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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(12)2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957413

ABSTRACT

Respiratory diseases contribute to a significant percentage of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The circadian rhythm is a natural biological process where our bodily functions align with the 24 h oscillation (sleep-wake cycle) process and are controlled by the circadian clock protein/gene. Disruption of the circadian rhythm could alter normal lung function. Chronotherapy is a type of therapy provided at specific time intervals based on an individual's circadian rhythm. This would allow the drug to show optimum action, and thereby modulate its pharmacokinetics to lessen unwanted or unintended effects. In this review, we deliberated on the recent advances employed in chrono-targeted therapeutics for chronic respiratory diseases.

2.
Journal of Drug Delivery Science and Technology ; 74:103598, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936761

ABSTRACT

Dextran, a hydrophilic polysaccharide consists essentially of α-1,6 linked glucopyranoside residues that form the parent chain, along with α-1,2/3/4 linked residues that constitute its side chain. A considerable biocompatibility, stability under mildly acidic and basic conditions, solubility in water, non-immunogenicity, and presence of chemically modifiable –OH groups make dextran an ideal candidate for development of drug delivery vehicles and excipients. The presence of α-1,6 linkages in the parent chain provides enhanced chain mobility that determines the aqueous solubility of dextran, while its metabolism by the digestive enzymes to generate physiologically harmless degradation products validates its biocompatibility. Native dextran can be tuned for the development of pH-sensitive delivery systems by chemical modification that ensure an optimal drug concentration at the target site, and lowered dosing frequency that may ensure an overall improved patient compliance. The physicochemical properties of dextran can be changed by performing a chemical modification predominantly at the –OH group to obtain ester, ether, acetal, and dialdehyde of dextran. The review presented by us is a comprehensive account of the chemical modification strategies for native dextran and their clinical applications in containing pulmonary diseases. Furthermore, the presented review highlights the importance of nanomaterials derived from chemically modified dextran for the management of an optimal respiratory health by containing the inflammatory respiratory diseases.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(36): 54072-54087, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1877927

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease associated with the respiratory system caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The aim of this review article is to establish an understanding about the relationship between autoimmune conditions and COVID-19 infections. Although majority of the population have been protected with vaccines against this virus, there is yet a successful curative medication for this disease. The use of autoimmune medications has been widely considered to control the infection, thus postulating possible relationships between COVID-19 and autoimmune diseases. Several studies have suggested the correlation between autoantibodies detected in patients and the severity of the COVID-19 disease. Studies have indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can disrupt the self-tolerance mechanism of the immune system, thus triggering autoimmune conditions. This review discusses the current scenario and future prospects of promising therapeutic strategies that may be employed to regulate such autoimmune conditions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 358: 109898, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838609

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a coronavirus-induced illness attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, is thought to have first emerged on November 17, 2019. According to World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19 has been linked to 379,223,560 documented occurrences and 5,693,245 fatalities globally as of 1st Feb 2022. Influenza A virus that has also been discovered diarrhea and gastrointestinal discomfort was found in the infected person, highlighting the need of monitoring them for gastro intestinal tract (GIT) symptoms regardless of whether the sickness is respiration related. The majority of the microbiome in the intestines is Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes are found in the lungs. Although most people overcome SARS-CoV-2 infections, many people continue to have symptoms months after the original sickness, called Long-COVID or Post COVID. The term "post-COVID-19 symptoms" refers to those that occur with or after COVID-19 and last for more than 12 weeks (long-COVID-19). The possible understanding of biological components such as inflammatory, immunological, metabolic activity biomarkers in peripheral blood is needed to evaluate the study. Therefore, this article aims to review the informative data that supports the idea underlying the disruption mechanisms of the microbiome of the gastrointestinal tract in the acute COVID-19 or post-COVID-mediated elevation of severity biomarkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cell Signal ; 95: 110334, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1800158

ABSTRACT

Exosome trans-membrane signals provide cellular communication between the cells through transport and/or receiving the signal by molecule, change the functional metabolism, and stimulate and/or inhibit receptor signal complexes. COVID19 genetic transformations are varied in different geographic positions, and single nucleotide polymorphic lineages were reported in the second waves due to the fast mutational rate and adaptation. Several vaccines were developed and in treatment practice, but effective control has yet to reach in cent presence. It was initially a narrow immune-modulating protein target. Controlling these diverse viral strains may inhibit their transuding mechanisms primarily to target RNA genes responsible for COVID19 transcription. Exosomal miRNAs are the main sources of transmembrane signals, and trans-located miRNAs can directly target COVID19 mRNA transcription. This review discussed targeted viral transcription by delivering the artificial miRNA (amiRNA) mediated exosomes in the infected cells and significant resources of exosome and their efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , MicroRNAs , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313338

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of “Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology” occurred in Wuhan, China in late December 2019. Later the agent factor was identified and coined as SARS-COV-2 and the disease was named as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a shorter period, this newly emergent infection bought the world into a standstill. On 11th March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. The researchers across the globe have joined their hands to investigate about SARSCoV2 in terms of pathogenicity, transmissibility and deduce therapeutics to subjugate this infection. T The researchers and scholars practicing different art of medicine are into an extensive quest to come up with safer ways to curb the pathological implications of this viral infection. A huge number of clinical trials are underway from the branch of allopathy and naturopathy in this regard. Besides, a paradigm shift on cellular therapy and nano-medicine protocols have to be optimized for better clinical and functional outcome of COVID-19 affected individuals. This article unveils a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis, mode of spread and various treatment modalities to combat COVID-19 disease.Funding: National Natural Science Foundation of China.Conflict of Interest: We declare no competing interests.

8.
Bioinformation ; 16(11): 878-881, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1529005

ABSTRACT

Design and development of effective anti-virals in combating CoVid-19 is a great challenge worldwide. Known drugs such as chloroquine, lopinavir, favipiravir and remdesivir are used in the management of CoVid - 19. It is known that Ivermectin and remdesivir both are effective against filoviruses, paramyxo viruses. Available data also shows that ivermectin and remedesivir repress the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we document the potential use of ivermectin and remdesivir in the management of CoVid -19.

9.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109706, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464614

ABSTRACT

The challenges and difficulties associated with conventional drug delivery systems have led to the emergence of novel, advanced targeted drug delivery systems. Therapeutic drug delivery of proteins and peptides to the lungs is complicated owing to the large size and polar characteristics of the latter. Nevertheless, the pulmonary route has attracted great interest today among formulation scientists, as it has evolved into one of the important targeted drug delivery platforms for the delivery of peptides, and related compounds effectively to the lungs, primarily for the management and treatment of chronic lung diseases. In this review, we have discussed and summarized the current scenario and recent developments in targeted delivery of proteins and peptide-based drugs to the lungs. Moreover, we have also highlighted the advantages of pulmonary drug delivery over conventional drug delivery approaches for peptide-based drugs, in terms of efficacy, retention time and other important pharmacokinetic parameters. The review also highlights the future perspectives and the impact of targeted drug delivery on peptide-based drugs in the coming decade.


Subject(s)
Drug Carriers/chemistry , Lung/metabolism , Peptides/administration & dosage , Proteins/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Drug Carriers/administration & dosage , Humans , Lung/drug effects , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Peptides/therapeutic use , Proteins/therapeutic use
10.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(7): 880-882, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330313

ABSTRACT

COVID-19's second wave had a significant impact on India, on May 7, 2021, the largest daily recorded case count was a little more than 4 million, and it has since fallen. Although the number of new cases reported has dropped, during the third week of May 2021, India accounted for about 45% of new cases identified globally and around 34% of deaths. As India maintains its present level of stability, a new urgent threat has emerged in the form of coronavirus-associated mucormycosis. Mucormycosis, an acute and deadly fungal infection caused by Mucorales-related fungal species, is a fungal emergency with a particularly aggressive propensity for contiguous spread, associated with a poor prognosis if not properly and immediately identified, and treated. Mucormycosis, sometimes referred to as the "black fungus," has increased more rapidly in India during the second wave of COVID-19 than during the first wave, with at least 14,872 cases as of May 28, 2021. Uncontrolled diabetic mellitus (DM) and other immunosuppressive diseases such as neutropenia and corticosteroid treatment have traditionally been identified as risk factors for mucormycosis. Therefore, the use of glucocorticoids or high doses of glucocorticoids in mild COVID-19 cases (without hypoxemia) should be avoided. In addition, drugs that target the immune pathway, such as tocilizumab, are not recommended without clear benefits.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/etiology , Prescription Drug Misuse , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Emergency Medical Services , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Pandemics , Prognosis , Risk Factors
11.
Heliyon ; 7(7): e07635, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322113

ABSTRACT

The contagiosity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has startled mankind and has brought our lives to a standstill. The treatment focused mainly on repurposed immunomodulatory and antiviral agents along with the availability of a few vaccines for prophylaxis to vanquish COVID-19. This seemingly mandates a deeper understanding of the disease pathogenesis. This necessitates a plausible extrapolation of cell-based therapy to COVID-19 and is regarded equivalently significant. Recently, correlative pieces of clinical evidence reported a robust decline in lymphocyte count in severe COVID-19 patients that suggest dysregulated immune responses as a key element contributing to the pathophysiological alterations. The large granular lymphocytes also known as natural killer (NK) cells play a heterogeneous role in biological functioning wherein their frontline action defends the body against a wide array of infections and tumors. They prominently play a critical role in viral clearance and executing immuno-modulatory activities. Accumulated clinical evidence demonstrate a decrease in the number of NK cells in circulation with or without phenotypical exhaustion. These plausibly contribute to the progression of pulmonary inflammation in COVID-19 pneumonia and result in acute lung injury. In this review, we have outlined the present understanding of the immunological response of NK cells in COVID-19 infection. We have also discussed the possible use of these powerful biological cells as a therapeutic agent in view of preventing immunological harms of SARS-CoV-2 and the current challenges in advocating NK cell therapy for the same.

12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312959

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309180

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 345: 109568, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283962

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor-kappa B, involved in inflammation, host immune response, cell adhesion, growth signals, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis defense, is a dimeric transcription factor. Inflammation is a key component of many common respiratory disorders, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Many basic transcription factors are found in NF-κB signaling, which is a member of the Rel protein family. Five members of this family c-REL, NF-κB2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), NF-κB1 (p105/p50), RelB, and RelA (p65) produce 5 transcriptionally active molecules. Proinflammatory cytokines, T lymphocyte, and B lymphocyte cell mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, bacteria, viral proteins, viruses, double-stranded RNA, oxidative stress, physical exertion, various chemotherapeutics are the stimulus responsible for NF-κB activation. NF-κB act as a principal component for several common respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis, COPD as well as infectious diseases like pneumonia, tuberculosis, COVID-19. Inflammatory lung disease, especially COVID-19, can make NF-κB a key target for drug production.


Subject(s)
Lung Diseases/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Lung Diseases/complications , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Lung Diseases/immunology
15.
Life Sci ; 280: 119744, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281492

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory tract infections have significantly impacted global health as well as socio-economic growth. Respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and the recent SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) typically infect the upper respiratory tract by entry through the respiratory mucosa before reaching the lower respiratory tract, resulting in respiratory disease. Generally, vaccination is the primary method in preventing virus pathogenicity and it has been shown to remarkably reduce the burden of various infectious diseases. Nevertheless, the efficacy of conventional vaccines may be hindered by certain limitations, prompting the need to develop novel vaccine delivery vehicles to immunize against various strains of respiratory viruses and to mitigate the risk of a pandemic. In this review, we provide an insight into how polymer-based nanoparticles can be integrated with the development of vaccines to effectively enhance immune responses for combating viral respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Vaccination/methods , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use
16.
Arch Pharm Res ; 44(5): 439-474, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202014

ABSTRACT

Artemisia and its allied species have been employed for conventional medicine in the Northern temperate regions of North America, Europe, and Asia for the treatments of digestive problems, morning sickness, irregular menstrual cycle, typhoid, epilepsy, renal problems, bronchitis malaria, etc. The multidisciplinary use of artemisia species has various other health benefits that are related to its traditional and modern pharmaceutical perspectives. The main objective of this review is to evaluate the traditional, modern, biological as well as pharmacological use of the essential oil and herbal extracts of Artemisia nilagirica, Artemisia parviflora, and other allied species of Artemisia. It also discusses the botanical circulation and its phytochemical constituents viz disaccharides, polysaccharides, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and carotenoids. The plants have different biological importance like antiparasitic, antimalarial, antihyperlipidemic, antiasthmatic, antiepileptic, antitubercular, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, antiemetic, antidepressant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, insecticidal, antiviral activities, and also against COVID-19. Toxicological studies showed that the plants at a low dose and short duration are non or low-toxic. In contrast, a high dose at 3 g/kg and for a longer duration can cause toxicity like rapid respiration, neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, etc. However, further in-depth studies are needed to determine the medicinal uses, clinical efficacy and safety are crucial next steps.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Artemisia/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Medicine, Traditional , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Plant Oils/therapeutic use
17.
Immuno ; 1(1):30-66, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1154426

ABSTRACT

An outbreak of “Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology” occurred in Wuhan, China, in late December 2019. Later, the agent factor was identified and coined as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the disease was named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In a shorter period, this newly emergent infection brought the world to a standstill. On 11 March 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Researchers across the globe have joined their hands to investigate SARS-CoV-2 in terms of pathogenicity, transmissibility, and deduce therapeutics to subjugate this infection. The researchers and scholars practicing different arts of medicine are on an extensive quest to come up with safer ways to curb the pathological implications of this viral infection. A huge number of clinical trials are underway from the branch of allopathy and naturopathy. Besides, a paradigm shift on cellular therapy and nano-medicine protocols has to be optimized for better clinical and functional outcomes of COVID-19-affected individuals. This article unveils a comprehensive review of the pathogenesis mode of spread, and various treatment modalities to combat COVID-19 disease.

18.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(6): 784-788, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120208

ABSTRACT

Over the recent decades, a number of new pathogens have emerged within specific and diverse populations across the globe, namely, the Nipah virus, the Ebola virus, the Zika virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs) to name a few. Recently, a new form of coronavirus was identified in the city of Wuhan, China. Interestingly, the genomic architecture of the virus did not match with any of the existing genomic sequencing data of previously sequenced CoVs. This had led scientists to confirm the emergence of a new CoV strain. Originally, named as 2019-nCoV, the strain is now called as SARS-CoV-2. High serum levels of proinflammatory mediators, namely, interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-1ß, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), chemoattractant protein-1, and IFN-inducible protein, have been repeatedly observed in subjects who were infected with this virus. In addition, the virus demonstrated strong coagulation activation properties, leading to further the understanding on the SARS-CoV2. To our understanding, these findings are unique to the published literature. Numerous studies have reported anomalies, namely, decline in the number of lymphocytes, platelets and albumins; and a rise in neutrophil count, aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, troponins, creatinine, complete bilirubin, D-dimers, and procalcitonin. Supplementation of calcium during the SARS CoV-2 associated hyperactive stage of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR) may be harmful to the cardio-renal system. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of CaSR may prevent the increase in the levels of intracellular calcium, oxidative, inflammatory stress, and cardio-renal cellular apoptosis induced by high cytokines level in COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Calcium/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Receptors, Calcium-Sensing/drug effects
19.
J Mol Neurosci ; 71(11): 2192-2209, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037256

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an issue of global significance that has taken the lives of many across the world. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus responsible for its pathogenesis. The pulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been well described in the literature. Initially, it was thought to be limited to the respiratory system; however, we now recognize that COVID-19 also affects several other organs, including the nervous system. Two similar human coronaviruses (CoV) that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) are also known to cause disease in the nervous system. The neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection are growing rapidly, as evidenced by several reports. There are several mechanisms responsible for such manifestations in the nervous system. For instance, post-infectious immune-mediated processes, direct virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS), and virus-induced hyperinflammatory and hypercoagulable states are commonly involved. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variants, dysfunction of taste and smell, and muscle injury are numerous examples of COVID-19 PNS (peripheral nervous system) disease. Likewise, hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke, encephalitis, meningitis, encephalopathy acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, endothelialitis, and venous sinus thrombosis are some instances of COVID-19 CNS disease. Due to multifactorial and complicated pathogenic mechanisms, COVID-19 poses a large-scale threat to the whole nervous system. A complete understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neurological impairments is still lacking, but our knowledge base is rapidly expanding. Therefore, we anticipate that this comprehensive review will provide valuable insights and facilitate the work of neuroscientists in unfolding different neurological dimensions of COVID-19 and other CoV associated abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adolescent , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Asymptomatic Infections , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Child , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Nervous System/virology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Organ Specificity , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Synapses/virology , Viral Tropism , Young Adult
20.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110254, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753089

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious coronavirus, which had already affected more than 2 million people in 210 countries, triggered a colossal economic crisis consequently resulting from measures adopted by various goverments to limit transmission. This has placed the lives of many people infected worldwide at great risk. Currently there are no established or validated treatments for COVID-19, that is approved worldwide. Nanocarriers may offer a wide range of applications that could be developed into risk-free approaches for successful therapeutic strategies that may lead to immunisation against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV­2) which is the primary causative organism that had led to the current COVID-19 pandemic. We address existing as well as emerging therapeutic and prophylactic approaches that may enable us to effectively combat this pandemic, and also may help to identify the key areas where nano-scientists can step in.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Carriers , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanotechnology , Plant Preparations , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Precision Medicine
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