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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308165


Background: With the rise of internet usage and the global spread of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, work from home or isolated working style has become a norm and inevitable to both employers and employees. At the same time, existing/traditional performance appraisal methods are inadequate to respond to this working model and require improvements for better competency. Objective: Using holistic events documentary and subsequent statistical report, the performance evidence of appraisees can be produced in a standardized way, so that the raters can conduct the appraisal based on the official release data and relevant statements presented by the ratee. Method: Based on the field survey of members in modern enterprises/ organizations, an activity classification (i.e., Job Breakdown Structure;JBS) is maneuvered under the guidance of the grounded theory. It combines the prior agreement between both parties (employer and employee) by using an activity dictionary, and an on-duty shorthand method is ready for any worker to document their daily efforts. The mentioned recording efforts are to produce a standard diary log and weekly man-hours statistics/reports. Then, statistical data during the social exchange period is generated, and it can be summarized as his/ her Diary-Based Performance Evidence (DBPE), to facilitate the employee to present oneself in any performance appraisal system. Results: The performance evidence-producing method described in this paper is shown to be competent in appraising the isolated workers/ worker from home to defend their efforts with official release statistical data and his/her supplement statements. Conclusions: : With the proposed JBS method, an activity dictionary is used to make a prior agreement between employer and employee. A shorthand method is implemented to facilitate workers, both isolated and work from home, to document their work logs on duty. It is shown to be useful in assisting both the isolated workers and the raters in the performance appraisal process. The proposed method is practical, can easily produce standardize DBPE, and applicable to workers both isolated and work from home, as well as workers of other working styles. Keywords: Job breakdown structure (JBS);Activity dictionary (AD);Participatory performance appraisal system (PPAS);Work from Home (WFH);Diary-based performance evidence (DBPE).

J Clin Invest ; 131(4)2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172781


Alveolar macrophages orchestrate the response to viral infections. Age-related changes in these cells may underlie the differential severity of pneumonia in older patients. We performed an integrated analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq data that revealed homogenous age-related changes in the alveolar macrophage transcriptome in humans and mice. Using genetic lineage tracing with sequential injury, heterochronic adoptive transfer, and parabiosis, we found that the lung microenvironment drove an age-related resistance of alveolar macrophages to proliferation that persisted during influenza A viral infection. Ligand-receptor pair analysis localized these changes to the extracellular matrix, where hyaluronan was increased in aged animals and altered the proliferative response of bone marrow-derived macrophages to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Our findings suggest that strategies targeting the aging lung microenvironment will be necessary to restore alveolar macrophage function in aging.

Aging/immunology , Cellular Microenvironment/immunology , Lung/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Aging/pathology , Animals , Humans , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , RNA-Seq