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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308114

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdown has disrupted mental well-being of individual. A number of studies provide evidence that lockdown is associated with higher level of stress and anxiety that contribute to deteriorating mental wellbeing of individuals. The general conclusion of those studies is unidirectional meaning more lockdown days lead to more deterioration of mental health. However, resilience argument state that if people get more time with families and loved ones, their resilience level will improve and as a result mental wellbeing improves as well. As lockdown brings the opportunity to spend more time with families, this study hypothesise that mental health gets affected at the early days of lockdown but starts to improve at a later stage. Using data from UK household longitudinal data and adopting appropriate statistical tests, this study finds that the relationship between lockdown days and mental health is U-shaped, meaning that mental health becomes worse in the early days of lockdown but improves at a later stage. We have found that mental health starts improving after 54 days since the start of lockdown for the full sample. The results also indicate that females adopt much quicker that males. The average time females take to recover is 34.4 days whereas males take 75 days to recover.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308113

ABSTRACT

We examine the impact of vaccination against Covid-19 for mental health. Our estimates suggest that vaccination leads to a significant and substantive improvement in the mental health of those most at risk of hospitalisation and death from Covid-19. Our proposed explanation is that in the absence of vaccination, anxiety about contracting COVID-19 has a deleterious impact on the mental health of this cohort. On the other hand, our findings suggest that vaccination does not materially impact the mental health of those least at risk from Covid-19, namely younger cohorts. The lack of any significant impact for this cohort may explain vaccine hesitancy amongst young people. For this group, a lack of uptake may be principally due to a lack of perceived benefits for their own well-being as opposed to vaccine hesitancy.

3.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327780

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A major concern amidst the ongoing coronavirus pandemic has been the longer term persistence of morbidities in individuals recovering from COVID-19 disease, called long COVID. We aimed at documenting the prevalence and key associations of post-COVID symptoms (PCS) in India in telephonic survey among recovered patients in a single hospital in eastern India as well as a parallel web-survey covering a wider population of the country. Methods Self-reported PCS, ranging up to one year since the original COVID-19 diagnosis, were documented in a telephonic survey of subjects (analyzed N=986), treated for acute COVID-19 in Infectious Diseases and Beleghata General Hospital, Kolkata, between April 1, 2020 and April 13, 2021. In parallel, we ran a web-based survey (analyzed N=580), to evaluate concordance. Results Shortness of breath, fatigue and insomnia were identified to be the most commonly reported PCS in both the surveys, with higher prevalence in females. In the telephonic survey, a 3.65% post-discharge mortality was registered within a median of 39 days since COVID diagnosis. Intensive care during acute disease and hypertension were more often associated with PCS, while fatigue was more often reported by the 20-40 years age-group. The web-survey revealed a gradual decline in PCS with time since COVID-19 diagnosis and type 2 diabetes to be associated with higher prevalence of these symptoms. Conclusions We assessed the predominant PCS among Indian COVID-19 patients and identified key demographic and clinical associations in our surveys, which warrants deeper epidemiological and mechanistic studies for guiding management of long-COVID in the country.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 104, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The approved COVID-19 vaccines have shown great promise in reducing disease transmission and severity of outcomes. However, the success of the COVID-19 vaccine rollout is dependent on public acceptance and willingness to be vaccinated. In this study, we aim to examine how the attitude towards public sector officials and the government impact vaccine willingness. The secondary aim is to understand the impact of ethnicity on vaccine-willingness after we explicitly account for trust in public institutions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from a UK population based longitudinal household survey (Understanding Society COVID-19 study, Understanding Society: the UK Household Longitudinal Study) between April 2020-January 2021. Data from 22,421 participants in Waves 6 and 7 of the study were included after excluding missing data. Demographic details in addition to previous survey responses relating to public sector/governmental trust were included as covariates in the main analysis. A logit model was produced to describe the association between public sector/governmental mistrust and the willingness for vaccination with interaction terms included to account for ethnicity/socio-economic status. RESULTS: In support of existing literature, we identified those from BAME groups were more likely to be unwilling to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found that positive opinions towards public sector officials (OR 2.680: 95% CI 1.888 - 3.805) and the UK government (OR 3.400; 95% CI 2.454-4.712) led to substantive increase in vaccine willingness. Most notably we identified this effect to vary across ethnicity and socio-economic status with those from South Asian background (OR 4.513; 95% CI 1.012-20.123) and possessing a negative attitude towards public officials and the government being the most unwilling to be vaccinated. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggests that trust in public sector officials play a key factor in the low vaccination rates particularly seen in at-risk groups. Given the additional morbidity/mortality risk posed by COVID-19 to those from lower socio-economic or ethnic minority backgrounds, there needs to be urgent public health action to review how to tailor health promotion advice given to these groups and examine methods to improve trust in public sector officials and the government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Minority Groups , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294989

ABSTRACT

Given reduced social interactions and economic distress, mental health has emerged as an important concern during COVID-19. This study estimates the prevalence of mental health problems during the first wave of COVID and identifies its determinants among the general population of Indian metropolitan cities.The study uses a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model to measure depression, anxiety and stress using observed indicators of these latent constructs, and to identify the socio-economic groups at risk of these disorders. The data was collected from 1,275 adults randomly selected from the list of mobile phone users in Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered to the study participants.About 46, 24 and 48 percent of respondents reported symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, respectively. Single respondents, members of minority groups, less educated and those belonging to large households are identified to be at-risk. Results also indicate a positive relationship between economic stress and mental illness.Although COVID has increased the psychological burden of the population, all persons reporting psychological disorders may not require clinical attention. While community-based support may be sufficient in general, monitoring is required to identify at risk persons who may require clinical support.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293316

ABSTRACT

Given reduced social interactions and economic distress, mental health has emerged as an important concern during COVID-19. This study estimates the prevalence of mental health problems during the first wave of COVID and identifies its determinants among the general population of Indian metropolitan cities.The study uses a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model to measure depression, anxiety and stress using observed indicators of these latent constructs, and to identify the socio-economic groups at risk of these disorders. The data was collected from 1,275 adults randomly selected from the list of mobile phone users in Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai and Hyderabad. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered to the study participants.About 46, 24 and 48 percent of respondents reported symptoms of anxiety, depression and stress, respectively. Single respondents, members of minority groups, less educated and those belonging to large households are identified to be at-risk. Results also indicate a positive relationship between economic stress and mental illness.Although COVID has increased the psychological burden of the population, all persons reporting psychological disorders may not require clinical attention. While community-based support may be sufficient in general, monitoring is required to identify at risk persons who may require clinical support.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518484

ABSTRACT

Disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) led to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A systemic hyper-inflammation characterizes severe COVID-19 disease, often associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Blood biomarkers capable of risk stratification are of great importance in effective triage and critical care of severe COVID-19 patients. Flow cytometry and next-generation sequencing were done on peripheral blood cells and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), and cytokines were measured from and mass spectrometry-based proteomics was done on plasma samples from an Indian cohort of COVID-19 patients. Publicly available single-cell RNA sequencing data were analyzed for validation of primary data. Statistical analyses were performed to validate risk stratification. We report here higher plasma abundance of suPAR, expressed by an abnormally expanded myeloid cell population, in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS. The plasma suPAR level was found to be linked to a characteristic plasma proteome, associated with coagulation disorders and complement activation. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis to predict mortality identified a cutoff value of suPAR at 1,996.809 pg/ml (odds ratio: 2.9286, 95% confidence interval 1.0427-8.2257). Lower-than-cutoff suPAR levels were associated with a differential expression of the immune transcriptome as well as favorable clinical outcomes, in terms of both survival benefit (hazard ratio: 0.3615, 95% confidence interval 0.1433-0.912) and faster disease remission in our patient cohort. Thus, we identified suPAR as a key pathogenic circulating molecule linking systemic hyperinflammation to the hypercoagulable state and stratifying clinical outcomes in severe COVID-19 patients with ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Blood Coagulation Disorders/blood , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Middle Aged , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Proteome/analysis , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(4): 565-574, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to significant morbidity and mortality. While most suffer from mild symptoms, some patients progress to severe disease with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and associated systemic hyperinflammation. METHODS: First, to characterize key cytokines and their dynamics in this hyperinflammatory condition, we assessed abundance and correlative expression of a panel of 48 cytokines in patients progressing to ARDS as compared to patients with mild disease. Then, in an ongoing randomized controlled trial of convalescent plasma therapy (CPT), we analyzed rapid effects of CPT on the systemic cytokine dynamics as a correlate for the level of hypoxia experienced by the patients. RESULTS: We identified an anti-inflammatory role of CPT independent of its neutralizing antibody content. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies, as well as reductions in circulating interleukin-6 and interferon-γ-inducible protein 10, contributed to marked rapid reductions in hypoxia in response to CPT. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY OF INDIA: CTRI/2020/05/025209. http://www.ctri.nic.in/.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11555, 2021 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253989

ABSTRACT

Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) populations are at an increased risk of developing COVID-19 and consequentially more severe outcomes compared to White populations. The aim of this study was to quantify how much of the disproportionate disease burden can be attributed to ethnicity and deprivation as well as its interaction. An ecological study was conducted using data derived from the Office for National Statistics data at a Local Authority District (LAD) level in England between 1st March and 17th April 2020. The primary analysis examined how age adjusted COVID-19 mortality depends on ethnicity, deprivation, and the interaction between the two using linear regression. The secondary analysis using spatial regression methods allowed for the quantification of the extent of LAD spillover effect of COVID-19 mortality. We find that in LADs with the highest deprivation quartile, where there is a 1 percentage point increase in "Black-African (regression coefficient 2.86; 95% CI 1.08-4.64)", "Black-Caribbean (9.66: 95% CI 5.25-14.06)" and "Bangladeshi (1.95: 95% CI 1.14-2.76)" communities, there is a significantly higher age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality compared to respective control populations. In addition, the spatial regression results indicated positive significant correlation between the age-adjusted mortality in one LAD and the age-adjusted mortality in a neighbouring LAD, suggesting a spillover effect. Our results suggest targeted public health measures to support those who are deprived and belong to BAME communities as well as to encourage restricted movement between different localities to limit disease propagation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Age Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Regression Analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
Journal of Business Research ; 128:31-44, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1077994

ABSTRACT

Stock markets across the world have exhibited varying degrees of volatility following the recent COVID-19 pandemic. We have examined the effect of this pandemic on stock market volatility and whether economic strength, measured by a set of selected country-level economic characteristics and factors such as economic resilience, intensity of capitalism, level of corporate governance, financial development, monetary policy rate and quality of health system, can potentially mitigate the possible detrimental effect of the global pandemic on stock market volatility. Using data from 34 developed and emerging markets, we have found that these country-level economic characteristics and factors do help to reduce the volatility arising due to the virus pandemic. The results of this paper are important as policymakers can use these economic factors to set policy responses to tackle extraordinary heat in the global stock market in order to avoid any possible future financial crisis.

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