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1.
Gene Delivery Systems: Development and Applications ; CHAP: 105-128,
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2089276

ABSTRACT

Infectious disease is mainly caused by bacteria and viruses. Over time, the world has suffered from various bacterial and viral-born endemics or pandemics such as Ebola, SARS-CoV-2, and influenza. Hence, the development and advancement of a rapid, scalable, and cost-effective platform is essential for supplying on-demand vaccines for prophylactic and therapeutic use. Recently, the vaccine development platform is shifting toward self-amplifying mRNA (saRNA) technology for providing a quicker response against emerging infectious outbreaks. In this chapter we have focused on a brief introduction of vaccinology history, the benefits of saRNA over mRNA, and the immune response provoked by the saRNA vaccine. Additionally, we have addressed preparation, purification, delivery, and pharmacokinetic aspects of the saRNA vaccine. We have limited our discussion to the saRNA vaccine for infectious disease, clinical translation, and future prospects. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Yashwant V. Pathak;individual chapters, the contributors.

2.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(7):S24-S29, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024847

ABSTRACT

Background: Continuing Medical education during the COVID-19 Pandemic has been a great challenge to Medical educators, especially teaching clinical skills online. Aims: The study aims too study the efficacy of teaching ECG in online mode to first MBBS students in the Department of Physiology. Materials and Methods: There are 200 students in the first MBBS batch at Burdwan Medical College. Our method of teaching was flipped classroom-assisted self-directed learning. For teaching ECG to our students we had first arranged for presession MCQ to assess the initial level of knowledge. We had then provided the students with PowerPoint presentations with voice narrations for their self-study, following which the students were divided into batches of twenty and each batch had a team leader and a facilitator. These small batches were shown videos of instruments, methods of recording ECG, normal and abnormal ECG along with explanations in multiple sessions (10). Doubt clearing sessions were arranged for each batch and these sessions were brainstorming. The students were assessed with MCQs (10 marks each Session), oral questions, short answer type questions, spots, and problem-based questions. We also took a feedback survey from the students and provided the students with feedback regarding their performance. Results: MCQ assessments of students in Pre and Posttest session on ECG teaching classes were 50.39 ± 19.41 vs. 65.25 ± 9.14;P ≤ 0.001FNx08. Students performed significantly better in MCQ assessments of students on Normal parameters of ECG assessment as compared to Abnormal ECG parameters: 67.25 ± 10.98 vs. 63.157 ± 7.399;P = 0.000424FNx08. Results of Written Examination and Viva Examination of students in ECG classes were 64.844 ± 9.923 vs. 71.89 ± 10.49;P ≤ 0.001FNx08. Conclusions: The online method of teaching ECG was a success in the institution as observed in this study as observed in the assessment. Students performed better in viva in online exam for ECG and students were satisfied with online delivery. © Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth 2022.

3.
Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ; 15(4):555-560, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954414

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has greatly impacted the progress of medical education. As the crisis continues, it is important to develop valid and reliable methods of assessment. Aims: To assess the impact of the competency-based medical education (CBME) implemented online in the department of physiology during this pandemic on the results of internal assessments conducted online. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted on two hundred First-year MBBS students at Burdwan Medical College after taking Institutional clearance in 6 months. Two internal assessments had to be conducted online in 6 months. We divided our internal assessment sessions which were conducted at three monthly intervals into 4 compartments: multiple-choice questions, short answer type questions, orals, and spots. We conducted two surveys to assess the stress levels of the students and two feedback surveys to assess our teaching program. Statistical analysis: T-test and Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Results: Assessments scores of students in the first session were 59.68 ± 10.91;assessment scores of students in the second session were 73.21 ± 8.66;P < 0.001 ∗∗ (highly significant). Perceived stress score (PSS) in the first survey was 21.36 ± 3.84 and PSS in the second survey was 20.77 ± 4.13;P = 0.144. Thirty students failed in the first session while 1 in the second session, χ 2 = 32.1;P < 0.0001∗∗. At the end of 3 months, 11.4% had difficulty in studying physiology, while at the end of 6 months, 8.5% had difficulty in studying physiology with online support. Conclusions: The first MBBS students were able to cope up better with the online mode of teaching with the passage of time and regular feedback provided to them. The results of the present study demonstrate that the department of physiology could implement CBME online and conduct internal assessments also. © 2022 Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth ;Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow

4.
COMPUTACION Y SISTEMAS ; 26(2):1045-1067, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939435

ABSTRACT

In recent years understanding person's sentiments for catastrophic events has been a major subject of research. In recent times COVID19 has raised psychological issues in people's minds across world. Sentiment analysis has played significant role in analysing reviews across wide array of real-life situations. With constant development of deep learning based language models, this has become an active investigation area. With COVID19 pandemic different countries have faced several peaks resulting in lockdowns. During this time people have placed their sentiments in social media. As review data corpora grows it becomes necessary to develop robust sentiment analysis models capable of extracting people's viewpoints and sentiments. In this paper, we present a computational framework which uses deep learning based language models through delayed recurrent neural networks (d-RNN) and hierarchical version of d-RNN (Hd-RNN) for sentiment analysis catering to rise of COVID19 cases in different parts of India. Sentiments are reviewed considering time window spread across 2020 and 2021. Multi-label sentiment classification is used where more than one sentiment are expressed at once. Both d-RNN and Hd-RNN are optimized by fine tuning different network parameters and compared with BERT variants, LSTM as well as traditional methods. The methods are evaluated with highly skewed data as well as using precision, recall and F1 scores. The results on experimental datasets indicate superiority of Hd-RNN considering other techniques.

5.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry ; 56(SUPPL 1):237, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916606

ABSTRACT

Background: The 2020 COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom led to increased eating disorder presentations in the under-18 age group. Sussex Family Eating Disorders Service (SFEDS) covers treatment for all under-18-year-olds in Sussex county. A surge of referrals into the service followed the pandemic. It was decided to survey referrals from September to November 2019 and 2020 to explore what were the differences noted between these years. Objectives: To explore characteristic differences in eating disorder referrals between 2019 and 2020 during the same 3-month periods to see the impact of COVID-19 restrictions. Methods: The recorded triage data were collated and compared between 2019 and 2020. This included looking at characteristics such as age, weight for height, urgency of referrals and reasons for rejecting referrals. Findings: There was a marked increase in total referrals between 2019 and 2020, including urgent referrals. It appeared in 2020 that the referrals were marked for ages 12 and 15 years old. There was a wider range of weightfor- height presentations in 2020, which could reflect differing types of presentations. Conclusion: The effect of COVID-19 lockdown was reflected in changes in 2020 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) eating disorder referrals into SFEDS. The increase of referrals during COVID-19 at 12 years of age reflects time of transition into UK high school, while at 15 years of age, students were sitting the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) exams. Both educational times in 2020 were disrupted by COVID-19 restrictions. It would be useful to reflect on referrals in 2021 to seeing ongoing pandemic impact.

6.
High Contrast Metastructures XI 2022 ; 12011, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891710

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic attributed to the SARs-Cov-2 virus has disrupted the lives of individuals in every corner of the world, causing millions of infections and numerous deaths worldwide. Identifying and isolating infected people is very crucial to slow down the spread of the disease. In this paper, we report a design of highly sensitive, graphene-metasurface based biosensor for detecting the S1 spike protein expressed on the surface of the SARSCoV-2 virus in the terahertz band. Our structure consists of a silicon dioxide substrate sandwiched between a complete gold layer at the bottom, and a graphene monolayer on top etched with a phi-shaped slot tilted at 45 degree, which performs a wideband reflective-type cross-polarization conversion of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. The optimized polarization conversion ratio (PCR) has been achieved at 0.75eV chemical potential value of the graphene layer. When samples of Sars-CoV-2 virus contained in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solvent is put on top of proposed design of the sensing surface, the spike proteins of the virus interact with the spike antibody grown on the sensing surface;and it changes the refractive index of the overall system (Biosensor + Analyte), which in turn changes the PCR and the corresponding frequency of the reflected wave. The biosensor response has been computed using the Finite Integration Technique (FIT) in the terahertz region. The sensitivity of the biosensor is found to be 354 GHz/RIU at the PCR of 0.9. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

7.
Nudged into Lockdown?:Behavioral Economics, Uncertainty and Covid-19 ; : 1-244, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876016

ABSTRACT

Utilizing extensive research in economics, psychology, political science, neuroscience and evolutionary theory, Ananish Chaudhuri provides a critical perspective on the role of cognitive biases in decision-making during the Covid-19 pandemic. The extensive use of, and support for, stringent social distancing measures in particular is explored in depth. © Ananish Chaudhuri 2022.

8.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874326

ABSTRACT

We present the design and analysis of a graphene metasurface-based cross polarization converter operating within the terahertz gap for detecting biomolecules over a broad spectral range, taking the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a specific example. To the best of our knowledge, our design reports the widest band of operation in the THz region of a graphene-based metasensor. Each meta-atom comprises a graphene pattern on silicon dioxide atop a continuous gold layer and exhibits near-unity cross polarization conversion ratio (PCR) and a 90% PCR bandwidth of 0.926 THz within the desired band (1.88 THz-2.81 THz). The proposed device demonstrates additional benefits which include a thin configuration (λ/7.84) and compact lattice size (λ/10.66), which are significantly better than other recently reported graphene metasurface biosensors. The device provides a sensitivity up to 490 GHz/RIU and a figure of merit (FoM) of 0.377 over a wide span of 0.926 THz within the terahertz gap. The electromagnetic response of this device has been validated via rigorous numerical analyses of simulated outputs as well as by developing a detailed circuit model representation of the same. The device demonstrates angular stability of nearly 40°under oblique incidence of the incident wave. IEEE

9.
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry ; 56(1_SUPPL):237-237, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1865896
10.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(6 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779698

ABSTRACT

Background: The KEYNOTE 426 trial demonstrated pem 200mg plus axi twice daily (bd) is effective in aRCC. Pharmacokinetic modelling of pem 400 mg every six weeks demonstrated similar observed exposures to pem 200 mg every three weeks. In NHS Scotland, pem6w + axi was used during the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce hospital visits and for pts' convenience. Here, we evaluate the RWE of pem6w + axi in aRCC. Methods: Electronic medical records of pts on pem6w + axi between 1 May 2020 & 1 Jun 2021 in two large cancer centers in Scotland were analyzed retrospectively for pts' characteristics, treatment related adverse events (TRAE) and efficacy. Results: Total of 93 pts were identified (Table). At data cut off of 8 Sep 2021, with a median follow-up of 7 months (mo) (interquartile range (IQR) 5 mo;range 0-15 mo), 73 pts (78%) were alive. Clinician assessed radiological response was evaluable in 87 pts. Overall response rate (ORR) including partial response + complete response was noted in 49 pts (56%) with median time to response of 80 days (d). Clinical benefit rate including pts with ORR and stable disease was seen in 72 pts (83%). At data cut off, 24 pts (26%) had progressed with a median time to progression of 117 d (IQR: 85d). Median overall and progression free survival were not reached and follow-up continues. 81 pts (87%) had any grade and 28 pts (30%) had grade 3/4 TRAE. Immune related AE (irAE) of any grade occurred in 60 pts (65%) and grade 3/4 in 19 pts (20%). Common grade 3/4 irAE were transaminitis (10%), colitis (8%), nephritis (2%) and skin (2%). 28 (30%) and 14 pts (15%) respectively required steroids and hospitalisation for irAE with median hospital stay 6 d (range: 2-43 d). 10 pts suffered a second irAE requiring steroids and 5 pts had a second hospital stay with median hospital stay of 6 d. Any grade AE and grade 3/4 AE related to axi occurred in 67 (72%) and 14 pts (15%) respectively. Axi dose was escalated from 5mg to 7mg bd in 12 pts (13%), reduced to 3mg bd in 35 pts (38%) and 2mg bd in 10 pts (11%). 21pts (23%) on Pem and 15pts (16%) on axi discontinued treatment due to TRAE. Conclusions: Our RWE demonstrates that pem6w + axi appears to have comparable safety profile to pem 200mg + axi reported in Keynote 426 study, with the added benefits of less frequent hospital visits. Further follow up continues for efficacy in this heterogeneous pts population. Pt characteristics, total=93 (%).

11.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 12(1):21-25, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1677747

ABSTRACT

Background: Stressful life events may lead to insomnia, a very common sleep disorder. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to study the correlation of perceived stress levels and sleep quality among physicians during the coronavirus disease-19 Pandemic. Materials and Methods: Physicians working in Burdwan Medical College were selected as a study group and age, sex-matched controls were selected from other non-medical workers. This online survey was conducted using Google Forms. The form was shared with participants using emails and WhatsApp. In the first section of the form the importance of the study was explained and informed consent was taken from the participants. In the second part of the form, subjects were asked to fill up demographic details and relevant history;in the third part, participants were asked to fill up two scales: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: 128 doctors and 114 other staff participated in the present study. Doctors had significantly higher PSS and PSQI levels as compared to the other group. Doctors’ PSQI: Mean ± SD = 7.59 ± 4.37 and other staff PSQI: Mean ± SD = 5.77 ± 2.75;P: 0.00013**. Doctors’ PSS: 18.43 ± 4.04 and other staff PSS: 15.14 ± 1.7;P < 0.0001**. PSS and PSQI levels were positively correlated in both groups with r values of 0.975 for Doctors and 0.544 for other staff, respectively. Conclusions: Doctors were found to have higher PSS and PSQI levels as compared to the control group. PSS levels were found to be positively correlated with PSQI levels and more so among doctors.

12.
Journal of Cleaner Production ; 338, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1670677

ABSTRACT

Food waste negatively impacts the three dimensions of sustainability. Environmentally and financially, it represents a waste of natural resources and increases the cost respectively. Socially, it represents an ethical issue as about 800 million people are suffering from hunger worldwide. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore if and how resilience contributes to food waste reduction in fruits and vegetables distribution in the Brazilian market. Multiple case studies were conducted in the supplier-retailer dyad of four retail chains. Results have shown that resilience plays the role of both enabler and barrier to food waste reduction. On the positive side, collaboration, communication, flexibility, innovation, knowledge management, leadership, security technologies and supply chain design contributed to food waste reduction;especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. On the negative side, financial health and redundancy increased the level of food waste. Additionally, it was observed that flexibility can reduce or increase food waste. Our findings have implications for academics and practitioners as the developed framework summarizes the role of resilience to food waste reduction. As a social impact, the implementation of food waste reduction initiatives by non-governmental organizations and retailer associations can result in increased communication, knowledge diffusion, and training about how to build resilience and improve food waste reduction practices among different agents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first empirical study that explores the relationship among elements of resilience and food waste. Thus, it advances the current literature by operationalizing resilience to reduce food waste. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

13.
International Journal of Logistics Management ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1515136

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The disruption caused by COVID-19 exhorts to reiterate the role of operations and supply chain management (OSCM) in achieving social sustainability. Therefore, the present study aims to develop a conceptual understanding of the OSCM ecosystem's role in enabling the world to accelerate towards social sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the integrative review method to achieve the stated objectives. The study first identifies the societal disruptions caused by COVID-19. Then based on dynamic capabilities (DC) theory, stakeholder theory and real-life examples, the study puts forward the stakeholder dynamic capabilities (SDC) view as an approach to overcome these social challenges. Findings: Taking the SDC view, the study identified ten social challenges aggravated by the COVID-19. Response actions for OSCM have been proposed to mitigate these challenges. Research limitations/implications: The pandemic has brought new challenges to the OSCM to achieve social sustainability. Therefore, the study's proposed response actions aim to assist OSCM managers in leveraging their expertise to do good for society and create a better world. Moreover, the study also provides avenues for future research on the topic. Originality/value: Based on the SDC view, the study attempts to conceptualise social sustainability for OSCM during a pandemic. The SDC view helps capture internal and external social challenges emerging due to COVID-19 and utilise firms' capabilities to overcome these challenges. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

14.
International Journal of Production Research ; : 14, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1486399

ABSTRACT

Supply chains (SCs) are exposed to multiple risks and vulnerable to disruption propagation (i.e. the ripple effect). Despite established literature, quantitative analysis of the ripple effect in SCs considering simultaneous, long-term disruptions (i.e. induced by the COVID-19 pandemic) remains limited. This study defines, applies and demonstrates the capability of system dynamics modelling to recognise and visualise the ripple effect subject to supply, demand, and logistics disruptions as well as a combined, simultaneous disruption of supply, demand and logistics. Simulation results for these four risk scenarios indicate that disruption propagation and its impacts vary based on risk type, combination of risks and the impacting node. The bi-directional, increasing effect is significant for disruptions of longer duration. Retailers and manufacturers are most fragile to multiple disruptions due to broader risk exposure points. In generalised terms, systems theory-based study provides insights into the complex behaviour of simultaneous risks and associated disruptions occurring at a node and across the SC. The outcomes derived can help practitioners visualise and recognise the dynamic nature of the ripple effect cascading across the SC network. In addition, some novel insights on the systemic nature and delayed impact of disruption propagations are uncovered and discussed.

15.
Journal of the Indian Medical Association ; 119(4):14-18, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1357831

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies show that COVID-19 Pandemic has affected the mental health of all including medical students who already suffer from depression and anxiety but there are not enough studies regarding steps taken towards improving their mental health. Methods: In this study, undergraduate medical students were screened for depression, anxiety or stress. Counseling in the form of small group and positive motivation was started as an institutional program before the pandemic. The counseling process continued throughout the period of lock down via mobile and what’s app messages. The DASS 21 score of this group in March was compared with the DASS 21 score of November and analyzed for any statistical significance. Results: The mean score of depression of these students was 14.46 ± 6.351 and 8.58 ± 6.178 after intervention, mean score of anxiety was 11.04 ± 4.539 and at end of study 5.44 ± 3.445, mean stress level was 15 ± 5.299 and 8.12 ± 5.472 at the end of study, Paired T tests showing p<0.0001. Conclusion: The above study thus proves that counseling and positive motivation, of vulnerable students, significantly improves their mental health status in stressful situations like the Pandemic.

17.
Journal of Behavioral Science ; 16(1):114-130, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1130095

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the present study was to develop a scale for measuring coping strategies used in the novel COVID-19 pandemic among the adult residents of Kolkata in India. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted, that included - conceptualization and generation of 36 items for 16 coping strategies with five-point response categories;relevance judgment (based on item validity index) & item validation (based on item-domain total correlation) of these items;and identification & validation of the factor structure. An online survey was conducted using snowball sampling technique during three weeks of April 2020. Complete sets could be obtained from 388 participants (200 males and 188 females). The S-CVI results (relevance of overall questionnaire) indicated high content validity (0.88) for all items of coping and significant positive item-domain total correlations were found in the process of item analysis. Based on scores of sixteen coping strategies, principal component analysis resulted in five factors as indicated by eigenvalues (1.34 to 3.32) and scree plot. These five common components were identified as positive emotion focused, escape oriented, depression developing, solution generating and self-soothing coping and a unique component- catastrophizing. This factor structure was validated through confirmatory factor analysis and same factor structure of the scale was found. Satisfactory internal consistencies of all components were found (0.61-0.89). The tool would be useful for understanding adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies used by people during a pandemic situation and it will also help in planning therapeutic intervention for combating the posttraumatic stress of this pandemic situation. Copyright © Behavioral Science Research Institute

18.
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology ; 11(1):62-67, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1041467

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic has brought a sudden change in education across the globe. To ensure social distancing, Medical Colleges in India also started online medical teaching since Nation Wide lockdown from 24 March 2020. Aim and Objective: To assess the impact and effectiveness of online teaching program provided by the Department of Physiology in Burdwan Medical College, West Bengal, among the first Prof. M.B.B.S students. Materials and Methods: This pilot study was conducted in a time span of 3 months after obtaining Institutional ethical clearance. Two hundred students enrolled in 1st year participated in this study. Mode of teaching was Flipped Class Room Assisted Self-directed Learning. Multiple assessments were conducted. Two surveys to assess stress level with the perceived stress scale of Sheldon Cohen and three feedback surveys to assess and modify the online teaching program were conducted. Results: Academic activities carried by the majority of students were 5 h or more. About 77.1% were satisfied with the online support, 86.1% felt that regular assessment and feedback provided to them were beneficial, and 11.4% had difficulty in studying physiology in online mode. About 87% students wanted the online support to continue along with offline mode in the near future. Students performed significantly better in post-test sessions (65.155 ± 4.74 vs. 53.378 ± 5.4;P = 0.0045**) as compared to pre-test sessions. There was no significant difference in performance between traditional lecture (even with revision) classes and online sessions. No significant difference in stress scores was observed between two surveys conducted in consecutive 2 months. Conclusions: It is evident that online teaching is an effective tool in teaching physiology to undergraduate medical students and may be taken into consideration in future teaching-learning and assessment program.

19.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ; 31:277, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-984909

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of COVID-19 disease on previously healthy children has been minimal, yet there is limited data on the impact of COVID-19 on children and adolescents with kidney transplants. Methods: We used the existing infrastructure of the Improving Renal Outcomes Collaborative (IROC) learning health system to develop and rapidly implement a webbased registry for collecting clinical and outcomes data about COVID-19 disease in pediatric transplant recipients. We distributed the registry to 32 U.S. pediatric kidney transplant centers and requested clinical and outcomes data from all recipients suspected of having COVID-19 disease. Here, we present an interim analysis of the first 6 weeks of registry data. Results: Between April 6 and May 27, 2020, 18 IROC centers entered data on 99 pediatric kidney transplant recipients who had PCR based testing for COVID-19. 54 patients were tested due to symptoms of COVID-19 (most commonly fever and cough), 7 asymptomatic patients had a known COVID exposure. 34 patients were tested per hospital policy (e.g. pre-anesthesia), and 4 did not have a reported testing indication. Overall, 10/99 (10%) tested positive for COVID-19, 6 of whom had any symptoms, 3 had a known exposure with a COVID+ individual, and 1 was diagosed by a pre-anesthesia screen. Thus far, the clinical course and outcomes are known in 8/10 COVID-19+ patients: 5 received outpatient supportive care alone, 2 were admitted to intensive care and 1 was admitted to a non-intensive care inpatient unit. Transplant outcomes were excellent in all COVID-19+ patients. There were no cases with respiratory failure, acute kidney injury, or allograft rejection/failure. There were no deaths due to COVID-19 disease. Conclusions: In this interim analysis of the IROC learning health system, pediatric kidney transplant recipients had a relatively low incidence of COVID-19 disease and excellent short-term outcomes.

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