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Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14186, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434143


Infections cause varying degrees of haemostatic dysfunction which can be detected by clot waveform analysis (CWA), a global haemostatic marker. CWA has been shown to predict poor outcomes in severe infections with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. The effect of less severe bacterial and viral infections on CWA has not been established. We hypothesized that different infections influence CWA distinctively. Patients admitted with bacterial infections, dengue and upper respiratory tract viral infections were recruited if they had an activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) measured on admission. APTT-based CWA was performed on Sysmex CS2100i automated analyser using Dade Actin FSL reagent. CWA parameters [(maximum velocity (min1), maximum acceleration (min2) and maximum deceleration (max2)] were compared against control patients. Infected patients (n = 101) had longer aPTT than controls (n = 112) (34.37 ± 7.72 s vs 27.80 ± 1.59 s, p < 0.001), with the mean (± SD) aPTT longest in dengue infection (n = 36) (37.99 ± 7.93 s), followed by bacterial infection (n = 52) (33.96 ± 7.33 s) and respiratory viral infection (n = 13) (29.98 ± 3.92 s). Compared to controls (min1; min2; max2) (5.53 ± 1.16%/s; 0.89 ± 0.19%/s2; 0.74 ± 0.16%/s2), bacterial infection has higher CWA results (6.92 ± 1.60%/s; 1.04 ± 0.28%/s2; 0.82 ± 0.24%/s2, all p < 0.05); dengue infection has significantly lower CWA values (3.93 ± 1.32%/s; 0.57 ± 0.17%/s2; 0.43 ± 0.14%/s2, all p < 0.001) whilst respiratory virus infection has similar results (6.19 ± 1.32%/s; 0.95 ± 0.21%/s2; 0.73 ± 0.18%/s2, all p > 0.05). CWA parameters demonstrated positive correlation with C-reactive protein levels (min1: r = 0.54, min2: r = 0.44, max2: r = 0.34; all p < 0.01). Different infections affect CWA distinctively. CWA could provide information on the haemostatic milieu triggered by infection and further studies are needed to better define its application in this area.

Bacterial Infections/blood , Hemostasis , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Virus Diseases/blood , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Dengue/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/blood , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood
Osteoporos Int ; 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366346


COVID-19 lockdowns have impacted management of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis. Adherence to the 6-monthly dosing schedule of denosumab, the parenteral anti-osteoporosis medication most often used in Singapore, was significantly reduced during the lockdown period compared to that during pre-COVID-19 times. Patients managed by endocrinologists were more likely to be adherent. PURPOSE: No study thus far has quantified actual adherence rates to anti-osteoporosis therapy with denosumab during COVID-19 or explored factors associated with it. We aimed to estimate the adherence rates to denosumab in Singaporean men and women during COVID-19 lockdown and to compare it with those during the pre-COVID-19 period. METHOD: We conducted this retrospective, electronic medical records, and pharmacy claims database study at Singapore General Hospital, the largest hospital in the country. Patients initiated on subcutaneous denosumab between August 2019 and December 2019 and were thus scheduled to receive the second dose during the COVID-19 first-wave period from February 2020 to June 2020 (lockdown group) were analyzed, as were patients initiated anytime on denosumab between September 2011 and December 2018 (pre-COVID-19 group). Data extracted from the hospital's electronic prescription platform and patients' pharmacy purchase records were matched. Adherence was defined as being punctual (with an allowable delay of up to 4 weeks) with the second dose scheduled 6 months from the 1st dose. A sensitivity analysis with an allowable delay up to 8 weeks was also performed. We compared the adherence rates between the two periods and explored factors associated with adherence. RESULTS: A total of 768 and 1458 patients respectively during the lockdown and pre-COVID-19 periods were analyzed. The mean adherence rate during lockdown was 63.9%. The odds of being adherent during lockdown were higher if patients were managed by endocrinologists as opposed to those by other specialists [OR 2.516 (95% CI: 1.836-3.448); p < 0.001]. Adherence rates during the pre-COVID-19 period was 75.4%. Overall, the odds of being adherent to denosumab was significantly lower during lockdown than that during the pre-COVID-19 period [OR 0.525 (95% CI 0.430-0.640); p < 0.001], and odds of being adherent were higher if patients were managed by endocrinologists than if they were managed by other specialists (OR 1.765 (95% CI: 1.444-2.158; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Adherence to denosumab was significantly lower during COVID-19 lockdown than the pre-COVID-19 period. The odds of being adherent were higher in patients managed by endocrinologists. Whether healthcare providers from certain specialties spend more time counselling and educating patients about the importance of adherence to osteoporosis medications needs to be explored further.