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1.
Cell Rep ; 38(2): 110205, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588142

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous mutations introduce uncertainty into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control procedures and vaccine development. Here, we perform a spatiotemporal analysis on intra-host single-nucleotide variants (iSNVs) in 402 clinical samples from 170 affected individuals, which reveals an increase in genetic diversity over time after symptom onset in individuals. Nonsynonymous mutations are overrepresented in the pool of iSNVs but underrepresented at the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, suggesting a two-step fitness selection process: a large number of nonsynonymous substitutions are generated in the host (positive selection), and these substitutions tend to be unfixed as SNPs in the population (negative selection). Dynamic iSNV changes in subpopulations with different gender, age, illness severity, and viral shedding time displayed a varied fitness selection process among populations. Our study highlights that iSNVs provide a mutational pool shaping the rapid global evolution of the virus.

2.
J Mol Biol ; : 167438, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587211

ABSTRACT

Recognition of viral infections by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates an inflammatory cytokine response that inhibits viral replication and orchestrates the activation of adaptive immune responses to control the viral infection. The broadly active innate immune response puts a strong selective pressure on viruses and drives the selection of variants with increased capabilities to subvert the induction and function of antiviral cytokines. This revolutionary process dynamically shapes the host ranges, cell tropism and pathogenesis of viruses. Recent studies on the innate immune responses to the infection of human coronaviruses (HCoV), particularly SARS-CoV-2, revealed that HCoV infections can be sensed by endosomal toll-like receptors and/or cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors in various cell types. However, the profiles of inflammatory cytokines and transcriptome response induced by a specific HCoV are usually cell type specific and determined by the virus-specific mechanisms of subverting the induction and function of interferons and inflammatory cytokines as well as the genetic trait of the host genes of innate immune pathways. We review herein the recent literatures on the innate immune responses and their roles in the pathogenesis of HCoV infections with emphasis on the pathobiological roles and therapeutic effects of type I interferons in HCoV infections and their antiviral mechanisms. The knowledge on the mechanism of innate immune control of HCoV infections and viral evasions should facilitate the development of therapeutics for induction of immune resolution of HCoV infections and vaccines for efficient control of COVID-19 pandemics and other HCoV infections.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572678

ABSTRACT

The administration of COVID-19 vaccines is the primary strategy used to prevent further infections by COVID-19, especially in people living with HIV (PLWH), who are at increased risk for severe symptoms and mortality. However, the vaccine hesitancy, safety, and immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines among PLWH have not been fully characterized. We estimated vaccine hesitancy and status of COVID-19 vaccination in Chinese PLWH, explored the safety and impact on antiviral therapy (ART) efficacy and compared the immunogenicity of an inactivated vaccine between PLWH and healthy controls (HC). In total, 27.5% (104/378) of PLWH hesitated to take the vaccine. The barriers included concerns about safety and efficacy, and physician counselling might help patients overcome this vaccine hesitancy. A COVID-19 vaccination did not cause severe side effects and had no negative impact on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV RNA viral load. Comparable spike receptor binding domain IgG titer were elicited in PLWH and HC after a second dose of the CoronaVac vaccine, but antibody responses were lower in poor immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts < 350 cells/µL) compared with immunological responders (CD4+ T cell counts ≥ 350 cells/µL). These data showed that PLWH have comparable safety and immune response following inactivated COVID-19 vaccination compared with HC, but the poor immunological response in PLWH is associated with impaired humoral response.

5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 8(4): nwab006, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254806

ABSTRACT

After a short recovery period, COVID-19 reinfections could occur in convalescent patients, even those with measurable levels of neutralizing antibodies. Effective vaccinations and protective public health measures are recommended for the convalescent COVID-19 patients.

6.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032849

ABSTRACT

Fear is a negative emotional reaction to or persistent worry over an imminent public health event like COVID-19. The COVID-Fear Scale was developed in many countries, but not in China. The current study aims to examine the psychometric properties of Chinese version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Translation into Chinese and back-translation into English were conducted firstly. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were conducted in Sample 1, followed by validity tests in Sample 2. Likely, test-retest reliability was conducted in sample 3. A bifactor structure of Chinese version of FCV-19S with a general fear factor and two orthogonal group factors with fear thoughts and physical response was confirmed. Besides, it has good internal consistency reliability (α = .92), composite reliability (CR = .92), and validity correlation validity. The results of the present study confirmed that the Chinese version of FCV-19S has good psychometric properties in the Chinese communities. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11469-020-00441-7.

7.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-803471

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented global public health and economic crisis. The origin and emergence of its causal agent, SARS-CoV-2, in the human population remains mysterious, although bat and pangolin were proposed to be the natural reservoirs. Strikingly, unlike the SARS-CoV-2-like coronaviruses (CoVs) identified in bats and pangolins, SARS-CoV-2 harbors a polybasic furin cleavage site in its spike (S) glycoprotein. SARS-CoV-2 uses human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its receptor to infect cells. Receptor recognition by the S protein is the major determinant of host range, tissue tropism, and pathogenesis of coronaviruses. In an effort to search for the potential intermediate or amplifying animal hosts of SARS-CoV-2, we examined receptor activity of ACE2 from 14 mammal species and found that ACE2s from multiple species can support the infectious entry of lentiviral particles pseudotyped with the wild-type or furin cleavage site-deficient S protein of SARS-CoV-2. ACE2 of human/rhesus monkey and rat/mouse exhibited the highest and lowest receptor activities, respectively. Among the remaining species, ACE2s from rabbit and pangolin strongly bound to the S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 S protein and efficiently supported the pseudotyped virus infection. These findings have important implications for understanding potential natural reservoirs, zoonotic transmission, human-to-animal transmission, and use of animal models.IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 uses human ACE2 as a primary receptor for host cell entry. Viral entry mediated by the interaction of ACE2 with spike protein largely determines host range and is the major constraint to interspecies transmission. We examined the receptor activity of 14 ACE2 orthologs and found that wild-type and mutant SARS-CoV-2 lacking the furin cleavage site in S protein could utilize ACE2 from a broad range of animal species to enter host cells. These results have important implications in the natural hosts, interspecies transmission, animal models, and molecular basis of receptor binding for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Animal Diseases/metabolism , Animal Diseases/virology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pandemics/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Host Specificity , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Proteolysis , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1567-1579, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-707709

ABSTRACT

Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have been identified from bats and other animal species. Like SARS-CoV, some bat SL-CoVs, such as WIV1, also use angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) from human and bat as entry receptor. However, whether these viruses can also use the ACE2 of other animal species as their receptor remains to be determined. We report herein that WIV1 has a broader tropism to ACE2 orthologs than SARS-CoV isolate Tor2. Among the 9 ACE2 orthologs examined, human ACE2 exhibited the highest efficiency to mediate the infection of WIV1 pseudotyped virus. Our findings thus imply that WIV1 has the potential to infect a wide range of wild animals and may directly jump to humans. We also showed that cell entry of WIV1 could be restricted by interferon-induced transmembrane proteins (IFITMs). However, WIV1 could exploit the airway protease TMPRSS2 to partially evade the IFITM3 restriction. Interestingly, we also found that amphotericin B could enhance the infectious entry of SARS-CoVs and SL-CoVs by evading IFITM3-mediated restriction. Collectively, our findings further underscore the risk of exposure to animal SL-CoVs and highlight the vulnerability of patients who take amphotericin B to infection by SL-CoVs, including the most recently emerging (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Chiroptera/virology , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Rats , Receptors, Coronavirus , SARS Virus/physiology , Viverridae
9.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639615

ABSTRACT

C3A is a subclone of the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cell line with strong contact inhibition of growth. We fortuitously found that C3A was more susceptible to human coronavirus HCoV-OC43 infection than HepG2, which was attributed to the increased efficiency of virus entry into C3A cells. In an effort to search for the host cellular protein(s) mediating the differential susceptibility of the two cell lines to HCoV-OC43 infection, we found that ArfGAP with dual pleckstrin homology (PH) domains 2 (ADAP2), gamma-interferon-inducible lysosome/endosome-localized thiolreductase (GILT), and lymphocyte antigen 6 family member E (LY6E), the three cellular proteins identified to function in interference with virus entry, were expressed at significantly higher levels in HepG2 cells. Functional analyses revealed that ectopic expression of LY6E, but not GILT or ADAP2, in HEK 293 cells inhibited the entry of HCoV-O43. While overexpression of LY6E in C3A and A549 cells efficiently inhibited the infection of HCoV-OC43, knockdown of LY6E expression in HepG2 significantly increased its susceptibility to HCoV-OC43 infection. Moreover, we found that LY6E also efficiently restricted the entry mediated by the envelope spike proteins of other human coronaviruses, including the currently pandemic SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, overexpression of serine protease TMPRSS2 or amphotericin treatment significantly neutralized the IFN-inducible transmembrane 3 (IFITM3) restriction of human coronavirus (CoV) entry, but did not compromise the effect of LY6E on the entry of human coronaviruses. The work reported herein thus demonstrates that LY6E is a critical antiviral immune effector that controls CoV infection and pathogenesis via a mechanism distinct from other factors that modulate CoV entry.IMPORTANCE Virus entry into host cells is one of the key determinants of host range and cell tropism and is subjected to the control of host innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last decade, several interferon-inducible cellular proteins, including IFITMs, GILT, ADAP2, 25CH, and LY6E, had been identified to modulate the infectious entry of a variety of viruses. Particularly, LY6E was recently identified as a host factor that facilitates the entry of several human-pathogenic viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, influenza A virus, and yellow fever virus. Identification of LY6E as a potent restriction factor of coronaviruses expands the biological function of LY6E and sheds new light on the immunopathogenesis of human coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Surface/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Virus Internalization , Amino Acid Sequence , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility , Evolution, Molecular , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Protein Sorting Signals , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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