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1.
Front Public Health ; 10: 765581, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952750

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak triggered a massive spread of unverified news on social media and has become a source of rumors. This paper studies the impact of a virtual rumor control center (RCC) on Weibo user behavior. The collected COVID-19 breaking news stories were divided into positive, negative, and neutral categories, while the moderating effect model was used to analyze the influence of anti-rumor on user behavior (forwarding, liking, and commenting). Our research found that rumor refuting does not directly affect user behavior but does have an indirect moderating effect. Rumor refuting has a profound impact on user forwarding behavior in cases of positive and negative news. Specifically, when the epidemic becomes more serious, the role of rumor refuting becomes critical, and vice versa. Refuting rumors reduces user willingness to forward positive or negative news, with more impact on negative news. Time lag analysis shows a significant moderation of unverified news within 72 h of refuting rumors but indicated an apparent weakening trend over time. Furthermore, we discovered non-linear feature and counter-cyclical phenomena in the moderating effect of rumor refutation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Humans , Social Networking
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(5): e33577, 2022 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As social media platforms have become significant sources of information during the pandemic, a significant volume of both factual and inaccurate information related to the prevention of COVID-19 has been disseminated through social media. Thus, disparities in COVID-19 information verification across populations have the potential to promote the dissemination of misinformation among clustered groups of people with similar characteristics. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of social media users who obtained COVID-19 information through unofficial social media accounts and were (1) most likely to change their health behaviors according to web-based information and (2) least likely to actively verify the accuracy of COVID-19 information, as these individuals may be susceptible to inaccurate prevention measures and may exacerbate transmission. METHODS: An online questionnaire consisting of 17 questions was disseminated by West China Hospital via its official online platforms, between May 18, 2020, and May 31, 2020. The questionnaire collected the sociodemographic information of 14,509 adults, and included questions surveying Chinese netizens' knowledge about COVID-19, personal social media use, health behavioral change tendencies, and cross-verification behaviors for web-based information during the pandemic. Multiple stepwise regression models were used to examine the relationships between social media use, behavior changes, and information cross-verification. RESULTS: Respondents who were most likely to change their health behaviors after obtaining web-based COVID-19 information from celebrity sources had the following characteristics: female sex (P=.004), age ≥50 years (P=.009), higher COVID-19 knowledge and health literacy (P=.045 and P=.03, respectively), non-health care professional (P=.02), higher frequency of searching on social media (P<.001), better health conditions (P<.001), and a trust rating score of more than 3 for information released by celebrities on social media (P=.005). Furthermore, among participants who were most likely to change their health behaviors according to social media information released by celebrities, female sex (P<.001), living in a rural residence rather than first-tier city (P<.001), self-reported medium health status and lower health care literacy (P=.007 and P<.001, respectively), less frequent search for COVID-19 information on social media (P<.001), and greater level of trust toward celebrities' social media accounts with a trust rating score greater than 1 (P≤.04) were associated with a lack of cross-verification of information. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that governments, health care agencies, celebrities, and technicians should combine their efforts to decrease the risk in vulnerable groups that are inclined to change health behaviors according to web-based information but do not perform any fact-check verification of the accuracy of the unofficial information. Specifically, it is necessary to correct the false information related to COVID-19 on social media, appropriately apply celebrities' star power, and increase Chinese netizens' awareness of information cross-verification and eHealth literacy for evaluating the veracity of web-based information.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Neural Process Lett ; : 1-22, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942453

ABSTRACT

At present, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ravaging the world, bringing great impact on people's life safety and health as well as the healthy development of economy and society, so the research on the prediction of the development trend of the epidemic is crucial. In this paper, we focus on the prevention and control of epidemic using the relevant technologies in the field of artificial intelligence and signal analysis. With the unknown principle of epidemic transmission, we first smooth out the complex and variable epidemic data through the empirical mode decomposition model to obtain the change trends of epidemic data at different time scales. On this basis, the change trends under different time scales are trained using an extreme learning machine to obtain the corresponding prediction values, and finally the epidemic prediction results are obtained by fitting through Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System. The experimental results show that the algorithm has good learning ability, especially in the prediction of time-series sequences can guarantee the accuracy rate while having low time complexity. Therefore, this paper not only plays a theoretical support for epidemic prevention and control, but also plays an important role in the construction of public emergency health system in the long run.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 820336, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933641

ABSTRACT

The continuous spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has raised unprecedented challenges to the human society. Antibodies and nanobodies possessing neutralization activity represent promising drug candidates. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing nanobody that targets the viral spike receptor-binding domain (S-RBD). The nanobody, termed as Nb-007, engages SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD with the two-digit picomolar binding affinity and shows outstanding virus entry-inhibition activity. The complex structure of Nb-007 bound to SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD reveals an epitope that is partially overlapping with the binding site for the human receptor of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The nanobody therefore exerts neutralization by competing with ACE2 for S-RBD binding, which is further ascertained by our in-vitro biochemical analyses. Finally, we also show that Nb-007 reserves promising, though compromised, neutralization activity against the currently-circulating Delta variant and that fusion of the nanobody with Fc dramatically increases its entry-inhibition capacity. Taken together, these data have paved the way of developing Nb-007 as a drug-reserve for potential treatment of SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Front Psychol ; 11: 556139, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933754

ABSTRACT

This paper surveyed 422 financial managers before the number of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infections in China peaked and used path analysis to study the risk decision-making mechanisms of financial managers. The study found that whether financial managers developed coping strategies depends on their assessment of potential business revenue losses. There are two transmission paths: the direct effect refers to the risk perception directly caused by COVID-19, while the indirect effect refers to managers' fear that they will not make timely adjustments or will make judgment errors, resulting in the loss of competitive advantage. It is worth noting that the indirect effect exceeds the direct effect, which indicates that financial managers are more rational than ordinary people in dealing with COVID-19, that they are relatively more concerned about competitor changes, and that they may even view COVID-19 as an important opportunity to obtain a better competitive position.

6.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(7): 760-4, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" on the sequelae of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period. METHODS: A total of 33 patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period were treated with filiform-fire needling at the acupoints of Mingmen (GV 4), Shenzhu (GV 12), Gaohuang (BL 43), Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37), etc., once every other day, 3 times a week, and 3 times was one course of treatment and totally 2 courses of treatment were required. The TCM symptom, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores, pulmonary function indexes (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]) and chest CT imaging change were observed before and after treatment, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the scores of TCM symptom, HAMA and HAMD were decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the levels of FVC, FEV1 and PEF were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the recovery rate of 22 patients with pulmonary ventilation dysfunction was 86.4% (19/22). After treatment, the lung shadow area was smaller than that before treatment (P<0.05). The effective rate of 25 patients with lung CT abnormalities was 84.0% (21/25). After treatment, 23 cases were cured, 5 cases were markedly effective, 4 cases were effective, 1 case was ineffective, the cured and markedly effective rate was 84.8%. CONCLUSION: The filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" could significantly reduce the sequelae of cough, fatigue, chest tightness, etc. and mental symptoms such as anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period, and promote inflammatory exudation absorption of pulmonary lesion and improve lung ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Acupuncture Points , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Lung , Vascular Surgical Procedures
7.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(5):397-403, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1924837

ABSTRACT

Since July 2020, nucleic acids of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were frequently detected in cold chain food imported to China, making imported food being a potential risk to the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, imported cold-chain food and their packaging may become the carriers of SARS-CoV-2 in long-distance cross-border transportation. In each aspect of stakeholders including governmental supervision, manufacturers and consumers, China should strengthen the risk management of imported cold-chain food to ensure the safety, especially pay attention to the health protection of industry workers in close contact with cold -chain food.

8.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871304

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak triggered a massive spread of unverified news on social media and has become a source of rumors. This paper studies the impact of a virtual rumor control center (RCC) on Weibo user behavior. The collected COVID-19 breaking news stories were divided into positive, negative, and neutral categories, while the moderating effect model was used to analyze the influence of anti-rumor on user behavior (forwarding, liking, and commenting). Our research found that rumor refuting does not directly affect user behavior but does have an indirect moderating effect. Rumor refuting has a profound impact on user forwarding behavior in cases of positive and negative news. Specifically, when the epidemic becomes more serious, the role of rumor refuting becomes critical, and vice versa. Refuting rumors reduces user willingness to forward positive or negative news, with more impact on negative news. Time lag analysis shows a significant moderation of unverified news within 72 h of refuting rumors but indicated an apparent weakening trend over time. Furthermore, we discovered non-linear feature and counter-cyclical phenomena in the moderating effect of rumor refutation.

9.
JMIR Public Health and Surveillance ; 8(5), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871272

ABSTRACT

Background: As social media platforms have become significant sources of information during the pandemic, a significant volume of both factual and inaccurate information related to the prevention of COVID-19 has been disseminated through social media. Thus, disparities in COVID-19 information verification across populations have the potential to promote the dissemination of misinformation among clustered groups of people with similar characteristics. Objective: This study aimed to identify the characteristics of social media users who obtained COVID-19 information through unofficial social media accounts and were (1) most likely to change their health behaviors according to web-based information and (2) least likely to actively verify the accuracy of COVID-19 information, as these individuals may be susceptible to inaccurate prevention measures and may exacerbate transmission. Methods: An online questionnaire consisting of 17 questions was disseminated by West China Hospital via its official online platforms, between May 18, 2020, and May 31, 2020. The questionnaire collected the sociodemographic information of 14,509 adults, and included questions surveying Chinese netizens’ knowledge about COVID-19, personal social media use, health behavioral change tendencies, and cross-verification behaviors for web-based information during the pandemic. Multiple stepwise regression models were used to examine the relationships between social media use, behavior changes, and information cross-verification. Results: Respondents who were most likely to change their health behaviors after obtaining web-based COVID-19 information from celebrity sources had the following characteristics: female sex (P=.004), age ≥50 years (P=.009), higher COVID-19 knowledge and health literacy (P=.045 and P=.03, respectively), non–health care professional (P=.02), higher frequency of searching on social media (P<.001), better health conditions (P<.001), and a trust rating score of more than 3 for information released by celebrities on social media (P=.005). Furthermore, among participants who were most likely to change their health behaviors according to social media information released by celebrities, female sex (P<.001), living in a rural residence rather than first-tier city (P<.001), self-reported medium health status and lower health care literacy (P=.007 and P<.001, respectively), less frequent search for COVID-19 information on social media (P<.001), and greater level of trust toward celebrities’ social media accounts with a trust rating score greater than 1 (P≤.04) were associated with a lack of cross-verification of information. Conclusions: The findings suggest that governments, health care agencies, celebrities, and technicians should combine their efforts to decrease the risk in vulnerable groups that are inclined to change health behaviors according to web-based information but do not perform any fact-check verification of the accuracy of the unofficial information. Specifically, it is necessary to correct the false information related to COVID-19 on social media, appropriately apply celebrities’ star power, and increase Chinese netizens’ awareness of information cross-verification and eHealth literacy for evaluating the veracity of web-based information.

10.
Neural processing letters ; : 1-22, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812683

ABSTRACT

At present, the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ravaging the world, bringing great impact on people’s life safety and health as well as the healthy development of economy and society, so the research on the prediction of the development trend of the epidemic is crucial. In this paper, we focus on the prevention and control of epidemic using the relevant technologies in the field of artificial intelligence and signal analysis. With the unknown principle of epidemic transmission, we first smooth out the complex and variable epidemic data through the empirical mode decomposition model to obtain the change trends of epidemic data at different time scales. On this basis, the change trends under different time scales are trained using an extreme learning machine to obtain the corresponding prediction values, and finally the epidemic prediction results are obtained by fitting through Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System. The experimental results show that the algorithm has good learning ability, especially in the prediction of time-series sequences can guarantee the accuracy rate while having low time complexity. Therefore, this paper not only plays a theoretical support for epidemic prevention and control, but also plays an important role in the construction of public emergency health system in the long run.

11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332958

ABSTRACT

As SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern continue spreading around the world, development of antibodies and vaccines to confer broad and protective activity is a global priority. Here, we report on the identification of a special group of nanobodies from immunized alpaca with exceptional breadth and potency against diverse sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV-1, Omicron BA.1, and BA.2. Crystal structure analysis of one representative nanobody, 3-2A2-4, revealed a highly conserved epitope between the cryptic and the outer face of the receptor binding domain (RBD). The epitope is readily accessible regardless of RBD in up or down conformation and distinctive from the receptor ACE2 binding site. Passive delivery of 3-2A2-4 protected K18-hACE2 mice from infection of authentic SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron. This group of nanobodies and the epitope identified should provide invaluable reference for the development of next generation antibody therapies and vaccines against wide varieties of SARS-CoV-2 infection and beyond.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776233

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused different types of harms and benefits, but the combined patterns of perceived harms and benefits are unclear. We aimed to identify the patterns of perceived harms and benefits of the COVID-19 outbreak and to examine their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, happiness, and changes in smoking and drinking. A population-based cross-sectional online survey was conducted in May 2020 on Hong Kong adults (N = 4520). Patterns of perceived harms and benefits of COVID-19 were identified using latent profile analysis. Their associations with socio-demographic characteristics, happiness, and changes in smoking and drinking were examined using multinomial logistic regression. We identified three distinct patterns: indifferent (66.37%), harm (13.28%), and benefit (20.35%). Compared with the indifferent subgroup, the harm subgroup was younger, less happy, and had increased drinking, and hence might be at higher risk, whereas the benefit subgroup was more likely to be female, live with one or more cohabitants, have postsecondary education, be happier, and have decreased drinking, and could be more adaptive. Future studies can target the harm subgroup to facilitate their positive adjustments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics
13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760431

ABSTRACT

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is defined by the WHO classification as a large B-cell neoplasm without detectable tumor masses. It is universally associated with HHV8, with most cases occurring in the setting of immunodeficiency such as HIV infection, and a poor prognosis. Morphologically, the neoplastic cells range from immunoblastic, plasmablastic, to anaplastic; and phenotypically, most cases express plasma cell but not B-cell markers, i.e., plasmablastic. During the past decade, primary HHV8-negative effusion lymphoma has been reported. Such cases were considered in the WHO classification scheme as effusion-based lymphoma. We performed a systemic review of 167 HHV8-negative effusion lymphomas from the literature and found that only 42% were associated with a fluid overload state, and with low rates of HIV (6%) or EBV (21%) infection. Furthermore, most patients are old (or immunosenescent) with underlying medical conditions/comorbidities, most neoplasms are of B-cell phenotype, and the outcome is more favorable than that of HHV8-positive PEL. These distinctive findings supported our prior proposal of designating these HHV8-negative cases as type II PEL, in contrast to the classic or type I PEL as defined by the WHO. Furthermore, we propose an algorithmic approach for the diagnosis of PEL and its mimickers.

14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(3): 281-6, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period. METHODS: Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Humans , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
15.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1695767

ABSTRACT

It is widely accepted that the zinc element is crucial in human beings. Zinc has gained more attention during the COVID-19 pandemic due to its utilization for the treatment and prevention of respiratory tract infections. However, some studies also pointed out that zinc intake might cause unwanted side effects and even be dangerous when overdosed. To reveal the relationship between zinc intake and health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review from human studies. In total, the umbrella review included 43 articles and identified 11 outcomes for dietary zinc intake and 86 outcomes for supplementary zinc intake. Dietary zinc intake in the highest dose would decrease the risk of overall and specific digestive tract cancers, depression, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. Supplementary zinc consumption in adults was linked to an improvement of depression, antioxidant capacity and sperm quality, higher serum zinc concentration, and lower concentration of inflammatory markers. Zinc supplementation in children would reduce the incidence of diarrhea and pneumonia, improve zinc deficiency and boost growth. However, zinc might not decrease all-cause mortality in adults or the in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. And better maternal and neonatal outcomes may not derive from pregnant women who consumed higher or lower doses of zinc supplementation (>20 mg/day and <20 mg/day, respectively). Dose-response analyses revealed that a daily 5 mg increment of zinc would lower the risk of colorectal and esophageal cancer, whereas a large dose of zinc supplementation (daily 100 mg) showed no benefit in reducing prostate cancer risk.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310368

ABSTRACT

Background: We aim to explore the safety and feasibility of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transplantation in severe and critically severe type Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Methods: In addition to normal therapy, we performed four times transplantation of UC-MSCs in 16 severe and critically severe type COVID-19 patients. We observed adverse events from enrollment to D28. We evaluated the oxygenation index, inflammatory biomarkers, chest imaging, lymphocyte subsets count et al on the 7th day (D7±1 day), the 14th day (D14±1 day) and the 28th day (D28±3 days). Results: There were no infusion-related or allergic reactions. The oxygenation index was improved after transplantation. The mortality of enrolled patients was 6.25%. The level of cytokines estimated was varied in normal range, the chest imaging was improved, the lymphocyte count and lymphocyte subsets count were recovered after transplantation. Conclusions: Intravenous transplantation of UC-MSCs was safe and feasible for treatment in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Trial registration: Clinical Trial, NCT04269525. Registered 7 February 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04269525

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325360

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first found in Wuhan, China and soon was reported all around the world. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is highly infectious and requires early detection, isolation, and treatment. We tried to find some useful information by analyzing the covid-19 screening data, so as to provide help for clinical practice. In this prospective study, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 131 patients with COVID-19 and 119 controls. For confirmed cases, the data of blood routine examination were analyzed among severe patients and non-severe group. The blood routine examination results were dynamically observed in the survivors and nonsurvivors. We find that patients with COVID-19 have lower counts of leucocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, which were compared with controls ( P < 0.001). In severe group, patients have the lower count of lymphocytes and eosinophils, but the higher leucocytes count (all P values < 0.01). Eosinophils have high diagnostic efficacy analysis of severe COVID-19, and its area under the curve reached 0.750. Patients whose eosinophils returned to normal early had significantly longer survival times than those who did not( P < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 have abnormal peripheral blood routine examination results. Dynamic surveillance of peripheral blood system especially eosinophils is helpful in the diagnosis, assess the prognosis and prediction of severe COVID-19 cases.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325147

ABSTRACT

Abrupt changes in food preferences and eating habits pose an overlooked public health risk during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Emerging evidence suggests an ongoing, population-level shift to consumption of high-sodium foods, during COVID-19 and lockdowns, in the general population surveyed in different countries and cultures. High-sodium foods are defined as those with sodium contents exceeding 500 mg per 100 g, and many processed and preserved foods fall into this particular category. Excessive dietary sodium intake is associated with chronic diseases including hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and kidney diseases, and poses confounding risks during COVID-19. Here, we review food categories in consumers’ shopping lists and food parcels delivered to those who need assistance during the current pandemic, when frozen meals, canned foods, instant foods, snacks, and other high-sodium foods gained substantial popularity. Such emerging trends in consumers’ behavior are driven by a multitude of factors. Specifically, the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection in grocery shopping trips, limited supplies and inflated prices of fresh produce, preference on foods with long shelf lives, emotional eating, and the general low awareness of sodium contents in food have all contributed to the increased consumption of high-sodium foods during COVID-19. We also discuss the possible effects on COVID-19 infection and severity caused by excessive sodium intake, by reviewing current reports and hypotheses examining their relations. In light of the evidence, it is advisable to educate the public to maintain a healthy sodium intake during the current pandemic, and measures could be adopted by governments and private donors in procuring food parcels with more balanced sodium contents to lower the risks of prolonged and excessive sodium intakes in vulnerable population groups.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323684

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies are needed to provide evidence for the immunization strategy of the COVID-19 vaccine simultaneously administered with the influenza vaccine. Methods: A randomised, open-label, controlled, phase 4 clinical trial was conducted in Zhejiang Province, east of China. Eligible healthy adults aged 18–59 years underwent randomization at a ratio of 1:1:2 to receive one dose of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) either simultaneously with the first (SI1 subgroup, Day 0) or the second (SI2 subgroup, Day 28) dose of CoronaVac, or 14 days after the first dose of CoronaVac (SE group). The primary endpoint of the study was the non-inferiority in seroconversion rate of antibody against SARS-Cov-2 between participants who received two vaccines simultaneously and those who followed the separate vaccination schedule (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT04801888). Findings: Overall, 480 participants were enrolled, with 120, 120, and 240 randomly assigned to the SI1, SI2, and SE groups, respectively. With the noninferiority margin set at 10%, the seroconversion of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in the SI group (93.11% [89.04, 96.01]) was not inferior to that in the SE group (95.15% [91.50, 97.56]) in the per-protocol set. Overall, the geometric mean titer (GMT) in the SE group was higher than that in the SI group with statistical significance (38.06 vs. 27.54, P=0.0001). Within the SI group, the GMT was significantly higher in the SI1 subgroup than that in the SI2 subgroup (32.61 vs 23.26, P=0.0153). The occurrences of vaccine related adverse reactions were comparable among different vaccination groups (16.67% vs. 19.17% and 20.00%, P=0.7568).Interpretation: Simultaneous administration of both SARS-Cov-2 inactivated vaccine and seasonal influenza vaccine would be feasible. Further studies are needed to explain the unexpected decrease of immune response against SARS-CoV-2 following the regimen that IIV4 simultaneously administered with the 2 nd dose of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine.Trial Registration: This study was registered at: (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT04801888).Funding: This study was funded by the Vaccine Clinical Evaluation Platform Construction Project under China National Science and Technology Major Projects [2018ZX09734004] and The Key Research and Development Program of Zhejiang Province (2021C03200).Declaration of Interest: GZ, XD and ZW are employees of Sinovac Biotech CO., Ltd. All other authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The study protocol and informed consent form were approved by the ethics committee of the Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ZJCDC).

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308151

ABSTRACT

Due to the recent outbreak of COVID-19, many governments suspended outdoor activities and imposed social distancing policies to prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. These measures have had severe impact on the economy and peoples' daily lives. An alternative to widespread lockdowns is effective contact tracing during an outbreak's early stage. However, mathematical models suggest that epidemic control for SARS-CoV-2 transmission with manual contact tracing is implausible. To reduce the effort of contact tracing, many digital contact tracing projects (e.g., PEPP-PT, DP-3T, TCN, BlueTrace, Google/Apple Exposure Notification, and East/West Coast PACT) are being developed to supplement manual contact tracing. However, digital contact tracing has drawn scrutiny from privacy advocates, since governments or other parties may attempt to use contact tracing protocols for mass surveillance. As a result, many digital contact tracing projects build privacy-preserving mechanisms to limit the amount of privacy-sensitive information leaked by the protocol. In this paper, we examine how these architectures resist certain classes of attacks, specifically DoS attacks, and present BlindSignedIDs, a privacy-preserving digital contact tracing mechanism, which are verifiable ephemeral identifiers to limit the effectiveness of MAC-compliant DoS attacks. In our evaluations, we showed BlindSignedID can effectively deny bogus EphIDs, mitigating DoS attacks on the local storage beyond 90% of stored EphIDs. Our example DoS attacks showed that using 4 attackers can cause the gigabyte level DoS attacks within normal working hours and days.

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