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1.
Landscape and Urban Planning ; JOUR, 228.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2086529

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing global crisis that has profoundly harmed public health. Although studies found exposure to green spaces can provide multiple health benefits, the relationship between exposure to green spaces and the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate is unclear. This is a critical knowledge gap for research and practice. In this study, we examined the relationship between total green space, seven types of green space, and a year of SARS-CoV-2 infection data across 3,108 counties in the contiguous United States, after controlling for spatial autocorrelation and multiple types of covariates. First, we examined the association between total green space and SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Next, we examined the association between different types of green space and SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Then, we examined forest-infection rate association across five time periods and five urbanicity levels. Lastly, we examined the association between infection rate and population-weighted exposure to forest at varying buffer distances (100 m to 4 km). We found that total green space was negative associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. Furthermore, two forest variables (forest outside park and forest inside park) had the strongest negative association with the infection rate, while open space variables had mixed associations with the infection rate. Forest outside park was more effective than forest inside park. The optimal buffer dis-tances associated with lowest infection rate are within 1,200 m for forest outside park and within 600 m for forest inside park. Altogether, the findings suggest that green spaces, especially nearby forest, may significantly mitigate risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology ; : 141-182, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2075197

ABSTRACT

This chapter presents a novel point process model for COVID-19 transmission—the multivariate recursive Hawkes process, which is an extension of the recursive Hawkes model to the multivariate case. Equivalently the model can be viewed as an extension of the multivariate Hawkes model to allow for varying productivity as in the recursive model. Several theoretical properties of this process are stated and proved, including the existence of the multivariate recursive counting process and formulas for the mean and variance. EM-based algorithms are explored for estimating parameters of parametric and semi-parametric forms of the model. Additionally, an algorithm is presented to reconstruct the process from imprecise event times. The performance of the algorithms on both synthetic and real COVID-19 data sets is illustrated through several experiments. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

3.
Atmosphere ; 13(9), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2071181

ABSTRACT

In this study, the levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM2.5 samples were determined from 2020 to 2021 in Singapore. For analysis convenience, the sampling period was classified according to two monsoon periods and the inter-monsoon period. Considering Singapore's typically tropical monsoon climate, the four seasons were divided into the northeast monsoon season (NE), southwest monsoon season (SW), presouthwest monsoon season (PSW) and prenortheast monsoon season (PNE)). The PM2.5 concentration reached 17.1 +/- 8.38 mu g/m(3), which was slightly higher than that in 2015, and the average PAH concentration continuously declined during the sampling period compared to that reported in previous studies in 2006 and 2015. This is the first report of NPAHs in Singapore indicating a concentration of 13.1 +/- 10.7 pg/m(3). The seasonal variation in the PAH and NPAH concentrations in PM2.5 did not obviously differ owing to the unique geographical location and almost uniform climate changes in Singapore. Diagnostic ratios revealed that PAHs and NPAHs mainly originated from local vehicle emissions during all seasons. 2-Nitropyrene (2-NP) and 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR) in Singapore were mainly formed under the daytime OH-initiated reaction pathway. Combined with airmass backward trajectory analysis, the Indonesia air mass could have influenced Singapore's air pollution levels in PSW. However, these survey results showed that no effect was found on the concentrations of PAHs and NPAHs in PM2.5 in Indonesia during SW because of Indonesia's efforts in the environment. It is worth noting that air masses from southern China could impact the PAH and NPAH concentrations according to long-range transportation during the NE. The results of the total incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) via three exposure routes (ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption) for males and females during the four seasons indicated a low long-term potential carcinogenic risk, with values ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-7). This study systematically explains the latest pollution conditions, sources, and potential health risks in Singapore, and comprehensively analyses the impact of the tropical monsoon system on air pollution in Singapore, providing a new perspective on the transmission mechanism of global air pollution.

4.
Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences ; 49(4):537-547, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055554

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the status of family services and residents’demands for services in Shanghai in order to construct and improve the key elements of family services in public health events. Methods We used a combining method of individual in-depth interviews and focused group interviews. The informants were domestic and foreign experts in public health, health services, education, safety, etc., community workers and residents. The interview questions were as follow:problems in family services, residents’demands and suggestions for family services, etc. Results We found 7 major family services problems in Shanghai’s response to public health events:The boundary of authorities and responsibilities were not clearly defined between the upper and lower departments. The team construction of public health professions at the community level was flawed. There were miscommunications between upper and lower medical institutions during the epidemic outbreaks. Residents were not aware of the available family services provided by their communities. Unnoticed insanitary spots still existed in public spaces, and the maintenance of residential emergence equipment needs to be strengthened. The public opinion guidance required further strengthening, and the elderly people lack an effective medium for information acquisition. The emergency plan of closed management to solve practical problems after Shanghai’s COVID lockdown was insufficient. The residents’demands included the following 6 aspects:comprehensive family services, supply and guarantee of basic living materials and special materials, professionals providing family services as a means of support, emergency medical services, receiving psychological intervention and understanding knowledge of mental health, security of food and food supply chain security. Conclusion ‘Government led’‘cross-border cooperation’‘clear executive body’and ‘based on the needs of residents’were key factors. Therefore, we suggest family services are included in the normalizing construction of government. © 2022 Fudan University. All rights reserved.

5.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the pandemic of COVID, the public are faced with tremendous threatens both physically and mentally. Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most serious complications of childbearing, bringing severe impact on a woman's mental state and mood after birth. Research has shown that maternal mental state is closely correlated with PPD, those undergo the emergency or significant life changes during the postpartum period are more likely to suffer from PPD. In this study, we conducted the meta-analysis to estimate the association between PPD and COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, ScienceDirect, CNKI, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and WANFANG Database were searched for potentially relevant articles published before April 2022. Review Manager 5.2 was used to perform a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis to compute the pooled odds ratio. RESULTS: A total of 26 studies were included in this review. The overall pooled prevalence of PPD in the review was 24% (95% CI: 0.19-0.29), with China's at 22% (95% CI 0.16-0.28) and other countries at 25% (95% CI 0.18-0.32) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, compared to those who did not experience COVID-19, those who experienced it had an increased risk of PPD[OR:1.83(95% CI 1.70-1.97)]. CONCLUSIONS: According to this analysis, there was a significantly higher prevalence and odds of PPD in those who suffered from the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, we also found that China had a lower prevalence of postpartum depression than other countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our study may provide the instruction for the care of new mother under the situation of COVID-19 prevalence.

6.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 18:10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032333

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is still recurring so far. Considering that a great number of patients do examination in the same room and thus are exposed to high risks of cross infection, we should promote the epidemic prevention in the radiology department to prevent cross infection and another outbreak. Therefore, this article aims to share the experience and protocols of the radiology department of our hospital so as to help more hospitals and their radiology medical staff in epidemic prevention. Methods: We firstly collected three major epidemic prevention policies formulated by the radiology department since the outbreak, and then drew the schematic diagrams of patients' treatment routes under each measure, including the infection control team, the reconfiguration of the radiology department and the Examination procedures for patients with COVID-19. After three stages, we finally provide a specific machine for patients with COVID-19 to examine. Results: From January 18, 2020, our hospital has received 113 patients with COVID-19, among which 112 patients were discharged and 1 were dead. The total number of outpatients with fever-CT examinations was 2870, that of inpatients were 477. The number of DR exposures was 87, that of US examinations were 207, and that of MRI examinations was 148. No medical workers in the radiology department were diagnosed with COVID-19. Conclusions: Imaging examination has been an indispensable diagnostic method for COVID-19 since the outbreak. As the global epidemic situation is still unstable at present, radiology departments need to constantly improve the corresponding epidemic prevention and control measures, and formulate effective inspection plans for the patients with COVID-19, which can help patients and staff protect themselves against a high risk of COVID-19.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009548

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, and poor diet are all modifiable risk factors for cancer. These unhealthy behaviors are disproportionally concentrated in racial and ethnic minorities and these disparities may have been exacerbated during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in weight gain and other undesirable lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic and explored mechanisms underlying these lifestyle disparities. Methods: We used data from the 2020 Health, Ethnicity and Pandemic Study, a national survey representative of US households conducted in October 2020. Racial and ethnic minorities were oversampled. Participants were asked to report lifestyle behaviors before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined two outcomes in this study: weight gain and experiencing any undesirable lifestyle changes (i.e., reduced exercise time, increased alcohol drinking, or increased fast-food meal consumption). The primary exposure was race-ethnicity (non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Hispanic, NH Asian, NH other race). Four sets of mediators were examined: socioeconomic status (education, household income, and undesirable job changes), family and friend social relationship change, perceived and experienced racism, and psychological distress. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were performed. Mediation effects were examined with variance decomposition method. Results: A total of 2,709 participants were included in our sample. Compared with white respondents, black (OR = 1.71;p < 0.001) and Hispanic respondents (OR = 2.17;p < 0.001) were more likely to experience weight gain, controlling for age and sex. Among the hypothesized mediators, undesirable job changes during the pandemic, experiencing worse family relationship, and higher levels of psychological distress were all linked to higher odds of weight gain, but none of these variables played a salient role in mediating the black-white and Hispanic-white disparities in weight gain during the pandemic. As to the odds of experiencing undesirable lifestyle changes, black (OR = 1.76;p < 0.001), Hispanic (OR = 2.12;p < 0.001), and Asian respondents (OR = 1.42;p < 0.01) all exhibited disadvantages relative to white respondent. These disadvantages were largely attributable to perceived racism toward one's own group and psychological distress for all three minority groups. Conclusions: Racial and ethnic minorities were more likely to experience unhealthy lifestyle changes relative to white individuals during the pandemic in the United States, which can be partly attributable to higher levels of perceived racism and psychological distress. The long-term effects of racial/ethnic disparities of lifestyle change during the pandemic on cancer prevention warrant further research.

8.
Tourism Recreation Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004852

ABSTRACT

This study is based on the means-end chain theory and adopts the laddering interview method to understand the customer's perceived value of glamping. The means-end chain theory links attributes, consequences, and values, which can help uncover interviewees' honest opinions and ultimate values they sought in glamping. A total of 40 individuals who had not previously experienced glamping were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted following the one-on-one ladder-style format. The results reveal that the interviewees mainly focus on the 'hardware and equipment' aspect of glamping. Moreover, the aspect that interviewees associated closest with glamping was 'comfortable accommodation.' During the COVID-19 pandemic, these interviewees were focused on improving 'their sense of well-being' and 'enjoyment of life.' Hence, the study analysis and its discussion from the management perspective can be applied to camping-related businesses. This study will enhance future academic research by explaining and applying the means-end chain theory and laddering to glamping.

9.
IEEE Transactions on Computational Social Systems ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992675

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the issue of how to maintain economic development while containing the epidemic has become a significant concern for decision-makers. Though lockdown measures are verified to be very effective in containing the epidemic, its economic costs and other influences have not been fully explored. As a result, decision-makers in many countries are still hesitant to include the lockdown measure in an intervention strategy in response to COVID-19. To address this issue, we propose a universal computational experiment approach for policy evaluation and adjustment based on the Artificial societies, Computational experiments, Parallel execution (ACP) concept. First, we innovatively construct a model via observable CO<inline-formula> <tex-math notation="LaTeX">$_2$</tex-math> </inline-formula> emissions, which is able to estimate the economic costs affected by nonpharmaceutical interventions. Furthermore, based on the population movement data, a risk source model is proposed to estimate the local transmission risk for any prefectures outside the epicenter. Finally, we integrate the data models in a high-resolution agent-based artificial society and carry out large-scale computational experiments supported by the Tianhe supercomputer. Policy adjustments and evaluations are carried out in four cities: Wenzhou, Guangzhou, Beijing, and Wuhan. Our research findings show important implications for policy-making: 1) the local transmission of a city can be almost contained if lockdowns are adopted immediately when the risk index is larger than 1.645, 1.960, or 2.576 at the 90%, 95%, or 99% confidence interval, respectively;2) if lockdowns are required, in-advance lockdown measures facilitate mitigation efficacy and reduce economic loss;and 3) lockdowns lasting for 7–14 days in a prefecture would be effective in controlling the spread of the epidemic. The duration of the measure should be prolonged with the increment of the initial transmission risk. IEEE

10.
International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation ; 11(3):141-152, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1972531

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all societies worldwide. The heightened levels of stress that accompanied the crisis were also expected to affect parenting in many families. Since it is known that high levels of stress in the parenting domain can lead to a condition that has severe consequences for health and well-being, we examined whether the prevalence of parental burnout in 26 countries (9,923 parents;75% mothers;mean age 40) increased during COVID-19 compared to few years before the pandemic. In most (but not all) countries, analyses showed a significant increase in the prevalence of parental burnout during the pandemic. The results further revealed that next to governmental measures (e.g., number of days locked down, homeschooling) and factors at the individual and family level (e.g., gender, number of children), parents in less (vs. more) indulgent countries suffered more from parental burnout. The findings suggest that stricter norms regarding their parenting roles and duties in general and during the pandemic in particular might have increased their levels of parental burnout. © 2022 Hogrefe Publishing.

11.
8th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Security , ICAIS 2022 ; 1586 CCIS:75-85, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1971396

ABSTRACT

In recent years, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), as a highly contagious disease worldwide, poses a serious threat to public health. It is necessary to scientifically predict the development of the epidemic and to study and judge the situation of the epidemic. Based on the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model, this paper divides the population according to infectivity and considers the impact of double groups on the spread of the new coronavirus COVID-19. In the propagation model, important factors such as the incubation period, average healing days, and recovery rate are introduced, and its stability is analyzed and simulated. In the end, the experimental results prove that the model is stable and can achieve the desired expected effect. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the accurate simulation of the spread of the epidemic in the population, and have important research value and practical significance for improving the prevention and control strategy of the epidemic. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-1248-S-1249, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967432

ABSTRACT

Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2), can commonly lead to abnormal liver tests, mostly transaminase elevation. Recently, a novel entity of cholangiopathy was discovered in patients who recovered from critical COVID-19 infection. However, understanding of this disease is limited due to its rarity. Methods We reviewed Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science Core Collection databases from inception to Nov 30th, 2021, to identify studies reporting cholangiopathy after severe COVID-19 infection. “SARS-CoV-2” or “COVID-19” with “cholangiopathy” were used as keywords to search. Our study is to summarize the clinical features and characteristics of cholangiopathy after severe COVID-19 illness. Results Literature review identified 15 articles including 33 patients for reviews. Most studies were performed in the United States. The mean age of participants from all studies is 52.17 ± 13.98 years old. Among the 33 included patients, the majority are male (29, 88%) and the common medical histories include hypertension (n=11), obesity (n=8), and diabetes mellitus (n=8). The length of stay (LOS) during hospitalization was prolonged with a mean of 80.23 ± 33.14 days. All patients were intubated and put on mechanical ventilation during medical intensive care stay with 12 patients having a history of endotracheal cardiac output monitoring. The mean peak of serum alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase and total bilirubin were 2106.96 (U/l) ± 784.04, 1456.09 (U/l) ± 2325.10, 983.57 (U/l) ± 1244.44 and 14.04 (mg/dl) ± 8.41, respectively. Cholangiopathy after severe COVID illness mimics secondary sclerosing cholangitis on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography studies with ductal beading but the presence of unique severe cholangiocyte injury and intrahepatic microangiopathy is suggestive of direct hepatic injury due to COVID-19. In terms of outcome, 7 patients were documented as deceased. Eight patients underwent liver transplantation (Table 1). Discussion Cholangiopathy is a late complication of severe COVID-19 after prolonged ICU stay with potential for long-term liver morbidity and liver failure needing liver transplantation. Further studies are warranted to understand pathogenesis, natural history, therapeutic interventions, and prognostic indicators. (Table Presented)

13.
The Routledge Handbook of Public Health and the Community ; : 67-73, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879569

ABSTRACT

With the development of economy and society and the change of disease spectrum, the influence of social, natural environment, lifestyle and other factors on health becomes more and more prominent. In order to improve population health and promote health equity, health impact assessment came into being and gradually gained legal status in some countries, becoming an important institutional arrangement. The health impact assessment system has been enriched and improved in practice in many countries, and has become an effective policy tool to protect the health of citizens. Community is the foundation and support of a healthy city. Maintaining and promoting the health and wellbeing of community residents should be the starting point and end point of the community health impact assessment, which can promote cross-sectoral cooperation in health affairs, enhance communication, understanding and mutual trust, and promote health equity and the achievement of the development goals of Healthy Cities. It is also expected to play a constructive role in addressing the major health problems of the contemporary population and in achieving the goals of primary health care. As the largest developing country in the world, the changes in the health status of Chinese residents over the past decades are typical. With the establishment of the strategic goal of ‘Healthy China’, such concepts as ‘Health in All Policies’ and ‘establishing a health impact assessment system’ have become important guidelines of the Chinese government’s health work through legislation and have been continuously deepened in practice. With the help of the global information technology revolution, community health impact assessment will play a more active and important role in the national health care in the future, especially in the prevention and control of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and in the rehabilitation nursing of chronic non-communicable diseases. Thus, it will largely promote national health literacy and health level to new heights, and make positive contributions to the building of human health community. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Ben Y.F. Fong and Martin C.S. Wong;individual chapters, the contributors.

14.
2022 International Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Engineering, MLKE 2022 ; : 306-309, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861136

ABSTRACT

Under the serious influence of COVID-19, online teaching has become a mainstream teaching mode. During the online teaching, it is difficult for teachers to evaluate and intervene in students' learning in real time. Therefore, for students who lack self-control, it is possible to be stuck in low learning efficiency and even failure of course assessment. How to obtain valid information of students' learning status in time during the online teaching process is a hot research topic at present. This paper proposes a feedback service for teaching based on educational data mining. It can, through a reasonable analysis of the data submitted in form of students' homework, accurately screen out students who have difficulties in learning a certain course and give directions to achieve the purpose of optimizing the teaching. © 2022 IEEE.

15.
Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation ; 41(4):S278-S278, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849287
16.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(1):150-156, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847755

ABSTRACT

[] Objective: To retrospectively analyze the clinical data of 52 patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and explore the clinical efficacy of modified Sanxiaoyin on mild/moderate COVID-19 patients. Method: The propensity score matching method was used to collect the clinical data of mild or moderate COVID-19 patients enrolled in the designated hospital of the Second Hospital of Jingzhou from December 2019 to May 2020. A total of 26 eligible patients who were treated with modified Sanxiaoyin were included in the observation group,and the 26 patients treated with conventional method were the regarded as the control. The disappearance of clinical symptoms,disappearance time of main symptoms,efficacy on traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)symptoms,hospitalization duration,laboratory test indicators,and CT imaging changes in the two groups were compared. Result: The general data in the two groups were insignificantly different and thus they were comparable. After 7 days of treatment,the disappearance rate of fever,cough, fatigue,dry throat,anorexia,poor mental state,and poor sleep quality in the observation group was higher than that in the control group(P<0.05),and the difference in the disappearance rate of expectoration and chest distress was insignificant. For the cases with the disappearance of symptoms,the main symptoms(fever, cough,fatigue,dry throat,anorexia,chest distress)disappeared earlier in the observation group than in the control group(P<0.01). After 7 days of treatment,the scores of the TCM symptom scale of both groups decreased(P<0.01),and the decrease of the observation group was larger that of the control group(P<0.01). All patients in the two groups were cured and discharged. The average hospitalization duration in the observation group[(12.79±2.68)d]was shorter than that in the control group[(15.27±3.11)d](P<0.01). The effective rate in the observation group(92.31%,24/26)was higher than that in the control group(76.92%,20/26). After 7 days of treatment,the lymphocyte(LYM)count increased(P<0.05),and white blood cell(WBC)count and neutrophil(NEUT)count decreased insignificantly in the two groups. Moreover,levels of C-reactive protein (CRP),erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR),and procalcitonin(PCT)reduced in the two groups after treatment(P<0.01)and the reduction in the observation group was larger than that in the control group (P<0.01). Through 7 days of treatment,the total effective rate on pulmonary shadow in the observation group (90.00%,18/20)was higher than that in the control group(77.27%,17/22)(P>0.05)and the improvement of lung shadow in the observation group was better than that in the control group(P<0.01). Conclusion:Modified Sanxiaoyin can significantly alleviate fever,cough,fatigue,anorexia,chest distress,poor sleep quality,and other symptoms of patients with mild or moderate COVID-19,improve biochemical indicators,and promote the recovery of lung function. This paper provides clinical evidence for the application of modified Sanxiaoyin in the treatment of mild or moderate COVID-19. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

17.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; 38(3):582-586, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1834994

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the clinical features of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta variant infection and abnormal liver function in Guangdong Province, China. Methods The patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection who belonged to the same chain of transmission in Guangdong Province (Guangzhou and Foshan) and were admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University from May 21 to June 18, 2021 were enrolled in this study, and the judgment criteria for liver function were alanine aminotransferase (male/female) > 50/40 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase > 40 U/L, total bilirubin > 26 μmol/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase > 60 U/L, and alkaline phosphatase (ALK) > 125 U/L. Abnormality in any one item of the above criteria was defined as abnormal liver function, and such patients were included in analysis (the patients, aged < 18 years, who had a mild or moderate increase in ALP alone were not included in analysis). Clinical data were compared between the patients with normal liver function and those with abnormal liver function, and the etiology and prognosis of abnormal liver function were analyzed. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups;the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between two groups. Results Among the 166 patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection, 32 (19.3%) had abnormal liver function with mild-to-moderate increases in liver function parameters, and compared with the normal liver function group, the abnormal liver function group had a significantly higher proportion of critical patients (χ2=38.689, P < 0.001) and significantly higher age and inflammatory cytokines [C-reactive protein type, serum amyloid A, and interleukin-6 (IL-6)](all P < 0.05). Among the 32 patients with abnormal liver function, 13 patients had abnormal liver function on admission (defined as primary group), while 19 patients had normal liver function on admission but were found to have abnormal liver function by reexamination after treatment (defined as secondary group). For the primary group, the evidence of abnormal liver function was not found for 3 patients (3/13, 23.1%), and the possibility of toxic liver injury directly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection was considered. Among the 19 patients in the secondary group, 9 (47.4%) had mild/common type and 10 (52.6%) had critical type, and all critical patients had the evidence of liver injury indirectly caused by the significant increases in C-reactive protein type, serum amyloid A, and IL-6 and hypoxemia;the evidence of abnormal liver function was not found for only 1 patient (1/19, 5.3%), and the possibility of toxic liver injury directly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection was considered. All 32 patients with abnormal liver function had [JP2]significant reductions in liver function parameters after treatment including liver protection. Conclusion As for the patients with SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant infection who belong to the same chain of transmission in Guangdong Province, the critical patients show a significantly higher proportion of patients with abnormal liver function than the patients with other clinical types, and other factors except SARS-CoV-2 infection and indirect injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection are the main cause of liver injury. © 2022 Editorial Board of Jilin University. All rights reserved.

18.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the fraction and contagiousness of undocumented novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections is critical for understanding the overall prevalence and pandemic potential of this disease. Many mild infections are typically not reported and, depending on their contagiousness, may support stealth transmission and the spread of documented infection. METHODS: Here we use observations of reported infection and spread within China in conjunction with mobility data, a networked dynamic metapopulation model and Bayesian inference, to infer critical epidemiological characteristics associated with the emerging coronavirus, including the fraction of undocumented infections and their contagiousness. RESULTS: We estimate 86% of all infections were undocumented (95% CI: [82%-90%]) prior to the Wuhan travel shutdown (January 23, 2020). Per person, these undocumented infections were 52% as contagious as documented infections ([44%-69%]) and were the source of infection for two-thirds of documented cases. Our estimate of the reproductive number (2.23;[1.77-3.00]) aligns with earlier findings;however, after travel restrictions and control measures were imposed this number falls considerably. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of COVID-19 infections were undocumented prior to implementation of control measures on January 23, and these undocumented infections substantially contributed to virus transmission. These findings explain the rapid geographic spread of COVID-19 and indicate containment of this virus will be particularly challenging. Our findings also indicate that heightened awareness of the outbreak, increased use of personal protective measures, and travel restriction have been associated with reductions of the overall force of infection;however, it is unclear whether this reduction will be sufficient to stem the virus spread.

19.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation ; 41(4):S278-S278, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782213

ABSTRACT

Purpose The goal of this study was to assess the frequency and common symptoms of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (Long COVID-19) in heart transplant recipients (HTR). Methods After obtaining IRB approval, we conducted telephone surveys of HTR (n=30) who had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate their experience with acute COVID-19 illness and assess symptoms of Long COVID-19. Symptoms at onset and also beyond 6, 12, and 24 weeks of the initial diagnosis were recorded. Additionally, medical charts were reviewed for detailed information regarding transplant history, immunosuppression, COVID-19 management and hospitalization, and COVID-19 vaccination status. Results As noted in Table 1, among the 30 participants, 10 (33%) had symptoms consistent with Long COVID-19. Those with Long COVID-19 were more symptomatic during acute illness, with 40% of patients reporting cough, fevers or chills, and headaches, compared with 15%, 25%, and 20% respectively in those without Long COVID-19. Emergency department visits at initial illness (80% vs. 20%) and admission to the intensive care unit were more frequent (60% vs. 5%) in the Long COVID-19. Symptoms of Long COVID-19 lasted for a median of 9 weeks with 30% reporting ongoing symptoms at week 24. The most common persistent symptoms were depression, confusion, and difficulty concentrating. Conclusion This study is an early investigation of a complex syndrome of Long COVID-19 in transplant patients. Long COVID-19 is not well described in the transplant setting. HTR at our center with Long COVID-19 were sicker at their initial COVID-19 diagnosis and had more emergency room visits, hospital admissions, and longer hospital stays than those without subsequent Long COVID-19. Although, recall bias could affect participants’ ability to remember details and symptoms, this would have impacted both groups similarly as the time since COVID-19 diagnosis to study enrollment was similar between the two groups. These are preliminary findings and the study is currently ongoing.

20.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-331257

ABSTRACT

The number of mutations in the omicron (B1.1.529) BA.1 variant of concern (VOC) led to an unprecedented evasion of vaccine induced immunity. However, despite the remarkable rise in global infections, severe disease and death did not increase proportionally, linked to persistent recognition of BA.1 by T cells and non-neutralizing opsonophagocytic antibodies. Yet, the emergence of a new sublineage, BA.2, that is more transmissible compared to BA.1, despite relatively preserved neutralizing antibody responses, has raised the possibility that BA.2 may evade other vaccine induced responses that may be key to protection against infection and disease. Here we comprehensively profiled the BNT162b2 vaccine induced response to several VOCs including the omicron BA.1 and BA.2, after the primary vaccine series, 8 months following vaccination, and after a boost. While vaccine induced immune responses were compromised against both Omicron sublineages, vaccine induced antibody isotype titers, FcγR3a- and FcγR3breceptor binding levels, and non-neutralizing opsonophagocytic functions were significantly attenuated to the omicron BA.2 Spike compared to the BA.1 lineage. Conversely, FcγR2a and FcγR2b binding was elevated to BA.2 potentially contributing to persistent protection against severity of disease. These data point to an attenuation of particular non-neutralizing antibody properties that may be key to protection against transmission, but the maintenance of others that may continue to confer protection against disease.

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