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1.
Science ; 374(6570): 995-999, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526449

ABSTRACT

Delhi, the national capital of India, experienced multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreaks in 2020 and reached population seropositivity of >50% by 2021. During April 2021, the city became overwhelmed by COVID-19 cases and fatalities, as a new variant, B.1.617.2 (Delta), replaced B.1.1.7 (Alpha). A Bayesian model explains the growth advantage of Delta through a combination of increased transmissibility and reduced sensitivity to immune responses generated against earlier variants (median estimates: 1.5-fold greater transmissibility and 20% reduction in sensitivity). Seropositivity of an employee and family cohort increased from 42% to 87.5% between March and July 2021, with 27% reinfections, as judged by increased antibody concentration after a previous decline. The likely high transmissibility and partial evasion of immunity by the Delta variant contributed to an overwhelming surge in Delhi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Humans , Immune Evasion , India/epidemiology , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Reinfection , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
2.
SSRN; 2021.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-291903

ABSTRACT

As understanding of business environment is a must for the success of any business this research paper is written to understand the meaning of business environment, trying to differentiate between internal & external environment & understand the components of each. The paper specially emphasizes on the stake holders of Indian pharma business environment, how the companies patronize their stake holders & SWOT analysis of the pharma industry. The application of Porter s Five Forces Model, PEST Analysis of the Indian pharma industry and the impact of COVID-19 on the pharmaceutical business environment have been studied in this research.

3.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100877, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality rates provide an opportunity to identify and act on the health system intervention for preventing deaths. Hence, it is essential to appreciate the influence of age structure while reporting mortality for a better summary of the magnitude of the epidemic. OBJECTIVES: We described and compared the pattern of COVID-19 mortality standardized by age between selected states and India from January to November 2020. METHODS: We initially estimated the Indian population for 2020 using the decadal growth rate from the previous census (2011). This was followed by estimations of crude and age-adjusted mortality rate per million for India and the selected states. We used this information to perform indirect-standardization and derive the age-standardized mortality rates for the states for comparison. In addition, we derived a ratio for age-standardized mortality to compare across age groups within the state. We extracted information regarding COVID-19 deaths from the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme special surveillance portal up to November 16, 2020. RESULTS: The crude mortality rate of India stands at 88.9 per million population (118,883/1,337,328,910). Age-adjusted mortality rate (per-million) was highest for Delhi (300.5) and lowest for Kerala (35.9). The age-standardized mortality rate (per million) for India is (<15 years = 1.6, 15-29 years = 6.3, 30-44 years = 35.9, 45-59 years = 198.8, 60-74 years = 571.2, ≥75 years = 931.6). The ratios for age-standardized mortality increase proportionately from 45 to 59 years age group across all the states. CONCLUSION: There is high COVID-19 mortality not only among the elderly ages, but we also identified heavy impact of COVID-19 on the working population. Therefore, we recommend further evaluation of age-adjusted mortality for all States and inclusion of variables like gender, socio-economic status for standardization while identifying at-risk populations and implementing priority public health actions.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 648334, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259382

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 forced lockdown in India, leading to the loss of job, crisis of food, and other financial catastrophes that led to the exodus migration of internal migrant workers, operating in the private sector, back to their homes. Unavailability of transport facilities led to an inflicted need to walk back to homes barefooted without lack of any other crucial resources on the way. The woeful state of internal migrant workers walking back, with all their stuff on their back, holding their children, was trending on social media worldwide. Their problem continued even after reaching home, including misbehavior of villagers, indifferent mannerism of family members toward them, inability to fulfill family responsibility, and financial crisis, which led to stress, fear, and trauma for these internal migrant workers. The present paper aimed to assess the idiosyncratic stressors of internal migrant workers throughout the pandemic era and their responses toward those problems, which helped them cope with it. In-depth semistructured telephonic interviews were conducted with 25 internal migrant workers who were working in different cities in India before lockdown. The analyses revealed that multiple stressors include financial crisis, unavailability of food, inability to continue education, inability to pay house rent, lack of support from neighbors and family, and other psychological stressors that affected them. However, they also tried multiple strategies to deal with the problems, including a cognitive appraisal of the problem and making oneself psychologically competent to deal with the situation. Social support of family and friends played a vital role in enhancing hardiness and increasing the level of happiness at scarce times. At the same time, some of them could not deal with stressors and opted for psychiatric help to manage the physical symptoms of stress.

5.
Journal of Advanced Oral Research ; : 2320206820939403-2320206820939403, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-671607

ABSTRACT

Aim:COVID-19 is a new illness and a big threat to global health. No specific antiviral agents are available for its treatment. The finest approach to manage this threat is to clean our hands properly. Washing hands under running water is a better way to stop the spread of infections than using a hand sanitizer. The aim of the study is to show that washing hands is efficacious than using a dab of alcohol-based hand sanitizer.Materials and methods:A search was performed using three databases, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar published from 2010 to 2019. The keywords for the survey were ?hand-washing,? ?hand sanitizer,? and ?effective.? After the relevant articles were found, the critical appraisal was made to select those that were suitable for the systematic review. The inclusion criteria of the study were surveys, clinical studies, no sample size restrictions, and only English papers. Any conference abstracts, case reports, and unpublished data were excluded from this study.Results:On the basis of the keywords, 22 relevant articles were found, and of those, 17 articles were selected for the systematic review.Conclusion:This study evaluated that washing hands with soap and water are more practical and efficacious than using the sanitizer on greasy and soiled hands. An alcohol-based sanitizer, if used correctly and in appropriate volume, can disseminate certain type of micro-organisms.

7.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 236-240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-113836

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Sentinel surveillance among severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) patients can help identify the spread and extent of transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARI surveillance was initiated in the early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in India. We describe here the positivity for COVID-19 among SARI patients and their characteristics. Methods: SARI patients admitted at 41 sentinel sites from February 15, 2020 onwards were tested for COVID-19 by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, targeting E and RdRp genes of SARS-CoV-2. Data were extracted from Virus Research and Diagnostic Laboratory Network for analysis. Results: A total of 104 (1.8%) of the 5,911 SARI patients tested were positive for COVID-19. These cases were reported from 52 districts in 20 States/Union Territories. The COVID-19 positivity was higher among males and patients aged above 50 years. In all, 40 (39.2%) COVID-19 cases did not report any history of contact with a known case or international travel. Interpretation & conclusions: COVID-19 containment activities need to be targeted in districts reporting COVID-19 cases among SARI patients. Intensifying sentinel surveillance for COVID-19 among SARI patients may be an efficient tool to effectively use resources towards containment and mitigation efforts.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sentinel Surveillance , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , India , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Young Adult
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