarizes state-of-the-art MXP-NCs fabrication techniques, optimization of desired properties, enhanced sensing characteristics, and applications to detect airborne NH3. Furthermore, an overview of challenges, possible solutions, and prospects associated with MXP-NCs is discussed.

J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478269


BACKGROUND: Covaxin is the first indigenous vaccine developed in India against COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to analyze the news stories on Covaxin published in the online media between two statements issued by Indian Council for Medical Research on 2nd and 4th July for their content, quality of information, and reporting standards. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search was performed on Google to identify the news stories related to Covaxin in the English language published between these two statements. The selected news stories were subjected to content analysis and reviewed using the screening points developed through a consultation by two independent experts using ten prevalidated criteria for health news review. The data were analyzed in MS Excel and StataMP14. RESULTS: The final analysis included 24 news stories. The mean and median score of the news stories is 10.71 and 12 (out of 20), respectively, with a score ranging from 2 to 17. The stories did not promote disease or vaccine mongering (100%), adequately mentioned the true novelty of the vaccine (95.8%), and source of the information (83.3%). However, they mostly failed to mention the information on costs, research data related to benefits, and harms and quality of the available evidence. CONCLUSION: There is a lack of reporting of detailed analysis about the methodology of development of the vaccine and limitations in its research design by health journalists. It is important to train journalists on proper reporting of health news to improve its quality in Indian media.

Nanotechnology for Environmental Engineering ; 6(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1047431


The whole world is currently facing a global health crisis due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS coronavirus 2, which started in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019. The pandemic has affected 235 countries, areas or territories and infected over 42 million people across the globe as per WHO update on 27 October 2020. More than 1.1 million people have died and the numbers are increasing daily. However, some drugs have been authorized for emergency treatment of patients, medication and vaccines with proven efficacy to prevent and treat the disease is still under various phases of development. The entire world is consistently making efforts to address three major challenges related to COVID-19 including prevention of its spread, prompt and early diagnosis and treatment of patients to save lives. Touted as one of the game-changing technologies of the century, nanotechnology has huge potential to develop solutions against these three major challenges of the disease. Nanotechnology comprises of multidisciplinary prospects encompassing diverse disciplines including medicine, material science, artificial intelligence, environment, virology, physical sciences, chemistry and biology. The numerous challenges can be addressed through the engineering of the various physicochemical properties of materials presents in abundance in nature. Various claims, studies and reports on research and development to combat these challenges associated with COVID-19 have been collectively discussed in this article from the perspectives of nanotechnology.