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Infect Genet Evol ; 111: 105432, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293208


Outbreaks of HFMD in children aged <5 years have been reported worldwide and the major causative agents are Coxsackievirus (CV) A16, enterovirus (EV)-A71 and recently CVA6. In India, HFMD is a disease that is not commonly reported. The purpose of the study was to identify the enterovirus type(s) associated with large outbreak of Hand, foot, and mouth disease during COVID-19 pandemic in 2022. Four hundred and twenty five clinical samples from 196-suspected cases were collected from different parts of the country. This finding indicated the emergence of CVA6 in HFMD along with CVA16, soon after the gradual easing of non-pharmaceutical interventions during-pandemic COVID-19 and the relevance of continued surveillance of circulating enterovirus types in the post-COVID pandemic era.

COVID-19 , Enterovirus Infections , Enterovirus , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease , Child , Humans , Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , India/epidemiology , China/epidemiology
Front Public Health ; 10: 1030249, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099281


SARS-CoV-2 can be shed in feces and can enter sewage systems. In order to implement effective control measures and identify new channels of transmission, it is essential to identify the presence of infectious virus particles in feces and sewage. In this study, we attempt to utilize Molecular techniques, cell cultures and animal models to find out the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 in the feces of COVID-19 patients. Our findings exclude the presence of infectious virus particles, suggesting that fecal-oral transmission may not be the main mode of transmission. Larger-scale initiatives are nevertheless required, particularly considering the emergence of new viral strains.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Sewage , RNA, Viral , Feces
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 835168, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775700


The main route of the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are through respiratory pathways and close contact of human-to-human. While information about other modes of transmission is comparatively less, some published literature supporting the likelihood of a fecal-oral mode of transmission has been accumulating. The diagnosis of SARS-COV-2 infected cases is based on the real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The fecal excretion of SARS-COV-2 has been reported frequently, however, the role of fecal viral load with the severity of disease is not yet clear. Our study focused on the investigation of SARS-CoV-2 shedding in the fecal samples of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 280 RT-PCR-positive patients were enrolled, among them 15.4% had gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. It was shown that 62% of the patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in fecal specimens. This positivity was not related to the presence of GI symptoms and the severity of disease. The next generation sequencing [NGS] of SARS-CoV-2 from fecal samples of patients was performed to analyze mutational variations. Findings from this study not only emphasized the potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 in feces, but also its continuing mutational changes and its possible role in fecal-oral transmission.