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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11369, 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921713

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular vaccines have greatly reduced hospitalization and death due to severe COVID-19. However, most countries are experiencing a resurgence of infection driven predominantly by the Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2. In response, booster dosing of COVID-19 vaccines has been implemented in many countries to address waning immunity and reduced protection against the variants. However, intramuscular boosting fails to elicit mucosal immunity and therefore does not solve the problem of persistent viral carriage and transmission, even in patients protected from severe disease. In this study, two doses of stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P)-based intramuscular vaccine adjuvanted with Alum/CpG1018, MVC-COV1901, were used as a primary vaccination series, followed by an intranasal booster vaccination with nanoemulsion (NE01)-adjuvanted S-2P vaccine in a hamster model to demonstrate immunogenicity and protection from viral challenge. Here we report that this vaccination regimen resulted not only in the induction of robust immunity and protection against weight loss and lung pathology following challenge with SARS-CoV-2, but also led to increased viral clearance from both upper and lower respiratory tracts. Our findings showed that intramuscular MVC-COV1901 vaccine followed by a booster with intranasal NE01-adjuvanted vaccine promotes protective immunity against both viral infection and disease, suggesting that this immunization protocol may offer a solution in addressing a significant, unmet medical need for both the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cricetinae , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886443

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern (VoCs) negatively impact the effectiveness of vaccines. In this study, we challenge hamsters with the Delta variant after two- or three-dose inoculations with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines constructed from stabilized prefusion spike proteins (S-2P) of Wuhan (W) and Beta (B) variants. Compared to three doses of W S-2P, two doses of W S-2P followed by a third dose of B S-2P induced the highest neutralizing antibody titer against live SARS-CoV-2 virus and enhanced neutralization of Omicron variant pseudovirus. Reduced lung live virus titer and pathology suggested that all vaccination regimens protect hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant challenge.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330836

ABSTRACT

With the rapid progress made in the development of vaccines to fight the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, almost >90% of vaccine candidates under development and a 100% of the licensed vaccines are delivered intramuscularly (IM). While these vaccines are highly efficacious against COVID-19 disease, their efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 infection of upper respiratory tract and transmission is at best temporary. Development of safe and efficacious vaccines that are able to induce robust mucosal and systemic immune responses are needed to control new variants. In this study, we have used our nanoemulsion adjuvant (NE01) to intranasally (IN) deliver stabilized spike protein (S-2P) to induce immunogenicity in mouse and hamster models. Data presented demonstrate the induction of robust immunity in mice resulting in 100% seroconversion and protection against SARS-CoV-2 in a hamster challenge model. There was a significant induction of mucosal immune responses as demonstrated by IgA- and IgG-producing memory B cells in the lungs of animals that received intranasal immunizations compared to an alum adjuvanted intramuscular vaccine. The efficacy of the S-2P/NE01 vaccine was also demonstrated in an intranasal hamster challenge model with SARS-CoV-2 and conferred significant protection against weight loss, lung pathology, and viral clearance from both upper and lower respiratory tract. Our findings demonstrate that intranasal NE01-adjuvanted vaccine promotes protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease through activation of three arms of immune system: humoral, cellular, and mucosal, suggesting that an intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine may play a role in addressing a unique public health problem and unmet medical need.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330228

ABSTRACT

Background MVC-COV1901 is a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on the prefusion spike protein S-2P and adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide. Although MVC-COV1901 has been licensed for emergency use for adults in Taiwan, the safety and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 in adolescents remained unknown. As young people play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 transmission and epidemiology, a vaccine approved for adolescents and eventually, children, will be important in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This study is a prospective, double-blind, multi-center phase 2 trial evaluating the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of two doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine MVC-COV1901 in adolescents. Healthy adolescents from age of 12 to 17 years were recruited and randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo at 28 days apart. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity from the day of first vaccination (Day 1) to 28 days after the second vaccination (Day 57), and immunogenicity of MVC COV1901 in adolescents as compared to young adult vaccinees in terms of neutralizing antibody titers and seroconversion rate. The secondary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 as compared to placebo in adolescents in terms of immunoglobulin titers and neutralizing antibody titers over the study period. Results Between July 21, 2021 and December 22, 2021, a total of 399 adolescent participants were included for safety evaluation after enrollment to receive at least one dose of either MVC-COV1901 (N=341) or placebo (N=58). Of these, 334 and 46 participants went on to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, respectively, and were included in the per protocol set (PPS) for immunogenicity analysis. Adverse events were mostly mild and were similar in MVC-COV1901 and placebo groups. The most commonly reported adverse events were pain/tenderness and malaise/fatigue. All immunogenicity endpoints in the adolescent group were non-inferior to the endpoints seen in the young adult and placebo groups. Conclusions The safety and immunogenicity data presented here showed that MVC-COV1901 has similar safety profile and non-inferior immunogenicity in adolescents compared to young adults. ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT04951388.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329469

ABSTRACT

Intramuscular vaccines have greatly reduced hospitalization and death due to severe COVID-19. However, most countries are experiencing a resurgence of infection driven predominantly by the Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2. In response, booster dosing of COVID-19 vaccines has been implemented in many countries to address waning immunity and reduced protection against the variants. However, intramuscular boosting fails to elicit mucosal immunity and therefore does not solve the problem of persistent viral carriage and transmission, even in patients protected from severe disease. In this study, two doses of stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P)-based intramuscular vaccine adjuvanted with Alum/CpG1018, MVC-COV1901, were used as a primary vaccination series, followed by an intranasal booster vaccination with nanoemulsion (NE01)-adjuvanted S-2P vaccine in a hamster model to demonstrate immunogenicity and protection from viral challenge. Here we report that this vaccination regimen resulted not only in the induction of robust immunity and protection against weight loss and lung pathology following challenge with SARS-CoV-2, but also led to increased viral clearance from both upper and lower respiratory tracts. Our findings showed that intramuscular MVC-COV1901 vaccine followed by a booster with intranasal NE01-adjuvanted vaccine promotes protective immunity against both viral infection and disease, suggesting that this immunization protocol may offer a solution in addressing a significant, unmet medical need for both the COVID-19 and future pandemics.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1396-1406, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing pre-fusion-stabilised spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in healthy adults aged 20-49 years in a phase 1 trial, and provided a good cellular and humoral immune responses. We present the interim safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity results of a phase 2 clinical trial of the MVC-COV1901 vaccine in Taiwan. METHODS: This is a large-scale, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial done at ten medical centres and one regional hospital in Taiwan. Individuals aged 20 years or older who were generally healthy or had stable pre-existing medical conditions were eligible for enrolment. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) travel overseas within 14 days of screening, intention to travel overseas within 6 months of the screening visit, and the absence of prespecified medical conditions, including immunosuppressive illness, a history of autoimmune disease, malignancy with risk to recur, a bleeding disorder, uncontrolled HIV infection, uncontrolled hepatitis B and C virus infections, SARS-CoV-1 or SARS-CoV-2 infections, an allergy to any vaccine, or a serious medical condition that could interfere with the study. Study participants were randomly assigned (6:1) to receive two doses of either MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered via intramuscular injection on day 1 and day 29. MVC-COV1901 contained 15 µg of S-2P protein adjuvanted with 750 µg CpG 1018 and 375 µg aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous solution, and the placebo contained the same volume of saline. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by age (≥20 to <65 years and ≥65 years). Participants and investigators were masked to group assignment. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from day 1 (the day of the first dose) to day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Safety was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose. Immunogenicity was assessed by measuring geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific IgG in the per-protocol population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04695652. FINDINGS: Of 4173 individuals screened between Dec 30, 2020, and April 2, 2021, 3854 were enrolled and randomly assigned: 3304 to the MVC-COV1901 group and 550 to the placebo group. A total of 3844 participants (3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 549 in the placebo group) were included in the safety analysis set, and 1053 participants (903 and 150) had received both doses and were included in the per-protocol immunogenicity analysis set. From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events in all study participants were pain at the injection site (2346 [71·2%] of 3295 in the MVC-COV1901 group and 128 [23·3%] of 549 in the placebo group), and malaise or fatigue (1186 [36·0%] and 163 [29·7%]). Fever was rarely reported (23 [0·7%] and two [0·4%]). At 28 days after the second dose of MVC-COV1901, the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibody GMT was 662·3 (95% CI 628·7-697·8; 408·5 IU/mL), the GMT ratio (geometric mean fold increase in titres at day 57 vs baseline) was 163·2 (155·0-171·9), and the seroconversion rate was 99·8% (95% CI 99·2-100·0). INTERPRETATION: MVC-COV1901 has a good safety profile and elicits promising immunogenicity responses. These data support MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control, Ministry of Health and Welfare.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic , Aluminum Hydroxide , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan , Young Adult
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296799

ABSTRACT

A post-hoc analysis of the phase 2 data was performed for the SARS-COV-2 subunit protein vaccine MVC-COV1901. Anti-spike IgG, neutralization assays with live virus and pseudovirus were used to demonstrate age-dependent vaccine-induced antibody response to the vaccine. Results showed that an association exists between age and immune responses to the vaccine, providing further support for the need of booster shots, especially for the older age groups.

8.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296105

ABSTRACT

Summary Background We have assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the COVID-19 vaccine MVC-COV1901, a recombinant protein vaccine containing prefusion-stabilized spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminium hydroxide. Methods This is a phase 2, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and multi-centre study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate MVC-COV1901. The study comprised 3,844 participants of ≥ 20 years who were generally healthy or with stable pre-existing medical conditions. The study participants were randomly assigned in a 6:1 ratio to receive either MVC-COV1901 containing 15 μg of S-2P protein or placebo containing saline. Participants received two doses of MVC-COV1901 or placebo, administered 28 days apart via intramuscular injection. The primary outcomes were to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 from Day 1 (the day of first vaccination) to Day 57 (28 days after the second dose). Immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901 was assessed through geometric mean titres (GMT) and seroconversion rates (SCR) of neutralising antibody and antigen-specific immunoglobulin. This clinical trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04695652 . Findings From the start of this phase 2 trial to the time of interim analysis, no vaccine-related Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events across all study participants were pain at the injection site (64%), and malaise/fatigue (35%). Fever was rarely reported (<1%). For all participants in the MVC-COV1901 group, at 28 days after the second dose against wild type SARS-CoV-2 virus, the GMT was 662·3 (408 IU/mL), the GMT ratio was 163·2, and the seroconversion rate was 99·8%. Interpretation MVC-COV1901 shows good safety profiles and promising immunogenicity responses. The current data supports MVC-COV1901 to enter phase 3 efficacy trials and could enable regulatory considerations for Emergency Use Authorisation (EUA). Funding Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation and Taiwan Centres for Disease Control.

9.
Theranostics ; 12(1): 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512993

ABSTRACT

Background: Administration of potent anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) monoclonal antibodies has been shown to curtail viral shedding and reduce hospitalization in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the structure-function analysis of potent human anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies and its links to the formulation of antibody cocktails remains largely elusive. Methods: Previously, we isolated a panel of neutralizing anti-RBD monoclonal antibodies from convalescent patients and showed their neutralization efficacy in vitro. Here, we elucidate the mechanism of action of antibodies and dissect antibodies at the epitope level, which leads to a formation of a potent antibody cocktail. Results: We found that representative antibodies which target non-overlapping epitopes are effective against wild type virus and recently emerging variants of concern, whilst being encoded by antibody genes with few somatic mutations. Neutralization is associated with the inhibition of binding of viral RBD to ACE2 and possibly of the subsequent fusion process. Structural analysis of representative antibodies, by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography, reveals that they have some unique aspects that are of potential value while sharing some features in common with previously reported neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. For instance, one has a common VH 3-53 public variable region yet is unusually resilient to mutation at residue 501 of the RBD. We evaluate the in vivo efficacy of an antibody cocktail consisting of two potent non-competing anti-RBD antibodies in a Syrian hamster model. We demonstrate that the cocktail prevents weight loss, reduces lung viral load and attenuates pulmonary inflammation in hamsters in both prophylactic and therapeutic settings. Although neutralization of one of these antibodies is abrogated by the mutations of variant B.1.351, it is also possible to produce a bi-valent cocktail of antibodies both of which are resilient to variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. Conclusions: These findings support the up-to-date and rational design of an anti-RBD antibody cocktail as a therapeutic candidate against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Dogs , Epitopes , Female , Humans , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Variants of concern (VoCs) have the potential to diminish the neutralizing capacity of antibodies elicited by vaccines. MVC-COV1901 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine consisting of recombinant prefusion stabilized spike protein S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide. We explored the effectiveness of MVC-COV1901 against the VoCs. METHODS: Serum samples were taken from rats and phase 1 clinical trial human subjects immunized with a low, medium, or high dose of MVC-COV1901. The neutralizing titers of serum antibodies were assayed with pseudoviruses coated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of the wild-type (WT), D614G, Alpha, or Beta variants. RESULTS: Rats vaccinated twice with vaccine containing high doses of antigen retained high levels of neutralization activity against the Beta variant, albeit with a slight reduction compared to WT. After the third dose, neutralizing titers against the Beta variant were noticeably enhanced regardless of the amount of antigen used for immunization. In humans, vaccinated phase 1 subjects still showed appreciable neutralization abilities against the D614G, Alpha, and Beta variants, although neutralizing titers were significantly reduced against the Beta variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of MVC-COV1901 were able to elicit neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 variants with an overall tendency of inducing higher immune response at a higher dose level. The neutralizing titers to the Beta variant in rats and humans were lower than those for WT and the Alpha variant. An additional third dose in rats was able to partially compensate for the reduction in neutralization against the Beta variant. We have demonstrated that immunization with MVC-COV1901 was effective against VoCs.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 100989, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This was a phase 1, dose-escalation open-label trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901, a SARS-CoV-2 S-2P protein vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide and CpG 1018. METHODS: Between September 28 and November 13 2020, 77 participants were screened. Of these, 45 healthy adults from 20 to 49 years of age were to be administered two doses of MVC-COV1901 in doses of 5 µg, 15 µg, or 25 µg of spike protein at 28 days apart. There were 15 participants in each dose group; all were followed for 28 days after the second dose at the time of the interim analysis. Adverse events and laboratory data were recorded for the safety evaluation. Blood samples were collected for humoral, and cellular immune response at various time points. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04487210. FINDINGS: Solicited adverse events were mostly mild and similar. No subject experienced fever. After the second dose, the geometric mean titers (GMTs) for SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immunoglobulin G were 7178.2, 7746.1, 11,220.6 in the 5 µg, 15 µg, and 25 µg dose groups, respectively. The neutralizing activity were detected in both methods. (Day 43 GMTs, 538.5, 993.1, and 1905.8 for pseudovirus; and 33.3, 76.3, and 167.4 for wild-type virus). The cellular immune response induced by MVC-COV1901 demonstrated substantially higher numbers of IFN-γ- producing cells, suggesting a Th1-skewed immune response. INTERPRETATION: The MVC-COV1901 vaccine was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses and is suitable for further development. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8761, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199318

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented challenge to global public health. Rapid development and deployment of safe and effective vaccines are imperative to control the pandemic. In the current study, we applied our adjuvanted stable prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike (S-2P)-based vaccine, MVC-COV1901, to hamster models to demonstrate immunogenicity and protection from virus challenge. Golden Syrian hamsters immunized intramuscularly with two injections of 1 µg or 5 µg of S-2P adjuvanted with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) were challenged intranasally with SARS-CoV-2. Prior to virus challenge, the vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies with 10,000-fold higher IgG level and an average of 50-fold higher pseudovirus neutralizing titers in either dose groups than vehicle or adjuvant control groups. Six days after infection, vaccinated hamsters did not display any weight loss associated with infection and had significantly reduced lung pathology and most importantly, lung viral load levels were reduced to lower than detection limit compared to unvaccinated animals. Vaccination with either 1 µg or 5 µg of adjuvanted S-2P produced comparable immunogenicity and protection from infection. This study builds upon our previous results to support the clinical development of MVC-COV1901 as a safe, highly immunogenic, and protective COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Aluminum Hydroxide/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aluminum Hydroxide/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Immunization , Injections, Intramuscular , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load/drug effects
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20085, 2020 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933722

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a worldwide health emergency which calls for an unprecedented race for vaccines and treatment. In developing a COVID-19 vaccine, we applied technology previously used for MERS-CoV to produce a prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, S-2P. To enhance immunogenicity and mitigate the potential vaccine-induced immunopathology, CpG 1018, a Th1-biasing synthetic toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist was selected as an adjuvant candidate. S-2P in combination with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) was found to be the most potent immunogen and induced high titer of neutralizing antibodies in sera of immunized mice against pseudotyped lentivirus reporter or live wild-type SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the antibodies elicited were able to cross-neutralize pseudovirus containing the spike protein of the D614G variant, indicating the potential for broad spectrum protection. A marked Th1 dominant response was noted from cytokines secreted by splenocytes of mice immunized with CpG 1018 and alum. No vaccine-related serious adverse effects were found in the dose-ranging study in rats administered single- or two-dose regimens of S-2P combined with CpG 1018 alone or CpG 1018 with alum. These data support continued development of CHO-derived S-2P formulated with CpG 1018 and alum as a candidate vaccine to prevent COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , Aluminum Hydroxide/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/therapeutic use , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Spleen/immunology , Th1 Cells/immunology
15.
chemRxiv; 2020.
Preprint | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-226

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rampaging the world with more than 1.4 million of confirmed cases and more than 85,000 of deaths across world by April 9th, 2020. There is an urgent need to identify effective drugs to fight against the virus. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the family of coronaviruses consisting of four structural and 16 non-structured proteins. Three non-structural proteins such as main protease, papain like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase are believed to play a crucial role in the virus replication. We applied a computational ligand-receptor binding modeling and performed a comprehensive virtual screening on the FDA-approved drugs against these three SARS-CoV-2 proteins using AutoDock Vina. Our computational studies indicated that Simeprevir, Ledipasvir, Idarubicin, Saquinavir, Ledipasivir, Partitaprevir, Glecaprevir, and Velpatasvir are all promising inhibitors, which displayed a lower binding energy (higher inhibitory effect) than Remdesivir, Lopinavir, and Ritonavir. However, we found that chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, which showed efficacy in treating the COVID-19 in recent clinical studies, had high binding energy with all three proteins, suggesting they may work through a different mechanism. We also identified several novel drugs as potential inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2, including antiviral Raltegravir;antidiabetic Amaryl;antibiotics Retapamulin, Rifimixin, and Rifabutin;antiemetic Fosaprepitant and Netupitant. In summary, our computational molecular docking approach and virtual screening identified some promising candidate SARS-CoV-2 drugs that may be considered for further clinical studies.

16.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 21(5): 13-25, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612520

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop an auto-planning platform to be interfaced with a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). The main goal was to obtain robust and high-quality plans for different anatomic sites and various dosimetric requirements. METHODS: Monaco (Elekta, St. Louis, US) was the TPS in this work. All input parameters for inverse planning could be defined in a plan template inside Monaco. A software tool called Robot Framework was used to launch auto-planning trials with updated plan templates. The template modifier external to Monaco was the major component of our auto-planning platform. For current implementation, it was a rule-based system that mimics the trial-and-error process of an experienced planner. A template was automatically updated by changing the optimization constraints based on dosimetric evaluation of the plan obtained in the previous trial, along with the data of the iterative optimization extracted from Monaco. Treatment plans generated by Monaco with all plan evaluation criteria satisfied were considered acceptable, and such plans would be saved for further evaluation by clinicians. The auto-planning platform was validated for 10 prostate and 10 head-and-neck cases in comparison with clinical plans generated by experienced planners. RESULTS: The performance and robustness of our auto-planning platform was tested with clinical cases of prostate and head and neck treatment. For prostate cases, automatically generated plans had very similar plan quality with the clinical plans, and the bladder volume receiving 62.5 Gy, 50 Gy, and 40 Gy in auto-plans was reduced by 1%, 3%, and 5%, respectively. For head and neck cases, auto-plans had better conformity with reduced dose to the normal structures but slightly higher dose inhomogeneity in the target volume. Remarkably, the maximum dose in the spinal cord and brain stem was reduced by more than 3.5 Gy in auto-plans. Fluence map optimization only with less than 30 trials was adequate to generate acceptable plans, and subsequent optimization for final plans was completed by Monaco without further intervention. The plan quality was weakly dependent on the parameter selection in the initial template and the choices of the step sizes for changing the constraint values. CONCLUSION: An automated planning platform to interface with Monaco was developed, and our reported tests showed preliminary results for prostate and head and neck cases.


Subject(s)
Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated , Automation , Humans , Male , Monaco , Prostatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Radiotherapy Dosage , Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
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