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1.
World J Pediatr ; 17(6): 590-596, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A series of public health preventive measures has been widely implemented in Beijing to control the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic since January 2020. An evaluation of the effects of these preventive measures on the spread of other respiratory viruses is necessary. METHODS: Respiratory specimens collected from children with acute respiratory infections were tested by NxTAG™ respiratory pathogen panel assays during January 2017 and December 2020. Specimens characterized as rhinoviruses (RVs) were sequenced to identify the RV species and types. Then, the epidemiology results of respiratory pathogens in 2020 were compared with those from 2017 to 2019 using SPSS statistics 22.0. RESULTS: The positive rates of adenovirus (ADV), influenza virus (flu), RVs, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) dropped abruptly by 86.31%, 94.67%, 94.59%, and 92.17%, respectively, from February to May 2020, compared with the average level in the same period during 2017-2019. Positive rates of RVs then steeply increased from June 2020 (13.77%), to an apex (37.25%) in August 2020, significantly higher than the average rates (22.51%) in August 2017-2019 (P = 0.005). The increase, especially in group ≥ 3 years, was accompanied by the reopening of schools and kindergartens after the 23rd and 24th week of 2020 in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the abrupt drop in viral pathogen positive rates from February to May 2020 revealed the remarkable effects of the COVID-19 preventive measures, the sharp increase in positive rates of RVs from the 23rd week of 2020 might be explained by the reopening of schools and kindergartens in Beijing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections , Beijing/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Rhinovirus , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470866

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of public health measures in containing an infectious disease largely depends on how the general public is taking the prevention practices in daily lives. Previous studies have shown that different risk perceptions and sociodemographic characteristics may lead to vastly different prevention behaviors. This paper applies a temporal perspective in examining the changing patterns of prevention practices over time and their dynamic relationships with the perceived risk towards COVID-19 and its individual characteristics. Three key timelines (February, April, and June of 2020) were identified to represent the early, lockdown, and reopening stages of the first wave. Data were drawn from an online survey conducted in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) of Canada (n = 470). Chi-square tests and logistic regression models revealed important temporal patterns in practicing different hygienic and mobility-related prevention measures and the respondents' risk perceptions during the three timelines. The factors predicting the level of prevention practices vary across the three timelines, based on the specific type of prevention, and within the changing public health contexts. This study contributes to the literature on COVID-19 by incorporating a temporal perspective in conceptualizing prevention predictors. It provides crucial insights for developing timely public health strategies to improve infectious disease prevention at different stages and for individuals with varying backgrounds.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24120, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evaluating the effectiveness and safety of external treatment of traditional Chinese medicine therapy for COVID-19 with diarrhea is the primary purpose of this systematic evaluation program. METHODS: We will search the randomized controlled trials from inception to November 2020. The following database is our focus area: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), VIP database for Chinese technical Periodicals, and Wanfang Database. We will choose articles published both in Chinese and English. Two reviewers will conduct the study selection, data extraction, and assessment independently. The assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis will be carried out using Review Manager Software V.5.3. RESULTS: The results will provide high-quality synthesis of current evidence for researchers in this subject area. CONCLUSION: This studys decision will provide evidence of whether external treatment of traditional Chinese medicine is an effective and safe intervention for coronavirus disease 2019 with diarrhea. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020110095 (DOI number: 10.37766/inplasy2020.11.0095).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea/virology , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Research Design , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biomolecules ; 10(8)2020 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-823584

ABSTRACT

Neurodegenerative diseases are the second most common cause of death and characterized by progressive impairments in movement or mental functioning in the central or peripheral nervous system. The prevention of neurodegenerative disorders has become an emerging public health challenge for our society. Melatonin, a pineal hormone, has various physiological functions in the brain, including regulating circadian rhythms, clearing free radicals, inhibiting biomolecular oxidation, and suppressing neuroinflammation. Cumulative evidence indicates that melatonin has a wide range of neuroprotective roles by regulating pathophysiological mechanisms and signaling pathways. Moreover, melatonin levels are decreased in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the regulation, molecular mechanisms and biological functions of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, vascular dementia and multiple sclerosis. We also discuss the clinical application of melatonin in neurodegenerative disorders. This information will lead to a better understanding of the regulation of melatonin in the brain and provide therapeutic options for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
Circadian Rhythm , Melatonin/physiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Alzheimer Disease/metabolism , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/metabolism , Animals , Circadian Rhythm/drug effects , Dementia, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Huntington Disease/metabolism , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/metabolism , Neurodegenerative Diseases/drug therapy , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Parkinson Disease/metabolism
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