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EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329648

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has substantially impacted human health globally. Spike-specific antibody response plays a major role in protection against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we demonstrated that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits rapid and robust spike-binding and ACE2-blocking antibody responses, which wane approximately 11 months after infection. Serological responses were found to be correlated with the frequency of spike-specific memory B cell responses to natural infections. Further, significantly higher spike-binding, ACE2-blocking, and memory B cell responses were detected in patients with fever and pneumonia. Spike-specific antibody responses were found to be greatly affected by spike mutations in emerging variants, especially the Beta and Omicron variants. These results warrant continued surveillance of spike-specific antibody responses to natural infections and highlight the importance of maintaining functional anti-spike antibodies through immunization. Importance As spike protein-specific antibody responses play a major role in protection against SARS-CoV-2, we examined the spike-binding and ACE2-blocking antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection at different time points. We found robust responses following acute infection, which waned approximately 11 months after infection. Further, the serological responses were correlated with the frequency of spike-specific memory B cell responses to natural infections. Patients with fever and pneumonia showed significantly stronger spike-binding, ACE2-blocking antibody, and memory B cell responses. Moreover, the spike-specific antibody responses were substantially affected by the emerging variants, especially the Beta and Omicron variants. These results warrant continued surveillance of spike-specific antibody responses to natural infections and highlight the importance of maintaining functional anti-spike antibodies through immunization.

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