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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(12): 1789-1794, 2022 Dec 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201079

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate a SARS-CoV-2 epidemic reported in Rongcheng City, Weihai, Shandong Province. Methods: The SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive patients and their close contacts were investigated, and the whole genome sequencing and genetic evolution analysis of 9 variant viruses were carried out. An infection source investigation and analysis were carried out from two sources of home and abroad, and three aspects of human, material and environment. Results: A total of 15 asymptomatic infections were reported in this epidemic, including 13 cases as employees of workshop of aquatic products processing company, with an infection rate of 21.67% (13/60). Two cases were infected people's neighbors in the same village (conjugal relation). The first six positive persons were processing workers engaged in the first process of removing squid viscera in the workshop of the company. The nucleic acid Ct value of the first time were concentrated between 15 and 29, suggesting that the virus load was high, which was suspected to be caused by one-time homologous exposure. The whole genome sequence of 9 SARS-CoV-2 strains was highly homologous, belonging to VOC/Gamma (Lineage P.1.15). No highly homologous sequences were found from previous native and imported cases in China. It was highly homologous with the six virus sequences sampled from May 5 to 26, 2021 uploaded by Chile. The infection source investigation showed that the company had used the squid raw materials captured in the ocean near Chile and Argentina from May to June 2021 over the last 14 days. Many samples of raw materials, products and their outer packages in the inventory were tested positive for nucleic acid. Conclusion: This epidemic is the first local epidemic caused by the VOC/Gamma of SARS-CoV-2 in China. It is speculated that the VOC/Gamma, which was prevalent in South America from May to June 2021, could be imported into China through frozen squid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology
2.
Contemporary Accounts in Drug Discovery and Development ; : 385-420, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2074892

ABSTRACT

The world was struck by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) unexpectedly at the end of 2019. The initial small-scale infection quickly turned into a pandemic that affected every corner of the world. In order to provide adequate treatment to the infected population and curb the spread of the virus, the world united as one in this unprecedented war of humans versus pathogens. Moreover, the world faces a greater challenge in the post-pandemic recovery and prevention of the next pandemic. In this chapter, we leveraged the principles of translational medicine to illustrate the fundamental discoveries and revolutionary technologies in virus detection clinical treatment, and vaccine development. The knowledge and experience garnered will undoubtedly impact and benefit the future of drug discovery and development. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

3.
Leukemia and Lymphoma ; 62(SUPPL 1):S117-S118, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1747039

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor (BTKi) therapy is remarkably effective in a number of B-cell malignancies;however, its continuous use is limited by adverse events (AE) leading to discontinuation. Zanubrutinib is a potent and selective BTKi with the potential to be a safe and effective therapy after intolerance to previous BTKi therapy. Here, we report preliminary results of a phase 2 study of zanubrutinib in patients with B-cell malignancies intolerant to ibrutinib and/or acalabrutinib based on a median follow-up of 6 months. Methods: Patients meeting protocol criteria for intolerance to ibrutinib, acalabrutinib, or both (without documented progressive disease on ibrutinib or acalabrutinib) were given zanubrutinib monotherapy (160mg twice daily or 320mg once daily at investigator's discretion). Recurrence of adverse events that led to intolerance to prior BTKi and additional safety measures were assessed based on the Common Terminology Criteria for AEs v5.0. Investigators determined responses using disease status at study entry as baseline and standard established disease response criteria. Results: As of 1 March 2021 (cutoff), 64 patients (n=48 chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, n=10 Waldenström macroglobulinemia, n=3 mantle cell lymphoma, n=3 marginal zone lymphoma) were enrolled, received ≥1 dose of zanubrutinib, and were analyzed for safety. The median age was 71 y (range, 49-91);the median duration of treatment was 5.9 months (range, 0.6-16.6). The median number of prior regimens was 2 (range, 1-12). Regarding prior BTKi, 55 patients had received ibrutinib monotherapy, eight had received ibrutinib combination therapy, and seven had received acalabrutinib monotherapy. The median number of ibrutinib- or acalabrutinib-intolerant adverse events per patient was 2 (range, 1-5). Most ibrutinib- (75%) and acalabrutinib-intolerant events (75%) did not recur with zanubrutinib (Table 1). A majority (90%) of the recurrent ibrutinib-intolerant events were less severe with zanubrutinib than with ibrutinib. Ibrutinib intolerance events present in >1 patient that did not recur on zanubrutinib were alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate transaminase increased, neutropenia, and pain in extremity. The ibrutinib-intolerant events that recurred were diarrhea, dizziness, insomnia, nausea, constipation, myalgia, stomatitis, arthralgia, headache, muscle spasm, rash, atrial fibrillation, fatigue, hemorrhage, and hypertension. One-third of the recurrent acalabrutinibintolerant events were less severe with zanubrutinib than with acalabrutinib. The acalabrutinib-intolerant events that recurred were myalgia and arthralgia. Two events of arthralgia that induced acalabrutinib intolerance did not recur with zanubrutinib. No ibrutinib- or acalabrutinib-intolerant events recurred at a higher severity while patients were on zanubrutinib. At cutoff, 57 patients remained on treatment;one withdrew consent due to zanubrutinib-unrelated grade 3 syncope. Grade ≥3 adverse events were reported in 14 patients (21.9%), serious adverse events in five patients (7.8%;pain in jaw;COVID-19 pneumonia;anemia;febrile neutropenia and salmonella infection [occurred in the same patient]), adverse events requiring dose interruptions in 15 patients (23.4%), and adverse events leading to dose reduction in three patients (4.7%). Adverse events led to zanubrutinib discontinuation for three patients (4.7%). One death was reported (COVID-19 pneumonia). Among efficacy evaluable patients (n=48), the disease control rate was 89.6% and the overall response rate was 50.0%. Conclusions: In patients with B-cell malignancies intolerant to ibrutinib and/or acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib therapy was effective and controlled patient's disease or induced responses to therapy, and was well-tolerated;most adverse events that led to discontinuation of previous BTKi therapy did not recur while patients were on zanubrutinib.

4.
Blood ; 138:1410, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582348

ABSTRACT

Background: Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors (BTKis) are important tools to treat B-cell malignancies. However, duration of treatment may be limited by adverse events (AEs). Zanubrutinib (zanu) is a BTKi approved for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) and is in development for other hematologic malignancies. Data from phase 3 head-to-head trials of zanu vs ibrutinib (ibr) in pts with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) demonstrated that pts treated with zanu showed lower rates of AEs leading to discontinuation (Blood 2020;136(18):2038-50;EHA 2021 LB1900). Preliminary results from BGB-3111-215 (NCT04116437) show that zanu was well-tolerated in pts who discontinued ibr and/or acalabrutinib (acala) treatment due to AEs (EHA 2021 EP642). Here, we report updated results from the BGB-3111-215 study with a median follow-up of 9 months. Methods: This study is an ongoing US, phase 2, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study. The safety and efficacy of zanu monotherapy (160 mg twice daily or 320 mg once daily) were evaluated in pts with B-cell malignancies who met criteria for continued treatment after having become intolerant to prior BTKi therapy. Pts were divided into cohort 1 (pts who were intolerant to ibr only) and cohort 2 (pts who were intolerant to acala alone/and ibr). Pts with documented progressive disease (PD) on prior BTKi therapy were excluded. Efficacy and safety, including recurrence of intolerant AEs to the prior BTKi, were evaluated. AEs were assessed for severity, seriousness, and relation to zanu;as well as dose reductions, holds, or discontinuations. Response was assessed by investigators based on response criteria for their respective indications (Blood 2008;131:2745;J Clin Oncol 2012;30:2820;J Clin Oncol 2014;32:3059;Br J Haemtol 2013;160:171). Disease parameters from study entry were the baseline for response assessment. Mutational analysis was performed on pts who discontinued treatment, and data will be shared once available. To support clinical findings, kinase selectivity was assessed using Kinome profiling at 100X IC50 (against BTK) for zanu, ibr, acala and its major metabolite, M27 (Reaction Biology Corp). Results: As of 7 June 2021 (data cutoff), 57 pts (n=44 CLL/SLL;n=9 WM;n=2 MCL;n=2 marginal zone lymphoma [MZL]) were enrolled in cohort 1, and 7 pts were enrolled in cohort 2 (n=4 CLL;n=1 WM;n=1 MCL;n=1 MZL). All received ≥1 dose of zanu and were analyzed for safety. The median age was 71 years (range, 49-91) in cohort 1 and 71 years (range, 65-76) in cohort 2;median duration of treatment was 8.7 months (range, 0.6-17.9) in cohort 1 and 8.2 months (range, 6.4-11.4) in cohort 2;median number of prior regimens was 1 (range, 1-12) in cohort 1 and 3 (range, 2-5) in cohort 2. Within cohort 2, 5 pts were intolerant to both ibr and acala. Median number of intolerant events per pt for both cohorts 1 and 2 was 2 (range, 1-5). Overall, 73% of pts did not experience recurrence of their ibr or acala intolerant events and 79% of recurrent events recurred at a lower severity (Figure 1). At cutoff, 54 pts remained on treatment. Reasons for treatment discontinuation were AEs (n=4), PD (n=4), physician's decision (n=1), and consent withdrawal (n=1). Grade ≥3 AEs were reported in 18 pts (28%), and serious AEs occurred in 7 pts (11%). AEs requiring dose interruptions occurred in 17 pts (27%), and AEs leading to dose reduction occurred in 3 pts (5%). One death, due to COVID-19, was reported. Pts demonstrated maintained (41%) and improved (53%) response with zanu treatment from their reported best overall response on prior BTKis for a total disease control rate of 94% (including a 42% partial response rate in pts with CLL/SLL, 30% in pts with WM, and a 20% very good partial response rate in pts with WM). Zanu also demonstrated good selectivity by kinase profiling. It showed >50% inhibition on 7/370 kinases, while ibr, acala, and M27 had more off-target binding (17, 15 and 23 kinases, respectively) at their respective 100X IC50 (BTK) c ncentrations (Figure 2). Conclusion: In pts with B-cell malignancies intolerant to ibr and/or acala, zanu treatment resulted in continued disease control or improved response. Zanu was well-tolerated, and most AEs that led to discontinuation of previous BTKi therapy did not recur or recurred at a lower grade. In support of clinical findings, differentiation between BTKi selectivity profiles favor zanu over ibr and acala. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Shadman: Abbvie, Genentech, AstraZeneca, Sound Biologics, Pharmacyclics, Beigene, Bristol Myers Squibb, Morphosys, TG Therapeutics, Innate Pharma, Kite Pharma, Adaptive Biotechnologies, Epizyme, Eli Lilly, and Atara Biotherapeutics, Adaptimmune: Consultancy;Mustang Bio, Celgene, Bristol Myers Squibb, Pharmacyclics, Gilead, Genentech, Abbvie, TG Therapeutics, Beigene, AstraZeneca, Sunesis, Atara Biotherapeutics, GenMab: Research Funding;Abbvie, Genentech, AstraZeneca, Sound Biologics, Pharmacyclics, Beigene, Bristol Myers Squibb, Morphosys, TG Therapeutics, Innate Pharma, Kite Pharma, Adaptive Biotechnologies, Epizyme, Eli Lilly, and Atara Biotherapeutics, Adaptimmune: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Flinn: Nurix Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Seagen: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;MorphoSys: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Forty Seven: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Calithera Biosciences: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Verastem: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Curis: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Takeda: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Yingli Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;IGM Biosciences: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;AbbVie: Consultancy, Other: All Consultancy and Research Funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Portola Pharmaceuticals: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Trillium Therapeutics: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Rhizen Pharmaceuticals: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Incyte: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Acerta Pharma: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Agios: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Kite, a Gilead Company: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Gilead Sciences: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie Company: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Karyopharm Therapeutics: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Forma Therapeutics: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Genentech: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;ArQule: Other: All research funding payments mad to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Triphase Research & Development Corp.: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Roche: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Pfizer: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Teva: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Infinity Pharmaceuticals: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Unum Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Celgene: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Constellation Pharmaceuticals: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Juno Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Iksuda Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Loxo: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Merck: Other: All research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Novartis: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Great Point Partners: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made toSarah Cannon Research Institute;BeiGene: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;TG Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy and research funding payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Century Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Hutchison MediPharma: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Vincerx Pharma: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Sarah Cannon Research Institute: Current Employment;Servier Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Yingli Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Seagen: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Servier Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute;Unum Therapeutics: Consultancy, Other: All consultancy payments made to Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Research Funding;Johnson & Johnson: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company;Seattle Genetics: Research Funding. Levy: Epizyme: Consultancy, Other: Promotional speaker;Amgen Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;Gilead Sciences, Inc.: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;GSK: Consultancy, Other: Promotional speaker;Morphosys: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;AbbVie: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;Beigene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;AstraZeneca: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Consultancy, Other: Promotional speaker;Dova: Consultancy, Other: Promotional speaker;TG Therapeutics: Co sultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau;Jazz Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Janssen Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Promotional speaker, Speakers Bureau. Burke: SeaGen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;Beigene: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau;MorphoSys: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Epizyme: Consultancy;Verastem: Consultancy;Kura: Consultancy;Kymera: Consultancy;AbbVie: Consultancy;Adaptive Biotechnologies: Consultancy;Roche/Genentech: Consultancy;X4 Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy. Cultrera: Beigene: Research Funding. Yimer: Astrazeneca: Speakers Bureau;Karyopharm: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Speakers Bureau;Janssen: Speakers Bureau;Beigene: Speakers Bureau;GSK: Speakers Bureau;Sanofi: Speakers Bureau;Amgen: Speakers Bureau;Pharmacyclics: Speakers Bureau;Texas Oncology: Current Employment. Chaudhry: Medical Oncology Associates, PS (dba Summit Cancer Centers): Current Employment;Novartis, Immunomedics: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Gandhi: TG Therapeutics: Honoraria;Karyopharm Therapeutics: Honoraria;GlaxoSmithKline: Honoraria. Kingsley: Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada: Current Employment. Tumula: Texas Oncology: Current Employment. Manda: Morphosys: Honoraria;Genmab: Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Chen: BeiGene: Current Employment, Divested equity in a private or publicly-traded company in the past 24 months. Cohen: BeiGene: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company, Other: Travel, Accommodations, Expenses. By: BeiGene, Ltd: Current Employment. Xu: Beigene: Current Employment;AstraZeneca: Ended employment in the past 24 months. Liu: BeiGene Co., Ltd: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Sharman: TG Therapeutics: Consultancy;Centessa: Current holder of stock options in a privately-held company, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie Company: Consultancy;BMS: Consultancy;AbbVie: Consultancy;BeiGene: Consultancy;AstraZeneca: Consultancy;Lilly: Consultancy.

5.
Blood ; 138:3144, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582182

ABSTRACT

Plant-based flavonoids have been examined as inhibitors of β-coronavirus replication and as potential therapeutics for COVID19 based on their safety profile and widespread availability. SARS-CoV-2 viral replication is dependent on a cysteine protease known as 3CL protease, or main protease (Mpro), which cleaves the polyprotein translated from SARS-CoV-2 ssRNA into 11 functional proteins. This protease is highly conserved among β-coronaviruses and is intolerant of mutation. The main protein (Mpro) of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and MERS has been identified as a target of flavonoids both by in silico and in vitro approaches. We have previously showed that select flavonoids inhibit protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is essential for normal thrombosis. These flavonoid PDI inhibitors block thrombus formation in vivo and have shown efficacy as antithrombotics in clinical studies. Given the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by COVID19-associated coagulopathy, we sought to identify a flavonoid that inhibits both SARS-CoV-2 Mpro and PDI, potentially blocking both viral replication and thrombus formation. While in silico studies identified many flavonoids as SARS-CoV-2 main protein (Mpro) inhibitors, no comprehensive in vitro testing of flavonoids against SARS-CoV-2 has previously been performed. We therefore evaluated 1,020 diverse flavonoids using high throughput screening for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Mpro in a fluorescence-based Mpro substrate cleavage assay. This analysis identified four new flavonoid inhibitors of Mpro that had IC 50s ranging from 5-15 µM: amentoflavone, 3,8'-biapigenin, jaceidin triacetate, and pinocembrin 7-O-(3“-galloyl-4”,6“-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl)-beta-D-glucose (PGHG). These compounds were equally or more potent than previously identified flavonoid inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, baicalein and myricetin. Structure activity relationships identified apigenin as an additional Mpro inhibitor. In a Vero-E6-based assay of SARS-CoV-2 replication, PGHG inhibited with an IC 50 = 4.9 µM. At 50 µM, apigenin showed 94±2.1% inhibition and baicalein 65±8.0% inhibition, while myricetin, amentoflavone, and 3,8'-biapigenin did not inhibit viral replication. Jaceidin triacetate was too toxic for further analysis. We next evaluated novel Mpro inhibitors for their ability to inhibit PDI. The most potent PDI inhibitor was PGHG, which blocked PDI reductase activity in an insulin turbidimetric assay with an IC 50 = 3.99±1.14 µM and in a di-eosin-GSSG assay with an IC 50 = 1.50±0.60 µM. When tested against isolated fragments of PDI, PGHG inhibited isolated a and a' fragments as well as ab, b'xa' and abb'x fragments, indicating that it acts on the a and a' domains of PDI. Since PDI is essential for thrombosis, we evaluated whether PGHG blocks platelet accumulation and fibrin formation following vascular injury. We infused mice with 25 mg/kg PGHG or vehicle and subsequently induced thrombus formation via laser-induced injury of an arteriole within the cremaster circulation. Infusion of PGHG resulted in a 82±6.2% inhibition of platelet accumulation and a 79±3.7% inhibition of fibrin formation. In contrast 25 mg/kg had no significant effect on tail bleeding in mice compared to vehicle control. Targeted therapies remain an important component of the armamentarium against COVID19. Our results show that a naturally occurring flavonoid, PGHG, found in Penthorum chinense Pursh, inhibits both SARS-CoV-2 replication and thrombosis without enhancing bleeding. This observation provides proof-of-principle for the development of plant-based flavonoid therapies for inhibition of β-coronaviruses and supports the further evaluation of PGHG for therapeutic use in COVID19. [Formula presented] Disclosures: No relevant conflicts of interest to declare.

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