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1.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 368, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837197

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died.DesignRetrospective case series.SettingTongji Hospital in Wuhan, China.ParticipantsAmong a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020.Main outcome measuresClinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms.ResultsThe median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83;73%) than in recovered patients (88;55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113;100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35;51%), sepsis (113;100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94;77%), heart failure (41/83;49%), alkalosis (14/35;40%), hyperkalaemia (42;37%), acute kidney injury (28;25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23;20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients.ConclusionSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

3.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 57, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702971

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that poses a major threat to global public health. Although COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, causing severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in severe cases, it can also result in multiple extrapulmonary complications. The pathogenesis of extrapulmonary damage in patients with COVID-19 is probably multifactorial, involving both the direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 and the indirect mechanisms associated with the host inflammatory response. Recognition of features and pathogenesis of extrapulmonary complications has clinical implications for identifying disease progression and designing therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of the extrapulmonary complications of COVID-19 from immunological and pathophysiologic perspectives and focuses on the pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets for the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Lymphopenia/complications , Myocarditis/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/immunology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lymphopenia/drug therapy , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/virology , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/immunology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324815

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel SARS-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) entry depends on the host membrane serine protease TMPRSS2, which can be blocked by some clinically-proven drugs. Here we analyzed spatial relevance between glycosylation sequons and antibody epitopes and found that, different from SARS-CoV S, most high-surface-accessible epitopes of SARS-CoV-2 S are blocked by the glycosylation, and the optimal epitope with the highest surface accessibility is covered by the S1 cap. TMPRSS2 inhibitor treatments may prevent unmasking of this epitope and therefore prolong virus clearance and may induce antibody-dependent enhancement. Interestingly, a heparin-binding sequence immediately upstream of the S1/S2 cleavage site has been found in SARS-CoV-2 S but not in SARS-CoV S. Binding of SARS-CoV-2 with heparins may lead to exposure of S686, which then facilitates the S1/S2 cleavage, induces exposure of the optimal epitope, and therefore increases the antibody titres. A combination of heparin and vaccine (or convalescent serum) treatments thus is recommended.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318625

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19,which pathogen virus officially named SARS-CoV-2, started in China Wuhan city and so far rapidly spread to a global outbreak. Since the lung is the main lesion organ for virus invasion, Chest CT is strongly recommended in COVID-19 on either initial diagnosis and follow-up.Multiple patchy shadows and ground glass opacity of bilateral lung are typical features of CT scan,and spontaneous pneumothorax appeared in the early onset of COVID-19 is rare. Case Presentation: We reported one case of spontaneous pneumothorax in the early onset of COVID-19, chest CT showed only a small amount of pneumothorax were seen in the right lobe.After receiving 4 days of treatment, re-examination chest CT shows right pneumothorax disappeared, but the patient was clinically worse, and progressive multiple diffuse consolidation. Although treatment with extracorporeal membrane oxygenator,the patient died 15 days after admission. Conclusion: Spontaneous pneumothorax in the early stages of COVID-19 is rare,which imaging features differ from other lung diseases complicated with pneumothorax,such as COPD.More than we usually know,the improvement of pneumothorax and the outcome of COVID-19 may be inconsistent.

6.
mSphere ; 7(1): e0088321, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673356

ABSTRACT

Considering the urgent demand for faster methods to quantify neutralizing antibody titers in patients with coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19), developing an analytical model or method to replace the conventional virus neutralization test (NT) is essential. Moreover, a "COVID-19 immunity passport" is currently being proposed as a certification for people who travel internationally. Therefore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies in serum, which is based on the binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein 1 (S1) and the viral spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) to antibodies. The RBD is considered the major binding region of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, S1 covers the RBD and several other regions, which are also important for neutralizing antibody binding. In this study, we assessed 144 clinical specimens, including those from patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and healthy donors, using both the NT and ELISA. The ELISA results analyzed by spline regression and the two-variable generalized additive model precisely reflected the NT value, and the correlation between predicted and actual NT values was as high as 0.917. Therefore, our method serves as a surrogate to quantify neutralizing antibody titer. The analytic method and platform used in this study present a new perspective for serological testing of SARS-CoV-2 infection and have clinical potential to assess vaccine efficacy. IMPORTANCE Herein, we present a new approach for serological testing for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using innovative laboratory methods that demonstrate a combination of biology and mathematics. The traditional virus neutralization test is the gold standard method; however, it is time-consuming and poses a risk to medical personnel. Thus, there is a demand for methods that rapidly quantify neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 or examine vaccine efficacy at a biosafety level 2 containment facility. Therefore, we used a two-variable generalized additive model to analyze the results of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found the method to serve as a surrogate to quantify neutralizing antibody titers. This methodology has potential for clinical use in assessing vaccine efficacy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Models, Immunological , Models, Statistical , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Regression Analysis
7.
Vaccine ; 40(13): 2068-2075, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is the target for many COVID-19 vaccines. Here we report results for phase I clinical trial of two COVID-19 vaccine candidates based on recombinant dimeric RBD (d-RBD). METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, phase I clinical trial in the National Centre of Toxicology in Havana. Sixty Cuban volunteers aged 19-59 years were randomized into three groups (20 subjects each): 1) FINLAY-FR-1 (50 µg d-RBD plus outer membrane vesicles from N. meningitidis); 2) FINLAY-FR-1A-50 (50 µg d-RBD, three doses); 3) FINLAY-FR-1A-25 (25 µg d-RDB, three doses). The FINLAY-FR-1 group was randomly divided to receive a third dose of the same vaccine candidate (homologous schedule) or FINLAY-FR-1A-50 (heterologous schedule). The primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity. Humoral response at baseline and following each vaccination was evaluated using live-virus neutralization test, anti-RBD IgG ELISA and in-vitro neutralization test of RBD:hACE2 interaction. RESULTS: Most adverse events were of mild intensity (63.5%), solicited (58.8%), and local (61.8%); 69.4% with causal association with vaccination. Serious adverse events were not found. The FINLAY-FR-1 group reported more subjects with adverse events than the other two groups. After the third dose, anti-RBD seroconversion was 100%, 94.4% and 90% for the FINLAY-FR-1, FINLAY-FR-1A-50 and FINLAY-FR-1A-25 respectively. The in-vitro inhibition of RBD:hACE2 interaction increased after the second dose in all formulations. The geometric mean neutralizing titres after the third dose rose significantly in the group vaccinated with FINLAY-FR-1 with respect to the other formulations and the COVID-19 Convalescent Serum Panel. No differences were found between FINLAY-FR-1 homologous or heterologous schedules. CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine candidates were safe and immunogenic, and induced live-virus neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. The highest values were obtained when outer membrane vesicles were used as adjuvant. TRIAL REGISTRY: https://rpcec.sld.cu/en/trials/RPCEC00000338-En.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Young Adult
8.
RSC Chem Biol ; 3(2): 242-249, 2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621286

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection is mediated by the interaction of the spike glycoprotein trimer via its receptor-binding domain (RBD) with the host's cellular receptor. Vaccines seek to block this interaction by eliciting neutralizing antibodies, most of which are directed toward the RBD. Many protein subunit vaccines require powerful adjuvants to generate a potent antibody response. Here, we report on the use of a SARS-CoV-2 dimeric recombinant RBD combined with Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), adsorbed on alum, as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate. This formulation induces a potent and neutralizing immune response in laboratory animals, which is higher than that of the dimeric RBD alone adsorbed on alum. Sera of people vaccinated with this vaccine candidate, named Soberana01, show a high inhibition level of the RBD-ACE2 interaction using RBD mutants corresponding to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and wild-type expressed using the phage display technology. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the immunostimulation effect of N. meningitidis OMVs is evaluated in vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293139

ABSTRACT

Background: SOBERANA 02 is a COVID19 conjugate vaccine candidate based on SARS CoV2 recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid. SOBERANA Plus antigen is dimericRBD. Here we report safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity from phase I and IIa clinical trials using two doses SOBERANA 02 (homologous protocol) and three doses (homologous) or heterologous (with SOBERANA Plus) protocols. Method We performed an open label, monocentric, sequential and adaptive phase I for evaluating safety, reactogenicity and exploring immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02 in two formulations (15 and 25 microg) in 40 subjects, 19 to 59 years old. Phase IIa was open label including 100 volunteers 19 to 80 years, receiving two doses of SOBERANA 02 25 microg. In both trials, half of volunteers received a third dose of SOBERANA 02, half received a heterologous dose of SOBERANA Plus 50 microg. Primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity evaluated by anti RBD IgG ELISA, molecular neutralization test of RBD:hACE2 interaction, live virus neutralization test and specific T cells response. Results The most frequent AE was local pain, other AEs had frequencies lower than 5%. No serious related AEs were reported. Phase IIa confirmed the safety results in 60 to 80 years subjects. In phase I SOBERANA 02 25 microg elicited higher immune response than SOBERANA 02 15 microg;in consequence, the higher dose progressed to phase IIa. Phase IIa results confirmed the immunogenicity of SOBERANA 02 25 microg. even in 60 to 80 age range. Two doses of SOBERANA02 25 microg elicited an immune response similar to that of the Cuban Convalescent Serum Panel;it was higher after both the homologous and heterologous third doses;the heterologous scheme showing a higher immunological response. Conclusions SOBERANA 02 was safe and immunogenic in persons aged 19 to 80 years, eliciting neutralizing antibodies and specific T cell response. Highest immune responses were obtained in the heterologous three doses protocol. Trial registry: https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000340 and https://rpcec.sld.cu/trials/RPCEC00000347

10.
Lancet Reg Health Am ; 4: 100079, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a first step towards a vaccine protecting COVID-19 convalescents from reinfection, we evaluated FINLAY-FR-1A vaccine in a clinical trial. METHODS: Thirty COVID-19 convalescents aged 22-57 years were studied: convalescents of mild COVID-19, asymptomatic convalescents, both with PCR-positive at the moment of diagnosis; and individuals with subclinical infection detected by viral-specific IgG. They received a single intramuscular injection of the FINLAY-FR-1A vaccine (50 µg of the recombinant dimeric receptor binding domain). The primary outcomes were safety and reactogenicity, assessed over 28 days after vaccination. The secondary outcome was vaccine immunogenicity. Humoral response at baseline and following vaccination was evaluated by ELISA and live-virus neutralization test. The effector T cellular response was also assessed. Cuban Public Registry of Clinical Trials, WHO-ICTRP: https://rpcec.sld.cu/en/trials/RPCEC00000349-En. FINDINGS: No serious adverse events were reported. Minor adverse events were found, the most common, local pain: 3 (10%) and redness: 2 (6·7%). The vaccine elicited a >21 fold increase in IgG anti-RBD antibodies 28 days after vaccination. The median of inhibitory antibody titres (94·0%) was three times greater than that of the COVID-19 convalescent panel. Virus neutralization titres higher than 1:160 were found in 24 (80%) participants. There was also an increase in RBD-specific T cells producing IFN-γ and TNF-α. INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the FINLAY-FR-1A vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 was an efficient booster of pre-existing natural immunity, with excellent safety profile. FUNDING: Partial funding for this study was received from the Project-2020-20, Fondo de Ciencia e Innovación (FONCI), Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Cuba.   RESUMEN. ANTECEDENTES: Como un primer paso hacia una vacuna que proteja a los convalecientes de COVID-19 de la reinfección, evaluamos la vacuna FINLAY-FR-1A en un ensayo clínico. MÉTODOS: Se estudiaron treinta convalecientes de COVID-19 de 22 a 57 años: convalecientes de COVID-19 leve y convalecientes asintomáticos, ambos con prueba PCR positiva al momento del diagnóstico; e individuos con infección subclínica detectada por IgG específica viral. Los participantes recibieron una dosis única por vía intramuscular de la vacuna FINLAY-FR-1A (50 µg del dominio de unión al receptor recombinante dimérico del SARS CoV-2). Las variables de medida primarias fueron la seguridad y la reactogenicidad, evaluadas durante 28 días después de la vacunación. La variable secundaria, la inmunogenicidad. La respuesta humoral, al inicio del estudio y después de la vacunación, se evaluó por ELISA y mediante la prueba de neutralización del virus vivo. También se evaluó la respuesta de células T efectoras. Registro Público Cubano de Ensayos Clínicos, WHO-ICTRP: https://rpcec.sld.cu/en/trials/RPCEC00000349-En. RESULTADOS: No se reportaron eventos adversos graves. Se encontraron eventos adversos leves, los más comunes, dolor local: 3 (10%) y enrojecimiento: 2 (6·7%). La vacuna estimuló un incremento >21 veces de los anticuerpos IgG anti-RBD 28 días después de la vacunación. La mediana de los títulos de anticuerpos inhibidores (94·0%) fue aproximadamente tres veces mayor que la del panel de convalecientes de COVID-19. Se encontraron títulos de neutralización viral superiores a 1:160 en 24 (80%) de los participantes. También hubo un aumento en las células T específicas de RBD que producen IFN-γ y TNF-α. INTERPRETACIÓN: Una sola dosis de la vacuna FINLAY-FR-1A contra el SARS-CoV-2 reforzó eficazmente la inmunidad natural preexistente, con un excelente perfil de seguridad. FINANCIAMIENTO: Se recibió un financiamiento parcial del Proyecto-2020-20, Fondo de Ciencia e Innovación (FONCI), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Medio Ambiente, Cuba.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

12.
ACS Chem Biol ; 16(7): 1223-1233, 2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294432

ABSTRACT

Controlling the global COVID-19 pandemic depends, among other measures, on developing preventive vaccines at an unprecedented pace. Vaccines approved for use and those in development intend to elicit neutralizing antibodies to block viral sites binding to the host's cellular receptors. Virus infection is mediated by the spike glycoprotein trimer on the virion surface via its receptor binding domain (RBD). Antibody response to this domain is an important outcome of immunization and correlates well with viral neutralization. Here, we show that macromolecular constructs with recombinant RBD conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT) induce a potent immune response in laboratory animals. Some advantages of immunization with RBD-TT conjugates include a predominant IgG immune response due to affinity maturation and long-term specific B-memory cells. These result demonstrate the potential of the conjugate COVID-19 vaccine candidates and enable their advance to clinical evaluation under the name SOBERANA02, paving the way for other antiviral conjugate vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/chemistry , Vaccines, Conjugate/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Vaccination , Vaccines, Conjugate/immunology
13.
ACS Cent Sci ; 7(5): 757-767, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225489

ABSTRACT

The development of recombinant COVID-19 vaccines has resulted from scientific progress made at an unprecedented speed during 2020. The recombinant spike glycoprotein monomer, its trimer, and its recombinant receptor-binding domain (RBD) induce a potent anti-RBD neutralizing antibody response in animals. In COVID-19 convalescent sera, there is a good correlation between the antibody response and potent neutralization. In this review, we summarize with a critical view the molecular aspects associated with the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 RBD with its receptor in human cells, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the epitopes involved in the neutralizing activity, and the impact of virus mutations thereof. Recent trends in RBD-based vaccines are analyzed, providing detailed insights into the role of antigen display and multivalence in the immune response of vaccines under development.

14.
Radiology ; 298(2): E88-E97, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109670

ABSTRACT

Background Radiologists are proficient in differentiating between chest radiographs with and without symptoms of pneumonia but have found it more challenging to differentiate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia from non-COVID-19 pneumonia on chest radiographs. Purpose To develop an artificial intelligence algorithm to differentiate COVID-19 pneumonia from other causes of abnormalities at chest radiography. Materials and Methods In this retrospective study, a deep neural network, CV19-Net, was trained, validated, and tested on chest radiographs in patients with and without COVID-19 pneumonia. For the chest radiographs positive for COVID-19, patients with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 with findings positive for pneumonia between February 1, 2020, and May 30, 2020, were included. For the non-COVID-19 chest radiographs, patients with pneumonia who underwent chest radiography between October 1, 2019, and December 31, 2019, were included. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated to characterize diagnostic performance. To benchmark the performance of CV19-Net, a randomly sampled test data set composed of 500 chest radiographs in 500 patients was evaluated by the CV19-Net and three experienced thoracic radiologists. Results A total of 2060 patients (5806 chest radiographs; mean age, 62 years ± 16 [standard deviation]; 1059 men) with COVID-19 pneumonia and 3148 patients (5300 chest radiographs; mean age, 64 years ± 18; 1578 men) with non-COVID-19 pneumonia were included and split into training and validation and test data sets. For the test set, CV19-Net achieved an AUC of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.93). This corresponded to a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI: 87, 89) and a specificity of 79% (95% CI: 77, 80) by using a high-sensitivity operating threshold, or a sensitivity of 78% (95% CI: 77, 79) and a specificity of 89% (95% CI: 88, 90) by using a high-specificity operating threshold. For the 500 sampled chest radiographs, CV19-Net achieved an AUC of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.93, 0.96) compared with an AUC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.88) achieved by radiologists. Conclusion CV19-Net was able to differentiate coronavirus disease 2019-related pneumonia from other types of pneumonia, with performance exceeding that of experienced thoracic radiologists. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 609592, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1094200

ABSTRACT

To identify drugs that are potentially used for the treatment of COVID-19, the potency of 1403 FDA-approved drugs were evaluated using a robust pseudovirus assay and the candidates were further confirmed by authentic SARS-CoV-2 assay. Four compounds, Clomiphene (citrate), Vortioxetine, Vortioxetine (hydrobromide) and Asenapine (hydrochloride), showed potent inhibitory effects in both pseudovirus and authentic virus assay. The combination of Clomiphene (citrate), Vortioxetine and Asenapine (hydrochloride) is much more potent than used alone, with IC50 of 0.34 µM.

17.
Hepatol Int ; 14(5): 723-732, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a major international public health concern. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of COVID-19-associated liver injury. METHODS: A fraction of 657 COVID-19 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and laboratory data were derived from electronic medical records and compared between patients with or without liver injury. Multivariate logistic regression method was used to analyze the risk factors for liver injury. RESULTS: Among 657 patients, 303 (46.1%) patients had liver injury with higher rate in severe/critically ill patients [148/257 (57.6%)] than those in moderate cases [155/400 (38.8%)]. The incidence of liver injury was much higher in male [192/303 (63.4%)] than female [111/303 (36.6%)], and in severe/critical patients [148/303 (48.8%)] with percutaneous oxygen saturation ≤ 93% [89/279 (31.9%)] or peak body temperature ≥ 38.5 °C [185/301 (61.5%)] on admission. Liver injury-related inflammations included increased white blood cells, neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes. More patients with liver injury than without had increased serum IL-2R, TNFα, ferritin, hsCRP, PCT, ESR, γ-GT, and LDH. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that increasing odds of liver injury were related to male, higher serum hsCRP (≥ 10 mg/L), and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (≥ 5). Moreover, more deceased patients (14/82 (17%)) had significantly elevated serum TBIL than discharged patients [25/532 (4.7%)]. CONCLUSION: Liver injury is a common complication in COVID-19 patients. The potential risk factors of liver injury include male, hsCRP and NLR score. A close monitor of liver function should be warned in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe/critical individuals.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency , Leukocyte Count/methods , Liver Function Tests , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hepatic Insufficiency/blood , Hepatic Insufficiency/epidemiology , Hepatic Insufficiency/virology , Humans , Incidence , Liver Function Tests/methods , Liver Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
19.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 525, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerging infectious disease and rapidly escalating epidemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains to be elucidated. We aimed to clarify correlation of systemic inflammation with disease severity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this retrospective study, baseline characteristics, laboratory findings, and treatments were compared among 317 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients with moderate, severe, or critically ill form of the disease. Moreover, the longitudinal changes of serum cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and hsCRP to lymphocyte count ratio (hsCRP/L) as well as their associations with disease severity and outcomes were investigated in 68 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Within 24 h of admission, the critically ill patients showed higher concentrations of inflammatory markers including serum soluble interleukin (IL)-2 receptor, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, hsCRP, and hsCRP/L than patients with severe or moderate disease. The severe cases displayed the similar response patterns when compared with moderate cases. The longitudinal assays showed the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, LDH, hsCRP, and hsCRP/L gradually declined within 10 days post admission in moderate, severe cases or those who survived. However, there was no significant reduction in cytokines, LDH, hsCRP, and hsCRP/L levels in critically ill or deceased patients throughout the course of illness. Compared with female patients, male cases showed higher serum concentrations of soluble IL-2R, IL-6, ferritin, procalcitonin, LDH, and hsCRP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that IL-6 > 50 pg/mL and LDH > 400 U/L on admission were independently associated with disease severity in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Exuberant inflammatory responses within 24 h of admission in patients with COVID-19 may correlate with disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to elicit a sex-based differential immune response. IL-6 and LDH were independent predictive parameters for assessing the severity of COVID-19. An early decline of these inflammation markers may be associated with better outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Inflammation/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
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