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1.
Indian J Public Health ; 66(2): 230-233, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954317

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has left the health-care workers exhausted and the system dwindling. The challenges have been immense everywhere and even worse in developing countries. Despite the Indian Government's forethought and active investment in various national programs, the pandemic has brought unconceivable repercussions on the management and notification of several other lethal infectious diseases including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Although the phenomenal capacity building for COVID-19 testing and diagnosis over a short time is admirable, the journey has been arduous. From convincing the hospital managements to create the recommended infrastructure, to the procurement of necessary equipment and consumables on an urgent basis, and providing services round the clock with limited workforce, the laboratory personnel throughout the country have done a remarkable job in their quest to combat the pandemic. However, the work needs to be pursued further in apprehension and preparedness for any emerging agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 959-965, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: India witnessed the catastrophic second wave of COVID-19 during the summer months of 2021. Many patients with non-resolution of symptoms admitted to dedicated COVID-19 treatment centers required prolonged inpatient care which led to the unavailability of beds for other COVID-19 patients. The objective of this study was to determine the duration of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients requiring long-term pulmonary care as well as to find out the association between different variables with the persistence of the virus. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective chart review of clinical and laboratory data of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 between 1st April 2021 and 15th July 2021 admitted for more than 28 days and requiring long-term pulmonary care was carried out at National Cancer Institute, AIIMS, India. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-based tests. Data from all consecutively included patients satisfying the selection criteria were presented temporally and analyzed by Fisher's exact test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: All 51 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the 5th week of initial laboratory confirmation of COVID-19. The majority of the patients (38; 74.5%) remained positive for viral RNA till the 6th week and the median duration of viral positivity was 45 days. The clinical presentation of SARI at admission was significantly higher among patients with viral persistence till the 6th week (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The median duration of the viral positivity was 45 days and SARI at admission was significantly associated with viral persistence till the 6th week.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336131

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 evolution has continued to generate variants, responsible for new pandemic waves locally and globally. Varying disease presentation and severity has been ascribed to inherent variant characteristics and vaccine immunity. This study analyzed genomic data from 305 whole genome sequences from SARS-CoV-2 patients before and through the third wave in India. Delta variant was responsible for disease in patients without comorbidity(97%), while Omicron BA.2 caused disease primarily in those with comorbidity(77%). Tissue adaptation studies brought forth higher propensity of Omicron variants to bronchial tissue than lung, contrary to observation in Delta variants from Delhi. Study of codon usage pattern distinguished the prevalent variants, clustering them separately, Omicron BA.2 isolated in February grouped away from December strains, and all BA.2 after December acquired a new mutation S959P in ORF1b (44.3% of BA.2 in the study) indicating ongoing evolution. Loss of critical spike mutations in Omicron BA.2 and gain of immune evasion mutations including G142D, reported in Delta but absent in BA.1, and S371F instead of S371L in BA.1 could possibly be due to evolutionary trade-off and explain very brief period of BA.1 in December 2021, followed by complete replacement by BA.2.

4.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1696-1700, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718390

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections entail methodical genomic surveillance for determining the efficacy of vaccines. This study elaborates genomic analysis of isolates from breakthrough infections following vaccination with AZD1222/Covishield and BBV152/Covaxin. Variants of concern B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.7 responsible for cases surge in April-May 2021 in Delhi, were the predominant lineages among breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
5.
Journal of education and health promotion ; 10, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1710747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the use of Internet with e-learning resources anytime and anywhere leads to interaction possibilities among teachers and students from different parts of the world. It is becoming increasingly pertinent that we exploit the Internet technologies to achieve the most benefits in the education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study compares the difference between traditional classroom and e-learning in the educational environment. Medical undergraduate students of our institution were enrolled to compare between the online versus traditional method of teaching through questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty percent of students found the online lecture material difficult to understand. 42.6% of respondents found it difficult to clear the doubts in online teaching;64.4% of the participants believed that they have learned more in a face-to-face learning. CONCLUSION: In this study, we concluded that online mode offers flexibility on timing and delivery. Students can even download the content, notes, and assignment. Despite all the advantages offered, there is a general consensus that no technology can replace face-to-face teaching in real because in this, there will be visual as well as verbal discussion. Looking at the uncertainty of the current scenario, it is difficult to predict how long online classes will have to continue. Hence, it is of paramount importance that we assess the effectiveness of online classes and consequently take measures to ensure proper delivery of content to students, especially in a skilled field like medicine, so we concluded that face-to-face learning is of utmost importance in medical institutions.

6.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 457, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643714

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the use of Internet with e-learning resources anytime and anywhere leads to interaction possibilities among teachers and students from different parts of the world. It is becoming increasingly pertinent that we exploit the Internet technologies to achieve the most benefits in the education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study compares the difference between traditional classroom and e-learning in the educational environment. Medical undergraduate students of our institution were enrolled to compare between the online versus traditional method of teaching through questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty percent of students found the online lecture material difficult to understand. 42.6% of respondents found it difficult to clear the doubts in online teaching; 64.4% of the participants believed that they have learned more in a face-to-face learning. CONCLUSION: In this study, we concluded that online mode offers flexibility on timing and delivery. Students can even download the content, notes, and assignment. Despite all the advantages offered, there is a general consensus that no technology can replace face-to-face teaching in real because in this, there will be visual as well as verbal discussion. Looking at the uncertainty of the current scenario, it is difficult to predict how long online classes will have to continue. Hence, it is of paramount importance that we assess the effectiveness of online classes and consequently take measures to ensure proper delivery of content to students, especially in a skilled field like medicine, so we concluded that face-to-face learning is of utmost importance in medical institutions.

7.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 161-167, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638319

ABSTRACT

The authors describe a case series of co-infection with COVID-19 and scrub typhus in two Indian patients. Clinical features like fever, cough, dyspnea and altered sensorium were common in both patients. Case 1 had lymphopenia, elevated IL-6 and history of hypertension, while case 2 had leukocytosis and an increased liver enzymes. Both patients had hypoalbuminemia and required admission to the intensive care unit; one of them succumbed to acute respiratory distress syndrome further complicated by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Seasonal tropical infections in COVID-19 patients in endemic settings may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, high clinical suspicion and an early diagnosis for co-infections among COVID-19 patients are essential for better patient management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/diagnosis , Scrub Typhus/complications , Scrub Typhus/diagnosis , Adult , COVID-19/blood , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Cough , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea , Early Diagnosis , Fever , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Scrub Typhus/blood
8.
Lung India ; 39(1): 16-26, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic hit India from early April 2021 to June 2021. We describe the clinical features, treatment trends, and baseline laboratory parameters of a cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and their association with the outcome. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify clinical and biochemical predictors of developing hypoxia, deterioration during the hospital stay, and death. RESULTS: A total of 2080 patients were included. The case fatality rate was 19.5%. Among the survivors, the median duration of hospital stay was 8 (5-11) days. Out of 853 (42.3%%) of patients who had COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome at presentation, 340 (39.9%) died. Patients aged >45 years had higher odds of death as compared to the 18-44 years age group. Vaccination reduced the odds of death by 40% (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval [CI]]: 0.6 [0.4-0.9], P = 0.032). Patients with hyper inflammation at baseline as suggested by leukocytosis (OR [95% CI]: 2.1 [1.5-3.1], P < 0.001), raised d-dimer >500 mg/dL (OR [95% CI]: 3.2 [2.2-4.7], P < 0.001), and raised C-reactive peptide >0.5 mg/L (OR [95% CI]: 3.7 [2.2-13], P = 0.037) had higher odds of death. Patients who were admitted in the 2nd week had lower odds and those admitted in the 3rd week had higher odds of death. CONCLUSION: This study shows that vaccination status and early admission during the inflammatory phase can change the course of illness of these patients. Improving vaccination rates and early admission of patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 can improve the outcomes.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 303-309, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544346

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n = 10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n = 7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
Atypical Bacterial Forms/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Chlamydophila Infections/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Legionnaires' Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , India , Legionella pneumophila/isolation & purification , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1696-1700, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520244

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections entail methodical genomic surveillance for determining the efficacy of vaccines. This study elaborates genomic analysis of isolates from breakthrough infections following vaccination with AZD1222/Covishield and BBV152/Covaxin. Variants of concern B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.7 responsible for cases surge in April-May 2021 in Delhi, were the predominant lineages among breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Young Adult
11.
Maturitas ; 159: 69-70, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508035
12.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1410037

ABSTRACT

Abstract Emerging evidence shows co-infection with atypical bacteria in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Respiratory illness caused by atypical bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila may show overlapping manifestations and imaging features with COVID-19 causing clinical and laboratory diagnostic issues. We conducted a prospective study to identify co-infections with SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria in an Indian tertiary hospital. From June 2020 to January 2021, a total of 194 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were also tested for atypical bacterial pathogens. For diagnosing M. pneumoniae, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serology (IgM ELISA) were performed. C. pneumoniae diagnosis was made based on IgM serology. L. pneumophila diagnosis was based on PCR or urinary antigen testing. Clinical and epidemiological features of SARS-CoV-2 and atypical bacteria-positive and -negative patient groups were compared. Of the 194 patients admitted with COVID-19, 17 (8.8%) were also diagnosed with M. pneumoniae (n?=?10) or C. pneumoniae infection (n?=?7). Confusion, headache, and bilateral infiltrate were found more frequently in the SARS CoV-2 and atypical bacteria co-infection group. Patients in the M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae co-infection group were more likely to develop ARDS, required ventilatory support, had a longer hospital length of stay, and higher fatality rate compared to patients with only SARS-CoV-2. Our report highlights co-infection with bacteria causing atypical pneumonia should be considered in patients with SARS-CoV-2 depending on the clinical context. Timely identification of co-existing pathogens can provide pathogen-targeted treatment and prevent fatal outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic.

13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0016321, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319383

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected individuals are at an increased risk for coinfections; therefore, physicians need to be cognizant about excluding other treatable respiratory pathogens. Here, we report coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens in patients admitted to the coronavirus disease (COVID) care facilities of an Indian tertiary care hospital. From June 2020 through January 2021, we tested 191 patients with SARS-CoV-2 for 33 other respiratory pathogens using an fast track diagnostics respiratory pathogen 33 (FTD-33) assay. Additionally, information regarding other relevant respiratory pathogens was collected by reviewing their laboratory data. Overall, 13 pathogens were identified among patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, and 46.6% (89/191) of patients had coinfection with one or more additional pathogens. Bacterial coinfections (41.4% [79/191]) were frequent, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Coinfections with SARS-CoV-2 and Pneumocystis jirovecii or Legionella pneumophila were also identified. The viral coinfection rate was 7.3%, with human adenovirus and human rhinovirus being the most common. Five patients in our cohort had positive cultures for Acinetobacter baumannii and K. pneumoniae, and two patients had active Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In total, 47.1% (90/191) of patients with coinfections were identified. The higher proportion of patients with coinfections in our cohort supports the systemic use of antibiotics in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with rapid de-escalation based on respiratory PCR/culture results. The timely and simultaneous identification of coinfections can contribute to improved health of COVID-19 patients and enhanced antibiotic stewardship during the pandemic. IMPORTANCE Coinfections in COVID-19 patients may worsen disease outcomes and need further investigation. We found that a higher proportion of patients with COVID-19 were coinfected with one or more additional pathogens. A better understanding of the prevalence of coinfection with other respiratory pathogens in COVID-19 patients and the profile of pathogens can contribute to effective patient management and antibiotic stewardship during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Coinfection/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii , Adenoviruses, Human , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/drug therapy , Enterovirus , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(3): 124-129, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298218

ABSTRACT

The COVID -19 pandemic has had a catastrophic impact on the global economy and the healthcare industry. Unfortunately, the scientific community still hasn't discovered a definite cure for this virus. Also, owing to the unscrupulous use of antibiotics in wake of the current situation, another ongoing pandemic of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been entirely eclipsed. However, increased compliance to infection control measures like hand hygiene (both at hospital and community level), and restricted travel might be favorable. It is evident that the AMR strategies will be impacted disproportionately varying with the respective policies followed by the countries and hospitals to deal with the pandemic. The vaccination drive initiated globally has provided a glimmer of hope. In this article, the possible reciprocity between the two contemporaneous pandemics has been addressed. The world needs to be vigilant to punctuate the symphony between these lethal threats to global health. The restraint to combat against AMR will be boosted as our discernment of the problem also changes with the epidemiological interplay becoming more apparent in near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Public Health Practice , Syndemic , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(4): 402-403, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274267
16.
Access Microbiol ; 3(3): 000212, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276304

ABSTRACT

We report co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in a patient with pneumonia in India. Atypical bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia may share similar clinical presentations and radiographic features with SARS-CoV-2 making a thorough differential diagnosis essential. The co-infection of SARS-CoV-2 and M. pneumoniae is infrequently reported in the literature. Broader testing for common respiratory pathogens should be performed in severe COVID-19 cases to rule out other concurrent infections. Early identification of co-existing respiratory pathogens could provide pathogen-directed therapy, and can save patient lives during the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak.

17.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 262-264, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157422

ABSTRACT

As the world fights with the Coronavirus, most of the hospitals are gearing up for the care of these patients. As most of the attention these days is being given on Coronavirus, the patients suffering from other clinical infections are being neglected. SARS-CoV-2 is being kept as the top differential in patients presenting with fever and respiratory distress. We hereby present a case of patient returning from Indonesia during the pandemic presenting with a history of hepatic, renal dysfunction with fever and cough. Due to the pandemic, the patient's fever and cough outweighed the hepatic and renal dysfunction, and the patient had to undergo dialysis before the final diagnosis of leptospirosis could be made.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Leptospirosis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Male
19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 9(10): 5113-5121, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937602

ABSTRACT

The origin and spread of current novel coronavirus had raised serious concerns among stakeholders around the globe. Different speculations that may unfold the mystery in the future are taking roots, but now there is no globally acceptable opinion about the origin and spread of this novel coronavirus. It is reported that Wuhan city of Hubei Province of central China was the epicenter of this outbreak of novel coronavirus. However, initial inadequate preventive measures allowed the infection to cross the borders of China and that pulls the world into drastic public health and economic crisis. This coronavirus disease now named as COVID-19 by World Health Organization (WHO) and the responsible coronavirus is named as "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)." The spread of SARS-CoV-2 is alarming even after 5 months of inception and WHO further warns the world to be prepared for more intense spread of COVID-19. Different diagnostic tools to detect SARS-CoV-2 are being used around the globe, but the identification of asymptomatic carriers of the disease is a serious challenge in countering the COVID-19 pandemic. There is no specific treatment available, only preventive, symptomatic, and supportive treatments are being used for clinical management of COVID-19. The available knowledge is limited, therefore, any escalation of information on the disease will help to combat this global challenge of COVID-19. In this review, we have discussed and summarized the available multi-factorial information and recent updates on the SARS-CoV-2 which can help support future research and may help in the strategic management of the current COVID-19 pandemic. The articles available online before June 30, 2020, on bioRxiv, medRxiv, ChemRxiv, Google Scholar, and PubMed have been assessed for the compilation of this review. Information on the official portal of WHO, CDC, ICMR, etc., were also assessed and used with due credit.

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