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1.
Journal of Xiangya Medicine ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1964905

ABSTRACT

Background: To maintain the continuity of medical education during the COVID-19 epidemic, online learning has replaced traditional face-to-face learning. But the efficacy and acceptance of online learning for medical education remains unknown. This meta-analysis aimed to assess whether online learning improves learning outcomes and is more acceptable to medical students compared to offline learning. Methods: Four databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and comparative studies (non-RCTs) involving online learning published from January 1900 to October 2020. A total of twenty-seven studies comparing online and offline learning in medical students were included. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) framework and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) were used to assess the methodological quality of RCTs and non-RCTs respectively. The data of knowledge and skills scores and course satisfaction were synthesized using a random effects model for the meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-one RCTs that were judged to be of high quality according to the GRADE framework and six non-RCTs studies which ranged from 6 to 8 (NOS) and can be considered high-quality were included in this meta-analysis. The revealed that the online learning group had significantly higher post-test scores (SMD =0.58, 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.91;P=0.0006) and pre-and post-test score gains than the offline group (SMD =1.12, 95% CI: 0.14 to 2.11, P=0.02). In addition, online education was more satisfactory to participants than the offline learning (OR: 2.02;95% CI: 1.16 to 3.52;P=0.01). Subgroup analysis was performed on knowledge and skill scores at the post-test level. The selected factors included study outcome, study design and type, participants, course type and country. No significant factors were observed in the subgroup analysis except for course type subgroup analysis. Discussion: Online learning in medical education could lead to higher post-test knowledge and skill scores than offline learning. It also has higher satisfaction ratings than offline education. In conclusion, online learning can be considered as a potential educational method during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, given the risk of bias of included studies such as the inclusion of non-randomized comparative studies, the conclusion should be made with cautions. Trial Registration: CRD42020220295. © Journal of Xiangya Medicine. All rights reserved.

2.
IEEE Internet of Things Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961407

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a high rate of infection, and thus effective epidemic prevention measures of avoiding the second spread of COVID-19 in hospitals are major challenges for healthcare workers. Hospitals, where medicines are collected, are vulnerable to the rapid spread of COVID-19. Using the remote health monitoring technology of the Internet of Things (IoT) to automatically monitor and record the basic medical information of patients, reduce the workload of healthcare workers, and avoid direct contact with healthcare workers to cause secondary infections is an important research topic. This research proposes a new artificial intelligence solution based on the IoT, replacing existing medicine stations and recognizing medicine bags through the state-of-the-art optical character recognition (OCR) model and PP-OCR v2. The use of optical character recognition in identification of medicine bags can replace healthcare workers in data recording. In addition, this research proposes an administrator management and monitoring system to monitor the equipment and provide a mobile application for patients to check the latest status of medicine bags in real time, and record their medication times. The results of the experiments indicate that the recognition model works very well in different conditions (up to 80.76% in PP-OCR v2 and 94.22% in PGNet), which supports both Chinese and English languages. IEEE

3.
49th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Computer Architecture, ISCA 2022 ; : 656-669, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932798

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose BioHD, a novel genomic sequence searching platform based on Hyper-Dimensional Computing (HDC) for hardware-friendly computation. BioHD transforms inherent sequential processes of genome matching to highly-parallelizable computation tasks. We exploit HDC memorization to encode and represent the genome sequences using high-dimensional vectors. Then, it combines the genome sequences to generate an HDC reference library. During the sequence searching, BioHD performs exact or approximate similarity check of an encoded query with the HDC reference library. Our framework simplifes the required sequence matching operations while introducing a statistical model to control the alignment quality. To get actual advantage from BioHD inherent robustness and parallelism, we design a processing in-memory (PIM) architecture with massive parallelism and compatible with the existing crossbar memory. Our PIM architecture supports all essential BioHD operations natively in memory with minimal modifcation on the array. We evaluate BioHD accuracy and efciency on a wide range of genomics data, including COVID-19 databases. Our results indicate that PIM provides 102.8× and 116.1× (9.3× and 13.2×) speedup and energy efciency compared to the state-of-theart pattern matching algorithm running on GeForce RTX 3060 Ti GPU (state-of-the-art PIM accelerator). © 2022 Copyright held by the owner/author(s). Publication rights licensed to ACM.

4.
2022 International Conference on Algorithms, Microchips and Network Applications ; 12176, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1923086

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of COVID in Wuhan, it has had an impact on all aspects of tourism industry. Tourists' sentiment is an important factor for people to make tourism decisions. The implementation of tourism decisions affects the development of tourism to a certain extent. In order to explore the impact of the COVID-19 on the tourism industry from the micro level of tourist sentiment. Firstly, the text mining algorithm is used to analyze the emotion of tourism microblog text, and the tourism emotion index TSI is constructed. Then combined with the tourism heat index THI, the tourist sentiment TS comprehensive index is constructed. The temporal and spatial differences of the impact of the epidemic on tourists' emotion are analyzed by comparing the tourists' emotion and epidemic data in different regions and stages. From the temporal and spatial distribution of tourist sentiment and epidemic situation, they are not completely parallel related, and there is spatial heterogeneity. Tourist sentiment is affected by multiple factors such as economic level and geographical location. The change of tourists' mood does not only depend on the change of epidemic data, but also related to many factors such as economic level and geographical location. © COPYRIGHT SPIE. Downloading of the is permitted for personal use only.

5.
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922769

ABSTRACT

The long-lasting global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed our daily life in many ways and put heavy burden on our mental health. Having a predictive model of negative emotions during COVID-19 is of great importance for identifying potential risky population. To establish a neural predictive model achieving both good interpretability and predictivity, we have utilized a large-scale (n =542) longitudinal dataset, alongside two independent samples for external validation. We built a predictive model based on psychologically meaningful resting state neural activities. The whole-brain resting-state neural activity and social-psychological profile of the subjects were obtained from Sept. to Dec. 2019 (Time 1). Their negative emotions were tracked and re-assessed twice, on Feb 22 (Time 2) and Apr 24 (Time 3), 2020, respectively. We first applied canonical correlation analysis on both the neural profiles and psychological profiles collected on Time 1, this step selects only the psychological meaningful neural patterns for later model construction. We then trained the neural predictive model using those identified features on data obtained on Time 2. It achieved a good prediction performance (r =0.44, p =8.13 ×10-27). The two most important neural predictors are associated with self-control and social interaction. This study established an effective neural prediction model of negative emotions, achieving good interpretability and predictivity. It will be useful for identifying potential risky population of emotional disorders related to COVID-19. IEEE

6.
16th International Conference on Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing, IMIS 2022 ; 496 LNNS:247-258, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919725

ABSTRACT

The continued prolongation of Covid-19 has a severe impact worldwide, especially in terms of livelihood and economy. However, in Taiwan, where the epidemic coverage rate is high, the recently confirmed case rate has also continued to rise. One of the possible reasons for this is the improper behavior of mask-wearing. Therefore, this study was conducted to acquire expert knowledge based on the modified Delphi method and collect expert knowledge from pharmacists working in the local drug store. In addition, the expert knowledge acquisition table is adopted the repertory grid approach which was a valuable interviewing technique. Finally, the inference rules are given by using the repertory grid approach. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

7.
24th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCI International, HCII 2022 ; 1583 CCIS:453-463, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919699

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 has brought unprecedented challenges for people’s daily life, including family caregivers of older adults with dementia. In addition to the multiple difficulties for daily life and health management, in-person services and support programs for cognitive impairment patients and their caregivers have been called a halt due to frequent quarantine requirements. This pilot study examined a Tele-Savvy Caregiver Program (TSCP) provided by six pairs of undergraduate social work students for 36 informal caregivers of dementia patients. In-depth interviews were used to identify the outcome and feedback from both service recipients and service providers of the online intervention program. Results showed that the program significantly reduced the caregivers’ emotional burden by increasing their disease literacy, reflecting caregiver roles, obtaining stress relief techniques, gaining strengths perspective, establishing social support networks, and reducing stigma. The online intervention experience also improved the social work students as service providers’ disease literacy, practice skills, critical thinking, self-esteem and professional confidence, and sense of social responsibility. This study illustrated that social service and support could be delivered online for caregivers of dementia patients during this challenging pandemic time. Meanwhile, the online intervention program could contribute to a meaningful learning experiences for undergraduate social work students. Therefore, the expanding of this online intervention program in larger population might benefit more needy groups. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):378, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880919

ABSTRACT

Background: Travel restrictions during the COVID-19 epidemic in China have impacted on the daily life and antiretroviral therapy (ART) of people living with HIV, including men who have sex with men (MSM). As China enters a state of routine COVID-19 prevention and control, it is necessary to understand the conditions of ART interruption (ATI) among HIV-infected MSM during and after the lockdown period (23 January to 7 April 2020) to summarize experience on HIV treatment. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted among HIV-infected MSM in China in February 2021, using convenience sampling on the WeChat platform called Li Hui Shi Kong. We collected information during and around lockdown period, including socio-demographics, health behaviors such as physical exercise and alcohol drinking, ART maintenance, CD4 and viral load testing. Pearson's Chi-squared test was performed to compare those characteristics between participants who experienced ATI during the lockdown period and did not. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the correlates of ATI. Results: A total of 1296 participants were included in the analysis. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0). 40.9% (n=530) of them did not exercise regularly in the second half of 2019 and 62.3% (n=808) had alcohol drinking. During the lockdown period, 6.8% (n=88) reported ATI experience, and 49.5% (n=629) performed CD4 cell test. Among the participants who took the last CD4 test after the lockdown, more people had not experienced ATI (66.8%) compared to those had experienced ATI (38.6%). HIV-infected MSM using other ART regimen as temporary substitution were more unlikely to experience ATI, including free ART (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.11) and out-of-pocket ART (aOR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01-0.89), which is different from their previous prescription. Conclusion: COVID-restrictions did not result in significantly negative effects on ART maintenance among HIV-infected MSM in China. In order to reduce the negative impact on HIV-infected MSM, attention should be paid to conducting health behavior education, maintaining ART service and encouraging CD4 and viral load testing during and after public emergencies.

9.
Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy ; 27(4-A SUPPL):S132-S133, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880826

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical literature has shown that clinical pharmacists (CP), as part of a care team in primary practice, can produce positive clinical and cost outcomes. Furthermore, embedding a CP in a primary care setting can optimize performance in value-based payment arrangements. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this program description was to observe an integrated CP program, describe the role and workflow of the CP, and report preliminary program statistics, which can benefit primary care practices. METHODS: Data management used the eClinicalWorks platform. Data was collected from five different primary care locations in Houston, TX between July 2019 and June 2020, and included demographics and integrated CP activities by visit type (i.e., office, telephonic), service type (i.e., RX adherence, RX care coordination, RX consultation), and service description (i.e., duration, education, clinical chart prep, medication review, medication reconciliation). RESULTS: The integrated clinical pharmacist program incorporated a core care team made up of clinicians, clinical support staff and community care professionals. The study population included elderly adults enrolled in a Medicare Advantage (payer agnostic) plan wherein the patients were mostly Hispanic and belonged to low-income group. The prevalent conditions included type 2 diabetes mellitus, COPD, and heart disease. There was a total of 1,581 distinct encounters (office, N = 498, 31.5%;telephonic, N = 1,083, 68.5%). The average in-office appointment duration was 23.4 minutes. RX adherence (N = 309, 28.6%) was the leading activity followed by RX care coordination (N = 284, 26.2%) and RX consultation (N = 144, 13.3%). Clinical chart prep (N = 191, 38.4%) was the most common office visit activity followed by medication review (N = 145, 29.1%) and individual education (N = 109, 21.9%). The Doximity video app was used during COVID-19 pandemic to coordinate with patients and provide virtual pharmacy support, when telephonic encounters became more prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: This program description highlighted the expanded role of CP interventions integrated into the primary care workflow. In this value-based environment, primary care providers should consider CP who are well suited to offer direct patient care coordination, improve patient adherence and clinical outcomes, and implement cost-effective therapies to their practices. However, further study is needed to examine the impact of integrated pharmacy services on patient outcomes in primary care settings.

10.
Energy Strategy Reviews ; 41, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1873034

ABSTRACT

The world is still following an unsustainable development pathway, facing great challenges in global CO2 emissions reduction in the coming decades. In this study, we used Kaya identity model to project CO2 emissions. We considered three main scenarios (business-as-usual, BAU;post-Copenhagen-Paris, PCP;deglobalization (COVID-19), DGC), which explored different pathways for CO2 emissions of fuel combustion to 2050 from global to national level. The results show that industrialized countries have been the largest contributors to global CO2 emissions, but some emerging economies are now among the top emitters in absolute terms. For countries at all stages of development, it's going to be important to reduce the trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions and boost resilience to mounting climate impacts. Among the global, regional, the United States and China CO2 emissions reduction scenarios, the PCP scenario is the best CO2 emissions reduction pathway, in this scenario global CO2 emissions will reach a peak by 2029 (31.813 Gt). Renewable energy leads the transition to a lower-carbon energy mix. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the largest-ever decline in global emissions. © 2022 The Authors

11.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337568

ABSTRACT

Background: Blended learning mode has been widely applied in medical education, especially during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This study is to evaluate the effectiveness of blended learning mode in periodontal education for further promotion . Methods: The blended learning mode consists of face-to-face classes and SPOCs built on the Xfaike online course platform. The preparation before the courses included the optimization of teaching calendar, establishment of online learning platform, integration of the online and offline content. The feedback was evaluated by a questionnaire involving instruction method, instruction content and learning outcomes. Results: All of the participants (n=65) answered the questionnaire. According to the questionnaire, the blended learning mode has been approved by all of the students. More than 95% of students convinced that blended learning mode can improve their self-learning ability. About 84.62% of students could finish the preview and review task of online courses. All of the students believed that they can exchange their questions with teachers more pertinently in offline classes after online learning, and online learning videos can be viewed smoothly and repeatedly at any time. Conclusions: The blended learning mode has been highly accepted among students, as the learning platform could provide abundant learning materials, improve self-learning ability, and provide a deeper understanding of knowledge. Thus, the blended learning could be considered as a promising educational mode for medical students to meet higher educational requirements.

12.
Handbook of Security and the Environment ; : 307-319, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857052

ABSTRACT

Under the influence of the global energy transition, countries have been channeled to pursue a sustainable energy future. Global power structures are changing and the relationships between states and regions might be faced with both conflicts and opportunities. While there are tensions over the minerals, electricity disruption and cybersecurity, the real competition may shift from the physical resources and locations to technology and innovations. Besides, the energy transition has brought about global alliances, energy diplomacy and international cooperation. With the increasing awareness on the environment, countries are preparing hydrogen and electrification strategies and how to develop the localized renewable energy to combat the nature disasters, such as floods, typhoon and COVID 19. Among them, the promise from China on carbon neutrality by 2060 and its continuous financial interest in renewables have strengthened the efforts. It is recommended that sustainability and resilience of renewable energy projects shall be further studied. © Ashok Swain, Joakim Öjendal and Anders Jägerskog 2021.

13.
Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 56(SUPP 1):S362-S362, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848860
14.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(2):238-243, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847861

ABSTRACT

Objective This study is conducted against a case of positive nucleic acid detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) of environmental samples in a medical institution in Chengdu. Epidemiological investigation methods and laboratory tests are used to investigate the source and analyze the cause of the case, to explore the nucleic acid monitoring mode and the disposal scheme of abnormal conditions of SARS-CoV-2 in the medical institution environment. Methods Chengdu and Shuangliu district CDC jointly investigate A Medical Institution (A refers to a specific anonymous medical institute). Epidemiological surveys were conducted though related influencing factors of the medical institution. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection kits were used for detection. Sequencing was carried out on a second-generation sequencing platform. Results From Jan.18th 2021 to Jan.20th 2021, a total of 62 smear samples of environment and articles were collected, among which 30 samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. 30 positive samples were divided into Gongwei building (9) and Zhonghe building (21) according to the sampling location. The samples' Ct values of ORF1ab gene in Gongwei building were lower than that in Zhonghe building, and the difference was statistically significant (t=2.452, P=0.036). According to the nature of the specimens, they were divided into external environment smear samples (24 samples) and cleaning tool smear samples (6 samples). The N gene Ct values of external environment smear samples were lower than that of cleaning tools, and the difference was statistically significant (Z=-2.204, P=0.028). Through gene sequencing analysis, the sequence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive environmental samples detected this time is highly homologous with SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (> 99.9%). Conclusions The positive environmental samples of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in the medical institution are caused by the damage and leakage of COVID-19 vaccine ampoules in the process of vaccination, which led to the contamination of the vaccination room of public health building, and then transmit to the hospital environment of fever clinic and complex building through cleaning tools by cleaning workers. With the progress of COVID-19 vaccine vaccination, there is a high probability of environmental pollution of vaccine liquid in the vaccination area of medical institutions. Therefore, it is necessary in combination with the current normalization monitoring requirements of domestic COVID-19 epidemic situation to refine the specific implementation plan, conduct vaccination in a scientific and orderly manner, and reduce the social impact. © 2022, Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

15.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335915

ABSTRACT

On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organisation classified the B.1.1.529 SARS-CoV-2 variant as the Omicron variant of concern (VOC). Reports of higher transmissibility and potential immune evasion triggered flight bans and heightened health control measures across the world to stem its distribution. Wastewater-based surveillance has demonstrated to be a useful complement for community-based tracking of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Using design principles of our previous assays that detect VOCs (Alpha and Delta), here we report three allele-specific RT-qPCR assays that can quantitatively detect and discriminate the Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in wastewater. The first assay targets the nine-nucleotide deletion at the L24-A27S of the spike protein for detection of BA.2. The second targets the six-nucleotide deletion at 69-70 of the spike protein for detection of the Omicron BA.1 variant, and the third targets the stretch of mutations from Q493R to Q498R for simultaneous detection of both Omicron BA.1 and BA.2. This method is open-sourced, can be implemented using commercially available RT-qPCR protocols, and would be an important tool for tracking the introduction and spread of the Omicron variants BA.1 and BA.2 in communities for informed public health responses.

16.
Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education ; 18(4):2-8, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1836464

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, educational institutions around the world have closed, affecting more than 60% of students and causing massive disruption to the education system. Taiwan is no exception. For this sudden and dramatic change, teachers, students, and parents all confront significant challenges. In order to make specific suggestions for improvement, the study aims to explore the current state of e-learning in Taiwan and to understand the difficulties faced by teachers, parents, and students. The study conducted in-depth interviews with 20 teachers, 12 parents, and 24 students. The research results show that in New Taipei City, there are barely any online courses for grades 1 and 2, blended learning is mainly for grades 3 and 4, and synchronous e-learning is designed for grades 5 and 6. The main challenges in adopting e-learning in primary schools include, as follows: (i) Teachers, parents, and students are unfamiliar with the user interface of the e-learning platform. (ii) Insufficient hardware and software equipment at home. (iii) Teachers cannot take care of special students. (iv) Communication between teachers and parents is not smooth. (v) Difficulty in assessing learning progress online. (vi) Students are easily distracted from their studies. Based on the above research results, the researchers put forward specific suggestions for future online teaching practices. © 2022 by the authors;licensee Modestum. All Rights Reserved.

17.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; : 24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1822008

ABSTRACT

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic intensifies the high turnover rate in the restaurant industry. Applying the conservation of resources (COR) theory, this study aims to examine the factors influencing US restaurant frontline employees' organizational and occupational turnover intention with an emphasis on the three-way interactions between job stress, fear of COVID-19 (FC) and resilience. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 243 US restaurant frontline employees participated in this study. PROCESS macro was used for hypothesis testing. Findings Organizational turnover intention fully mediated the relationship between job stress and restaurant employees' occupational turnover intention. FC intensified the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intentions. Job stress, FC and resilience interacted to affect restaurant frontline employees' organizational turnover intention such that when resilience is high, FC strengthened the positive relationship between job stress and organizational turnover intention, and the indirect effect of job stress on occupational turnover intention via organizational turnover intention. Practical implications Restaurants should take measures to reduce frontline employees' fear and continue implementing practices to alleviate job stress during a crisis to reduce employees' turnover intentions. Training on building employee resilience could also be provided by restaurant operators. Originality/value This study added to the limited knowledge of factors that are associated with restaurant employees' organizational and occupational turnover intentions in the context of a global crisis and expanded the current knowledge of how fear and resilience may impact restaurant employees' behavioral intentions.

18.
Journal of Internal Medicine of Taiwan ; 32(5):333-341, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1791940

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019(COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral disease, causing reparatory symptoms, ranging from flu-like symptoms to acute respiratory distress. Since the end of 2019, COVID-19 has posed a tremendous threat to the healthcare systems nationwide. Multiple public health interventions, including mandating social distancing, closing outpatient visits, or postponing elective procedures have been implemented to mitigate the impact on disease transmission and prevent consumption of medical resources. Since the beginning of the pandemic, resources have been shifted away from chronic disease management and prevention. Osteoporosis, a chronic condition, which requires continuous and concerted medical attention to alleviate the long-term consequences such as osteoporotic fractures, morbidities, or mortalities. In this review article, we will discuss the strategies to cope with osteoporosis, especially focusing on pharmaceutical management considerations during the era of COVID-19 pandemic. We will also discuss different drug distribution models when outpatient clinics are not readily available or mandatory social distancing policy is employed. After all, we will propose alternative therapeutic options when the continuity of particular medications cannot be maintained. © 2021 Society of Internal Medicine of Taiwan. All rights reserved.

19.
IAF Space Transportation Solutions and Innovations Symposium 2021 at the 72nd International Astronautical Congress, IAC 2021 ; D2, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1790579

ABSTRACT

As world space launch activities have entered an intensive stage, how to effectively improve efficiency, reduce costs, and enhance the ability to go into space while ensuring reliability and safety has become an important factor in measuring space capabilities. The launch vehicle must fly reliably and stably, and send the satellite into the predetermined orbit accurately. Not only is the important role of the systems on the vehicle, but ground testing and launch control also play a vital role in ensuring the success of the launch vehicle mission. The emergence of COVID-19 in early 2020 also challenged the personnel-intensive industrial model. Intelligent, unmanned, efficient, and system will be the dominant model in the future. This paper reviews the development status of the world's launch vehicle test launch technology, analyzes the capabilities and shortcomings of existing test launch technology, and proposes the development trend of future launch vehicle test launch technology based on new technologies emerging from the new round of scientific and technological revolution. The outlook for next-generation test launch system is also presented. Future test launch technologies will highlight the three characteristics of digitalization, networking and intelligence. Digitization lays the foundation for test launch informationization. Its development trend is big data analysis and application, replacing the existing software tools to extract, store, search, share, analyze, and process massive and complex data sets to achieve depth test launch data mining and maximum value. Networking provides a physical carrier for information dissemination. Its development trend is the adoption of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), integrated computing, communication, and control. Through networking, ground test transmitting equipment has computing, communication, precise control, remote coordination, autonomy and other functions. Intelligence reflects the level of information application. Its development trend is a new generation of artificial intelligence. According to the requirements of vehicle launch, it could quickly generate data and upload binding. Through intelligent detection methods, it could complete the required operations, inspections and tests before launching, and achieve autonomous vehicle launching. In the future, intelligent cyber-physical fusion system based on big data will become the mainstream direction of rocket vehicle test launch technology, which will further simplify operations, improve efficiency, reduce costs, and achieve the goal of "launch during transport". © 2021 by the International Astronautical Federation (IAF). All rights reserved.

20.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 43(20):2241-2249, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789737

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the clinical characteristics of liver and kidney injuries and investigate its effect on the severity and mortality in the COVID-19 patients.Methods A total of 3 548 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 hut without liver and kidney diseases admitted in the Huoshenshan Hospital, Jinyintan Hospital and Taikang Tongji Hospital from February 4, 2020 to April 16, 2020 were recruited in this study.Their clinical data were extracted from medical database, including general information, clinical features, laboratory results and outcomes such as death were collected and analyzed.SPSS statistics 23.0 was used to perform the statistical description and analysis.Results Among the 3 548 patients with COYID-19, 875 (24.7%) cases were severe illness and above and 91 (2.6%) died during hospitalization.The proportions of the patients with higher alanine amiotransferase ( ALT) , aspartate aminotransferase ( AST) and creatinine (Cr) were 14.6% (513/3 548) , 3.4% ( 1 19/3 548) and 2.8% ( 101/3 548), respectively.Compared with the patients with normal ALT, AST and Cr, the patients with elevated ALT did not have a significantly increased risk of severe illness or death ( /-∗>().05) , and the risk of severe illness and death was significantly increased in those with elevated AST and Cr ( P<0.05).The risk of severe disease was 2.32 times (95%CI: 1.73-3.10) and 1 1.40 times ( 95% CI: 2.36-54.98 ) for those with single or both liver and kidney injuries, and the risk of death was 5.21 times (95% CI: 3.10-8.75 ) and 13.53 times (95% CI: 2.76-66.32) for those with normal liver and kidney function, respectively.Logistic regression analysis indicated that after independent factors related to severe illness and death screened out as correction factors, the risk of severe illness and death was 1.612 times (95% CI: 1.17-2.22) and 2.907 times (95% CI: 1.61-5.24) of patients with liver or kidney injuries when compared with those with normal function, respectively.Conclusion The COYID-19 patients with liver and renal injuries have a significantly increased tendency to become severity and mortality, and should undergo early intervention. © 2021 Editorial Office of Journal of Third Military Medical University. All rights reserved.

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