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1.
Nature communications ; 13(1):7727, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160216

ABSTRACT

The generation time distribution, reflecting the time between successive infections in transmission chains, is a key epidemiological parameter for describing COVID-19 transmission dynamics. However, because exact infection times are rarely known, it is often approximated by the serial interval distribution. This approximation holds under the assumption that infectors and infectees share the same incubation period distribution, which may not always be true. We estimated incubation period and serial interval distributions using 629 transmission pairs reconstructed by investigating 2989 confirmed cases in China in January-February 2020, and developed an inferential framework to estimate the generation time distribution that accounts for variation over time due to changes in epidemiology, sampling biases and public health and social measures. We identified substantial reductions over time in the serial interval and generation time distributions. Our proposed method provides more reliable estimation of the temporal variation in the generation time distribution, improving assessment of transmission dynamics.

2.
Sci Adv ; 8(49):eabq6527, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2152873

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolves to escape natural antibodies, it also loses sensitivity to therapeutic antibody drugs. By contrast, evolution selects for binding to ACE2, the cell-surface receptor required for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consistent with this, we find that an ACE2 decoy neutralizes antibody-resistant variants, including Omicron, with no loss in potency. To identify design features necessary for in vivo activity, we compare several enzymatically inactive, Fc effector-silenced ACE2-Fc decoys. Inclusion of the ACE2 collectrin-like domain not only improves affinity for the S protein but also unexpectedly extends serum half-life and is necessary to reduce disease severity and viral titer in Syrian hamsters. Fc effector function is not required. The activity of ACE2 decoy receptors is due, in part, to their ability to trigger an irreversible structural change in the viral S protein. Our studies provide a new understanding of how ACE2 decoys function and support their development as therapeutics to treat ACE2-dependent coronaviruses.

3.
International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning ; 17(20):34-48, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2143990

ABSTRACT

Hydraulic design is automatically inherent in hydraulic engineering courses, conventional teaching of the Waterway Engineering Design course tends to have limitations such as low participation, poor interactivity, disconnection between theoretical and experimental training, and restriction of experimental design by time and space. To address these needs, a virtual simulation cloud system of Waterway Engineering Design is developed based on outcome-based education. Taking real engineering projects as prototypes, this system adopts virtual reality technology and cloud platform to simulate the scene structure and instrument function with high precision. The multi-model, integrational teaching expands the experimental content, enhances the interactivity of the design process, and provides a high-quality, immersive online learning experience for students. Since its application, the Waterway Engineering Design Virtual Simulation Cloud System has received good feedback from both teachers and students. During the Covid-19 epidemic, it provided significant support for experiments and teaching of the Waterway Engineering Design course and became a pivotal supplement to the existing teaching system. The Waterway Engineering Design Virtual Simulation Cloud System adheres to the “student-centered” teaching principle, builds up students’ ability for independent learning and engineering practice, and facilitates their personal development and training for excellent engineers © 2022, International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning.All Rights Reserved.

4.
Accounting and Finance ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136581

ABSTRACT

Our study examines whether and how increased engagement in social responsibility activities by a firm affects movements in its stock prices during the COVID-19 public health crisis, which is regarded as an exogenous shock to economic ties between focal firms and their customers, employees, and suppliers. We find that corporate social responsibility has an inverted U-shaped relationship with shareholder value. The nonlinear relationship is more dominant at firms with higher cash-flow constraints and weaker cost-adjustment capabilities. Our research also generates meaningful implications for business practices. © 2022 Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand.

5.
2022 Ieee 6th Advanced Information Technology, Electronic and Automation Control Conference (Iaeac) ; : 1363-1367, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2136186

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 that derived from SARS-CoV-2 has brought serious disasters to human society. Especially in places such as hospitals and hotels where are densely populated, the close contact of people is more likely cause the spread of the virus. So in this paper, we develop a novel automatic electromechanical device, i.e. elevator button with disinfection function, for such places. The disinfection principle is mainly from that the far ultraviolet c (UVC as abbreviation) ray has good inactivation effect on SARS-Cov-2, and we use STM32 to control a proposed ratchet mechanism to drive the ultraviolet lamp to disinfect the elevator button when there are few people at night while to work normally in the day time. Finally the experiment verifies that the proposed device can work safely and disinfect virus effectively.

6.
Journal of Endourology ; 36(Supplement 1):A223-A224, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2113966

ABSTRACT

Introduction &Objective: Performing holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) as a same day surgery is a safe and feasible option for the majority of patients. Shortening postoperative hospital stays can minimize patient burden and increase accessibility to surgical care. We present our experience of 155 patients who underwent HoLEP during the pandemic last year. Admissions were limited to patients that required continuous bladder irrigation given the limited surgical bed availability and other restrictions imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic. Method(s): From January 2021 till January 2022, 155 patients have undergone HoLEP surgery in which 135 were discharged on the same day and 20 patients were admitted. Perioperative data were retrospectively collected, and postoperative outcomes at least 2 months after the surgery were evaluated in terms of safety and efficacy and compared in both groups using chi-square and t-test. Multivariable logistic regression was also performed to identify factors associated with postoperative complications. Result(s): The mean age of the same day discharge group (n = 135) is 71.2 (SD = 7.1). The mean prostate specific antigen(ng/dL) and prostate volume(mL) in the same-day discharge group were 5.3 (range 0.16-48.4) and 112.6 (range 52-350), respectively, with 3.7% readmission rate and 9.6% emergency department visit rate. Our same-day discharge rate was 87% of the total patients. Prostate Specific Antigen (P =.001), prostate volume (P <.001), and enucleated tissue weight (P =.04) were significantly higher in the admitted group. There was no difference in the rate of postoperative emergency department visits (P =.80), readmissions (P = 1), postoperative complications, and catheterization time (P =.98) between both groups. Patients using blood thinners had 3.35 (95% CI: 1.24-9.08) greater odds of having postoperative complications. Conclusion(s): Same-day discharge following HoLEP is a safe and effective approach in most patients without an increase in postoperative complications.

7.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101738

ABSTRACT

Issue Tobacco use intersects with the COVID-19 pandemic not only in terms of health consequences, but also on public health systems, economies, and the environment. Description of the problem The global tobacco supply contributes significantly to environmental pollution of the natural ecosystems. The damage is compounded by tobacco consumption and its resultant waste, which leaves a significant carbon footprint on the environment, undermining the planet’s ecological stability and intensifying climate change. Furthermore, tobacco use exacerbates inequalities and adds burdens to COVID-19-related mortality, which are major challenges to recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. Results he pandemic has provided a chance to combat tobacco use and accelerate efforts to alleviate these challenges and accelerate progress toward Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The MPOWER measures from the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) can play an integral part to boost sustainable and equitable COVID-19 recovery — Monitor tobacco use (article 20);Protection from tobacco smoke (article 8);Offer help for tobacco cessation (article 14);Warn about the dangers of tobacco (article 11);Enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) (article13);and Raise tobacco taxes (article 6). Lessons To accelerate recovery, it is critical to call for actions for governments and policy-makers to strengthen synergies and policy actions to emphasise tobacco control across equity, public health, climate actions, and counteract against the tobacco industry during and beyond COVID-19 as global authorities pledge to achieve the SDGs. Key messages • Global authorities must create better synergies on policies with a prime focus on reinforcing tobacco control to recover from the pandemic. • The WHO FCTC MPOWER measures can play an integral part in COVID-19 recovery to fight tobacco use and accelerate progress toward SDGs.

8.
Contemporary Accounts in Drug Discovery and Development ; : 385-420, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2074892

ABSTRACT

The world was struck by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) unexpectedly at the end of 2019. The initial small-scale infection quickly turned into a pandemic that affected every corner of the world. In order to provide adequate treatment to the infected population and curb the spread of the virus, the world united as one in this unprecedented war of humans versus pathogens. Moreover, the world faces a greater challenge in the post-pandemic recovery and prevention of the next pandemic. In this chapter, we leveraged the principles of translational medicine to illustrate the fundamental discoveries and revolutionary technologies in virus detection clinical treatment, and vaccine development. The knowledge and experience garnered will undoubtedly impact and benefit the future of drug discovery and development. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

9.
Meteorological Applications ; 29(5), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068579

ABSTRACT

Laboratory experiments have revealed the meteorological sensitivity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus. However, no consensus has been reached about how outdoor meteorological conditions modulate the virus transmission as it is also constrained by non-meteorological conditions. Here, we identify the outbreak's evolution stage, constrained least by non-meteorological conditions, by searching the maximum correlation coefficient between the ultraviolet flux and the growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases at the country level. At this least-constrained stage, the cumulative cases count around 1300-3200, and the count's daily growth rate correlates with the ultraviolet flux and temperature significantly (correlation coefficients r = -0.54 +/- 0.09 and -0.39 +/- 0.10 at p<0.01$$ p, respectively), but not with precipitation, humidity, and wind. The ultraviolet correlation exhibits a delay of about 7 days, providing a meteorological measure of the incubation period. Our work reveals a seasonality of COVID-19 and a high risk of a pandemic resurgence in winter, implying a need for seasonal adaption in public policies.

10.
AI-Enabled Agile Internet of Things for Sustainable FinTech Ecosystems ; : 106-146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024505

ABSTRACT

Digital economy using internet, cloud computing, big data, as well as fintech in order to drive economic activities using digital information as a key factor for production has permeated all aspects of society as a result of unexpected onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, a white paper titled "The Development and Employment of China's Digital Economy in 2021" was released by The China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT), analyzing the development pattern of China's digital economy since the onset of COVID-19. This chapter summarizes the development of digital economy, the employment situation in various regions and industries in China, thereby making an in-depth analysis of the digital transformation of traditional industries along with putting forward policy suggestions for promoting further development of China's digital economy. Since the onset of COVID-19, China's digital and smart economy has ushered in creating new opportunities for growth and development as well as simultaneously combatting challenges in the macro environment. © 2022, IGI Global. All rights reserved.

11.
Aip Advances ; 12(8), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2004829

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic imposes a severe challenge to the health care providers and patients in dental clinics as the dental procedures produce abundant airborne materials. Although dental practices use a multi-layered protective procedure to reduce the potential danger from dental aerosols, it is still beneficial to suppress the aerosol generation from the origin as much as possible. Reducing the aerosol generation (especially the droplets of smaller diameters) from the very beginning will ease the burden on all subsequent layers of protection. In this work, we first provide a relatively complete picture of the structure of the spray produced by the air turbine handpiece. We found that the spray consists of two domains: one is the canopy shaped centrifugal zone and the other is a dense ballistic spray core. The droplets from the centrifugal zone are much smaller than those of the spray core and, hence, are more prone to stay in the air. The location of the centrifugal zone also makes it more challenging to be contained by the mouth or rubber dam. To suppress the atomization of the centrifugal zone, we used the food-additive carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC-Na) water solutions of different concentrations. The data show that the viscoelastic property of the 0.5 wt. % CMC-Na water solution can effectively suppress the aerosol generation of the centrifugal zone. (C) 2022 Author(s).

12.
Indoor and Built Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997264

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has alerted us about the need to quantify the effect of different environmental factors on the concentration distribution of bioaerosols. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of environmental factors, including air temperature, relative humidity, airflow speed and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, on the potential dispersion risk of bioaerosols in an enclosed space by tracking the Serratia marcescens as the tiny organisms. Research results indicated that the concentration of bioaerosols is the highest at the indoor air temperature of 25°C among the tested conditions (20°C, 25°C, 30°C and 35°C). The particle size of bioaerosols can be influenced by temperature, resulting in changes in the amount of settling. Increasing relative humidity from 50% to 80% and airflow speed from 1.5 m/s to 2.2 m/s have a negative impact on the dispersion of bioaerosols as the amount of particle settlement increases accordingly. As for the UV radiation parameters, a better disinfection efficiency was achieved at a radiation distance of 40 cm in the tested range of 20–50 cm and a radiation exposure time of 30 min in the tested range of 10–50 min. This study delivered novel data for the concentration distribution of bioaerosol under different environmental factors for creating a safe indoor environment.

13.
Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992476

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic has posed severe challenges to infrastructure construction in China. Particularly, the complex technology and high process uncertainty of deep foundation pit construction make its safety risk identification a challenging issue of general concern. To address these challenges, Building Information Modeling (BIM) can be used as an important tool to enhance communication and decision-making among stakeholders during the pandemic. The purpose of this study is to propose a knowledge management and BIM-integrated safety risk identification method for deep foundation pit construction to improve the management efficiency of project participants. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes a risk identification method that integrates BIM and knowledge management for deep foundation pit construction. In the framework of knowledge management, the topological relationships between objects in BIM are extracted and visualized in the form of knowledge mapping. After that, formal expressions of codes are established to realize the structured processing of specification provisions and special construction requirements. A comprehensive plug-in for deep foundation pit construction is designed based on the BIM software. Findings: The proposed method was verified by taking a sub-project in deep foundation pit project construction as an example. The result showed the new method can make full use of the existing specification and special engineering requirements knowledge. In addition, the developed visual BIM plug-in proves the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method, which can help to increase the risk identification efficiency and refinement. Originality/value: The deep foundation pit safety risk identification is challenged by the confusion of deep foundation pit construction safety knowledge and the complexity of the BIM model. By establishing the standardized expression of normative knowledge and special construction requirements, the efficiency and refinement of risk identification are improved while ensuring the comprehensiveness of results. Moreover, the topology-based risk identification method focuses on the project objects and their relations in the way of network, eliminating the problem of low efficiency from the direct BIM-based risk identification method due to massive data. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

14.
Big Data Mining and Analytics ; 5(4):318-338, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1988911

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still raging (in year 2021) in many countries worldwide. Various response strategies to study the characteristics and distributions of the virus in various regions of the world have been developed to assist in the prevention and control of this epidemic. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis on COVID-19 data from different countries were conducted in this study to compare and evaluate various regression models. Results showed that the extreme random forest regression (ERFR) model had the best performance, and factors such as population density, ozone, median age, life expectancy, and Human Development Index (HDI) were relatively influential on the spread and diffusion of COVID-19 in the ERFR model. In addition, the epidemic clustering characteristics were analyzed through the spectral clustering algorithm. The visualization results of spectral clustering showed that the geographical distribution of global COVID-19 pandemic spread formation was highly clustered, and its clustering characteristics and influencing factors also exhibited some consistency in distribution. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the international community regarding the global COVID-19 pandemic to develop measures for countries worldwide to mitigate potential large-scale outbreaks and improve the ability to respond to such public health emergencies. © 2018 Tsinghua University Press.

15.
Sustainability ; 14(14):13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1979365

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic impacts our lives significantly;people have changed their daily lives in response to the unprecedented epidemic which not only awakened the arrival of a new normal in business, but also new lifestyles. For example, the adaptation of contactless mobile payment has grown in the past two years to avoid unnecessary contact and possible infections. In this study, we intend to examine behavioral intentions that made consumers shift from traditional cash payment to mobile payment during the COVID-19 period. Our research framework and hypotheses were developed and examined through the push (dissatisfaction)-pull (alternative attractiveness)-mooring (perceived fear) model. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to validate our model and corresponding hypotheses. The results of this study showed that dissatisfaction with tradition-al payments and customer's perceived fears positively and significantly affected switching intentions. However, alternative attractiveness had no significant impact on consumers' switching intentions from cash to mobile payments during the pandemic. Moreover, this study shows how perceived fear has a mediating effect that motivates people to change their payment behaviors. Implications and future research directions about consumers changing in such a dynamic time are also discussed.

16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 34(6):561-570, 2022.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974966

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 epidemic is still in a pandemic state. Aging population with underlying diseases is prone to become severe, and have a higher mortality. The treatment capacity of the critical care department directly determines the treatment success rate of critical illness. At present, there is still a certain gap between domestic and foreign countries in intensive care unit (ICU), which is not only in the allocation of medical staff, but also in the beds and settings. The current medical model cannot fully meet the needs of development. The experience and lessons of many major public health emergencies suggested that "dual track of peace and war" approach in discipline construction of critical care is the best medical model. Following the concept of "combination of peace and war", strengthening the discipline construction of critical care department in municipal and district designated hospitals, allocating reasonable standard ICU, step-down ICU and combat readiness ICU, establishing rapid response team, and strengthening regular training and scientific management may be the key measures to deal with the epidemic.

18.
ETHIOPIAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH DEVELOPMENT ; 35(4), 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935332

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus pandemic has resulted in an extreme challenge for humanity in recent times, like the challenges faced during World War II. Its origin has been pointed out, and the speculation made on its source directly points towards Wuhan in China. Since then, it has spread across the globe. The pandemic has resulted in more than one million deaths, which is a considerable challenge for humanity. Objective: With the pandemic of COVID-19, prevention of patient infection is crucial. This research focused on the orthopedic operating room nursing model effect based on evidence-based nursing and PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-act) cycle during the COVID-19 outbreak. Materials and Methods: From February 2020 to May 2020, 146 patients were admitted and received orthopedic surgery at Xuanwu Chunshu Hospital, Beijing, China, these admissions were grouped into control and intervention groups, which was based on the treatment provided. Satisfaction, time to bed and hospitalization, postoperative incision infection, and the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis of lower extremities, pain degree score, surgical treatment effect, anxiety, and depression scores were compared for all the admissions between the control and intervention groups. Results: In the control group, nursing satisfaction was less than in the intervention group. The time of getting out of bed and hospitalization was less in the intervention group;The total incidence of postoperative incision infection and lower limb deep vein thrombosis in the intervention group decreased. In the first postoperative day, the pain level in the intervention group was less than the control group. The effectiveness rate in the observation group is higher than that of the control group. Anxiety and depression scores of both groups tended to decrease with time and there was an interactive effect between grouping and time, where these differences were found to be statistically significant (P-value<0.05). Conclusion: The clinical application of the orthopedics operating room nursing model based on evidence-based nursing and PDCA cycle is remarkable and worth implementing during the COVID-19 outbreak.

19.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927709

ABSTRACT

Rationale There is a lack of knowledge of how CFTR-deficient airway epithelium intrinsically responds to SARS-CoV-2. Though prior work has demonstrated altered CF airway expression of viral entry factors, it is unknown whether these alterations are protective and whether they reflect host genetic variation or secondary response of chronic inflammation. We address this gap by infecting induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived airways from CF patients and syngeneic CFTR-corrected controls with SARS-CoV-2 and assessing differential susceptibility to infection and inflammatory and anti-viral response. MethodsCF (F508del homozygous) and syngeneic CFTR-corrected (CRISPR-Cas9) iPSC- were differentiated into airway epithelium cultured at airliquid interface (ALI) by a directed differentiation protocol that generates a pure population of major and rare airway cell-types. After 21 days in ALI culture, the iPSC-airway were infected with either mock or SARS-CoV-2 (isolate USA-WA1/2020) with MOI of 4, and harvested at 0, 1, 3 days post infection (dpi) for RT-PCR and immune-stainingResultsBoth CF and CFTR-corrected iPSC-airway express viral entry factors of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. CF iPSC-airway exhibited significantly increase in SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N) transcript at 1 dpi, accompanied by increases in IFN2, RSAD2, and CXCL10 at 3 dpi, compared to its CFTR-corrected counter-part. There are no baseline significant differences in ACE2, TMPRSS2, TP63, NGFR, MUC5B, MUC5AC, SCGB1A1, FOXJ1, FOXI1 expression between CF and CFTR-corrected iPSC-airway before SARS-CoV-2 infection. ConclusionsOur preliminary studies indicate increased early SARS-CoV-2 infection in CFTR-deficient epithelium with accompanied subsequent rise in anti-viral and inflammatory response compared to its genetically controlled CFTR-corrected counterpart. Future studies are aimed at assessing differential CF epithelial kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and replication, morphological changes, global transcriptomic response, and how treatment with CFTRmodulator would alter the epithelial response. Ultimately, we aim to establish a reductionist, physiologically relevant model system that is coupled with gene-editing technology to study intrinsic CF epithelial response to SARS-CoV-2, which would generate insights to aid practice guidelines for CF patients, and open future directions to evaluate gene-specific mechanisms of airway response to pathogens. (Figure Presented).

20.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880821
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