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1.
Journal of Informetrics ; : 101295, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819551

ABSTRACT

Based on publication data on coronavirus-related fields, this study applies a difference in differences approach to explore the evolution of gender inequalities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing the differences in the numbers and shares of authorships, leadership in publications, gender composition of collaboration, and scientific impacts. We find that, during the pandemic: (1) females’ leadership in publications as the major contributor was negatively affected;(2) although both females and males published more papers relative to the pre-pandemic period, the gender gaps in the share of authorships have been strengthened due to the larger increase in males’ authorships;(3) publications by mixed-gender collaboration declined;(4) papers by teams in which females play a key role were less cited, and this citation disadvantage was exacerbated during the pandemic;and (5) gender inequalities regarding authorships and collaboration were strengthened in the initial stage of COVID-19, widened with the increasing severity of COVID-19, and returned to the pre-pandemic level in September 2020. This study shows that females’ lower participation in teams as major contributors and less collaboration with their male colleagues also reflect their underrepresentation in science in the pandemic period. This investigation significantly deepens our understanding of how the pandemic influenced academia, based on which science policies and gender policy changes are proposed to mitigate the gender gaps.

2.
ACS Sens ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795845

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside analogues are reagents that resemble the structure of natural nucleosides and are widely applied in antiviral and anticancer therapy. Molnupiravir, a recently reported nucleoside analogue drug, has shown its inhibitory effect against SARS-CoV-2. Rapid tracing of molnupiravir and its metabolites is important in the evaluation of its pharmacology effect, but direct sensing of molnupiravir as a single molecule has not been reported to date. Here, we demonstrate a nanopore-based sensor with which direct sensing of molnupiravir and its two major metabolites ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine and its triphosphate can be achieved simultaneously. In conjunction with a custom machine learning algorithm, an accuracy of 92% was achieved. This sensing strategy may be useful in the current pandemic and is in principle suitable for other nucleoside analogue drugs.

3.
RSC advances ; 12(6):3437-3444, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787111

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in significant global health and economic threats to the human society. Thus, a rapid and accurate detection method for early testing and diagnosis should be established. In this study, a rapid water bath polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with lateral flow assay was developed to detect SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus simultaneously. A homemade automated transfer device equipped with reaction tube shuttled rapidly between two water baths at 98 °C and 53 °C to realize rapid PCR. After amplification, two-ended labeled PCR products were detected using the lateral flow strip with two test lines and streptavidin-conjugated quantum dot nanobeads. The fluorescence value was read using a handheld instrument. The established assay could complete reverse-transcription PCR amplification and lateral flow detection in 45 minutes. The detection limits were 8.44 copies per μL and 14.23 copies per μL for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus, respectively. The coefficients of variation of the test strip were 10.10% for the SARS-CoV-2 and 4.94% for the influenza B virus, demonstrating the excellent repeatability of the experiment. These results indicated that the rapid PCR combined with lateral flow assay could detect SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus simultaneously at a short assay time and low cost, thereby showing the remarkable potential for the rapid and multiplex detection of respiratory viruses in resource-limited settings. Rapid and highly sensitive multiplex detection of SARS-CoV-2 and influenza B virus using water bath PCR-combined fluorescent lateral flow assay.

4.
Lupus ; : 9612033221093502, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775183

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the study were to review the articles to identify (a) the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); (b) the clinical characteristics of SLE patients with COVID-19; (c) the treatment of COVID-19 in SLE patients; and (d) the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on SLE patients. PubMed was systematically reviewed for literature published from December 2019 to June 2021. Our search was limited to human studies, with language restriction of English. Studies were included if they reported COVID-19 in SLE patients. Our systematic review included 52 studies. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection ranged from 0.0% to 18.1% in SLE patients, and the hospitalisation rates ranged from 0.24% to 10.6%. COVID-19 infection is likely to mimic SLE flare. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was ineffective in prevention of COVID-19, and SLE patients with COVID-19 faced difficulty in healthcare access, had financial constraints and suffered from psychological distress during the pandemic. The pandemic had a significant effect on mental and physical health. Adequate healthcare access, along with containment policies, social distancing measures and psychological nursing was required.

5.
Thorax ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution is thought to contribute to increased risk of COVID-19, but the evidence is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between short-term variations in outdoor concentrations of ambient air pollution and COVID-19 emergency department (ED) visits. METHODS: We conducted a case-crossover study of 78 255 COVID-19 ED visits in Alberta and Ontario, Canada between 1 March 2020 and 31 March 2021. Daily air pollution data (ie, fine particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone were assigned to individual case of COVID-19 in 10 km × 10 km grid resolution. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate associations between air pollution and ED visits for COVID-19. RESULTS: Cumulative ambient exposure over 0-3 days to PM2.5 (OR 1.010; 95% CI 1.004 to 1.015, per 6.2 µg/m3) and NO2 (OR 1.021; 95% CI 1.015 to 1.028, per 7.7 ppb) concentrations were associated with ED visits for COVID-19. We found that the association between PM2.5 and COVID-19 ED visits was stronger among those hospitalised following an ED visit, as a measure of disease severity, (OR 1.023; 95% CI 1.015 to 1.031) compared with those not hospitalised (OR 0.992; 95% CI 0.980 to 1.004) (p value for effect modification=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: We found associations between short-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and COVID-19 ED visits. Exposure to air pollution may also lead to more severe COVID-19 disease.

6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765944

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the major pathogen that causes diarrhea and high mortality in newborn piglets, with devastating impact on the pig industry. To further understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field strains, in this study the complete genomes of four PEDV variants (HN2021, CH-HNYY-2018, CH-SXWS-2018, and CH-HNKF-2016) obtained from immunized pig farms in central China between 2016 to 2021 were characterized and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome and S gene showed that the four strains identified in the present study had evolved into the subgroup G2a, but were distant from the vaccine strain CV777. Additionally, it was noteworthy that a new PEDV strain (named HN2021) belonging to the G2a PEDV subgroup was successfully isolated in vitro and it was further confirmed by RT-PCR that this isolate had a large natural deletion at 207-373 nt of the ORF3 gene, which has never been reported before. Particularly, in terms of pathogenicity evaluation, colostrum deprivation piglets challenged with PEDV HN2021 showed severe diarrhea and high mortality, confirming that PEDV HN2021 was a virulent strain. Hence, PEDV strain HN2021 of subgroup G2a presents a promising vaccine candidate for the control of recurring porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in China. This study lays the foundation for better understanding of the genetic evolution and molecular pathogenesis of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Vaccines , Animals , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea , Phylogeny , Swine , Virulence
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 830: 154759, 2022 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757820

ABSTRACT

The rapid growth of the express delivery industry resulted in the explosion of packaging waste with a wide range of direct and indirect environmental consequences. Until recently, little attention was given to this topic, but e-commerce and the associated growth of packaging waste exploded with the COVID-19 pandemic. Even though the phenomenon is only little to moderately documented, the waste problems in express delivery are recognized and caused by excessive packaging, lack of recyclability of the packaging material, and the low motivation of consumers to recycle. Key research, policy, and educational actions to reduce the environmental impacts of the fast-growing express delivery industry are discussed in this short discussion article.

8.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-20, 2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748410

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency, which continues to have a significant impact on the functioning of society and the public's daily life. From the perspective of psychological distance (PD), this study used descriptive, differential, and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods to explore the cognitive distance, emotional distance, expected distance and behavioral distance of the Chinese public in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. An analysis of 4042 valid sample data found that: (1) The event emotional distance and subject emotional distance were both furthest from the event and subject psychological distance dimensions, and anger about the event was the strongest. (2) The government was the most appealing subject in the process of pandemic prevention and control, but at the same time, the public's sense of closeness to the government was also lower than that of the other three subjects, e.g., medical institutions. (3) Different pandemic regions showed significant differences in PD. Mean scores of PD in each risk region were as follows: High-risk regions > medium-risk regions > low-risk regions. (4) From a global perspective, no spatial autocorrelation was found in PD. However, from a local perspective, high-value regions (provinces with distant PD) are mainly concentrated in the southern regions (Guizhou, Guangxi, Hainan, Jiangxi), and low-value regions (provinces with close PD) are mainly concentrated in North China (Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing). Combined with the relevant conclusions, this paper put forward policy recommendations.

9.
Lab Chip ; 22(8): 1531-1541, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735301

ABSTRACT

Several virulent variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged along with the spread of this virus throughout the population. Some variants can exhibit increased transmissibility and reduced immune neutralization reactivity. These changes are deeply concerning issues that may hinder the ongoing effort of epidemic control measures, especially mass vaccination campaigns. The accurate discrimination of SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants is essential to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Herein, we report a low-cost, facile, and highly sensitive diagnostic platform that can simultaneously distinguish wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and its two mutations, namely, D614G and N501Y, within 2 h. WT or mutant (M) nucleic acid fragments at each allelic locus were selectively amplified by the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS)-PCR assay. Allele-specific amplicons were simultaneously detected by two test lines on a quantum dot nanobead (QB)-based dual-color fluorescent test strip, which could be interpreted by the naked eye or by a home-made fluorescent strip readout device that was wirelessly connected to a smartphone for quantitative data analysis and result presentation. The WT and M viruses were indicated and were strictly discriminated by the presence of a green or red band on test line 1 for the D614G site and test line 2 for the N501Y site. The limits of detection (LODs) for the WT and M D614G were estimated as 78.91 and 33.53 copies per µL, respectively. This assay was also modified for the simultaneous detection of the N and ORF1ab genes of SARS-CoV-2 with LODs of 1.90 and 6.07 copies per µL, respectively. The proposed platform can provide a simple, accurate, and affordable diagnostic approach for the screening of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern even in resource-limited settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mutation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Journal of Hazardous Materials ; : 128504, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1693278

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been increasingly recognized in the outbreak of COVID-19, especially during the emergence of Omicron variant. We investigated an outbreak due to Omicron variant in a restaurant. Besides the epidemiological and phylogenetic analysis, the secondary attack rates of customers of restaurant-related COVID-19 before (outbreak R1) and after enhancement of indoor air dilution (outbreak R2) were compared. On 27thDecember 2021, an index case attended restaurant R2 for 98minutes. Except for 1 sitting in the same table, six other secondary cases sat in 3 corners at 3 different zones, where designated staff served customers at different zones. The median exposure time was 34minutes (range:19-98minutes). All 7 secondary cases were phylogenetically related to the index. Smoke test demonstrated the airflow direction airflow which explained the distribution of secondary cases. Compared with an earlier COVID-19 outbreak in another restaurant R1 (19thFebruary 2021), just preceding the mandatory requirement of enhancement of indoor air dilution, the secondary attack rates among customers in R2 was significantly lower than that in R1 (3.4%,7/207vs 28.9%,22/76,p<0.001). Enhancement of indoor air dilution including ventilation and installation of air purifier and upper-room ultraviolet-C germicidal irradiation could minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the restaurant.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324771

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has been a worldwide pandemic with more than 300,000 deaths. Corticosteroids have been used in some patients with severe Covid-19 in order to control the systemic inflammation or cytokine storm, however, their effects and safety have not yet been elucidated. Methods Patients with confirmed Covid-19 were retrospectively included from both the epicentre and out of the epicentre. Patients were classified into two groups according to the use of systemic corticosteroids, and the mortality and the rate of virus clearance were compared between the two groups. In addition, independent factors associated with death after corticosteroids treatment were also identified. Results A total of 775 patients were included in our final analysis, of which 238 (30.7%) patients received systemic corticosteroids treatment. Compared with patients without corticosteroids treatment, patients with corticosteroids treatment had significantly higher mortality (19.3% vs. 3.7%, P < 0.001) and lower rate of virus clearance (43.2% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.001) although along with increase of SpO 2 /FiO 2 and blood lymphocytes in patients with severe Covid-19. Corticosteroids treatment was associated with longer hospital length of stays and delayed virus clearance time. In patients with corticosteroids treatment, blood lymphocytes (odds ratio (OR) 0.792, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.672–0.932, P = 0.005) and creatine kinase (CK) (OR 1.006, 95%CI 1.000-1.012, P = 0.038) were independent risk factors associated with death, with a sensitivity of 90.91% and 44.44% and a specificity of 70.75% and 94.05%, respectively. Conclusions In patients with Covid-19, corticosteroids treatment is associated with increased mortality and reduced rate of virus clearance.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323568

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the difference in epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of the initial outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan (the epicenter) and Sichuan (the peripheral area) in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was conducted to investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 between the epicenter and peripheral areas of pandemic and thereby generate information that would be potentially helpful in formulating clinical practice recommendations to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The Sichuan & Wuhan Collaboration Research Group for COVID-19 established two retrospective cohorts that separately reflect the epicenter and peripheral area during the early pandemic. The epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients in the two groups were compared. Multivariate regression analyses were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with regard to the outcomes. Results: The Wuhan (epicenter) cohort included 710 randomly selected patients, and the peripheral (Sichuan) cohort included 474 consecutive patients. A higher proportion of patients from the periphery had upper airway symptoms, whereas a lower proportion of patients in the epicenter had lower airway symptoms and comorbidities. Patients in the epicenter had a higher risk of death (aOR=7.64), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR=1.66), delayed time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission (aOR=6.29 and aOR=8.03, respectively), and prolonged duration of viral shedding (aOR=1.64). Conclusions: The worse outcomes in the epicenter could be explained by the prolonged time from illness onset to hospital and ICU admission. This could potentially have been associated with elevated systemic inflammation secondary to organ dysfunction and prolonged duration of virus shedding independent of age and comorbidities. Thus, early supportive care could achieve better clinical outcomes.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323537

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the COVID-19 outbreak, there has been a few articles on pulmonary function studies in COVID-19 patients discharged one month later or three month later. However, there is no literature mentioned about the pulmonary function of hospitalized COVID-19 patients so far.Methods: In this study, we firstly performed a retrospective study to identify the pulmonary function changes with 449 COVID-19 inpatients including 141 asymptomatic carriers compared with 228 non-COVID-19 outpatients which accepted pulmonary function test in health examine center.Results: We found that COVID-19 patients included asymptomatic carriers had worse pulmonary function compared to non-COVID-19 patients even when they were hospitalized. In addition, age may be an important factor which contributes to pulmonary dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. Besides, the IL-6 level in the blood may affect the evaluation of lung function results and may be used to predict the pulmonary function of COVID-19 patients.Conclusion: Early rehabilitation training for COVID-19 patients is critical to their recovery.Funding Information: Supported by Novel coronavirus pneumonia emergency treatment and diagnosis technology research project of Heilongjiang provincial science and Technology Department, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.81571871, 81770276), Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital Haiyan Fund (JJMS2021-10), Heilongjiang Postdoctoral Fund (LBH-Z20070).Declaration of Interests: All the authors have no conflict of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: A written informed consent was regularly obtained from all patients upon admission into the 1st affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University (the intensive care center for severe COVID-19 patients in Harbin, Heilongjiang province). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of 1st affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319974

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused global pandemic. Here we profiled the humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 by measuring immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgM and IgG against nucleocapsid, spike proteins and IgM, IgG antibodies against receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein along with total neutralizing antibodies. We tested 279 plasma samples collected from 176 COVID-19 patients. We demonstrate more severe cases have a late onset in the humoral response compared to mild/moderate infections. All the antibody titers continue to rise in patients with COVID-19 over the disease course. However, these levels are mostly unrelated to the disease severity. The appearance time and titers of neutralizing antibodies showed significant positive correlation to the antibodies against spike protein. Our results suggest late onset of antibody response as a risk factor for disease severity, however there is a limited role of antibody titers in predicting disease severity of COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315580

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Dysregulated host immune response was common in COVID-19. In this study we aimed at the characteristics of lymphocyte subsets and its relationship with the disease progression in COVID-19 patients with or without DM.MethodsThe baseline peripheral lymphocyte and subsets were compared between 55 healthy cases (control group) and 95 confirmed cases with COVID-19 (COVID-19 group), and between COVID-19 patients with and without DM.ResultsThe prevalence of DM in COVID-19 group was 20%, and severe cases had higher the prevalence of DM than non-severe cases (P=0.006), moreover significantly poor prognosis and higher severe rate were found in those with DM relative to those without DM (P=0.001,0.003, respectively). In COVID-19 group overall and significant reduced lymphocyte and subsets, especially B and T lymphocytes were found, especially in those with DM. Partial decreased lymphocyte subsets, age and DM closely related with the disease progression and the prognosis.ConclusionsThese findings provide a reference for clinicians that immunomodulatory treatment maybe improve disease progression and prognosis of COVID-19 patients, especially those with DM.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315579

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is widespread throughout China and the world. Methods: Demographic, clinical data of 95 confirmed cases with COVID-19 on admission at the Public and Health Clinic Centre of Chengdu from January 16 to March 16, 2020, were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Of them 76, 19 cases were enrolled in non-DM group (without DM), DM group (with DM), respectively;according to the disease severity 57, 19, 8, 11 cases were further divided into non-severe non-DM subgroup (light and common type and without DM), severe non-DM subgroup (severe and critical illness type and without DM), non-severe DM subgroup (light and common type and with DM), severe DM subgroup (severe and critical illness type and with DM), respectively. The severe rate and the prognosis was compared between two groups. The data of peripheral lymphocyte and subsets, age, glucose metabolism parameters were compared between four subgroups, and its relationship to the disease severity, the viral negative conversion time, and the prognosis were analyzed. Results: In this COVID-19 cohort the proportion of DM was 20%. Patients with DM had significantly higher severe rate and worse prognosis than those without DM, the difference was significant (severe rate ,cured, unhealed and death in DM and non-DM groups:61.11%vs.25.00%,26.32%,68.42%;5.26%vs.71.05%,26.32%,2.68%, х 2 =2.940, 3.394, P =0.003,0.001,respectively),simultaneously the proportion of DM in severe cases was higher than that in non-severe cases, the obvious difference was found (36.67% vs.12.31%, х 2 =2.744, P =0.006).Severe cases with DM tended to have the lowest lymphocytes count levels and percentage values, as well as the lowest T cells count levels and percentage values, helper T cells count levels and percentage values, suppressor T cells count levels, B cells count levels and percentage values compared with those severe cases without DM and non-severe cases with or without DM. The important influencing factors were that age, DM, lymphocyte percentage values and helper T cells percentage values for the disease severity, lymphocyte percentage values and B cell percentage values for the viral negative conversion time, and age, the disease severity and the viral negative conversion time for the prognosis. Conclusions: The COVID-19 severe cases with DM had the lowest lymphocytes count level and percentage value, especially T and B lymphocytes count levels and percentage value. Overall decreased lymphocytes subsets and DM maybe worsen prognosis by worsening the disease severity and prolonging the viral negative conversion time. Combination immunomodulatory therapy based on comprehensive treatment might improve prognosis of the COVID-19 severe cases with DM.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315297

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has spread worldwide, which becomes a huge threat to human beings. Materials: Severe COVID-19 patients from Sichuan area admitted to department of critical care medicine in Chengdu Public Health Clinical Medical Center were retrospectively enrolled. The liver function during the ICU hospitalization were record and analyzed. Results: : The severe COVID-19 patients mainly presented with respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough and dyspnea, and the incidence was higher in the elderly patients and males. ALT, AST, TB, and PT increased to varying degrees during the course of the disease, and ALB decreased. The incidence of liver dysfunction in patients taking Lopinavir/Ritonavi was significantly higher than patient who did not have it, but there was no statistical difference ( p <0.05). Patients taking low-dose Lopinavir/Ritonavi had a smaller effect on liver function than patients receiving normal dosage. Conclusion: Severe COVID-19 patients have obvious liver damage early in the course of the disease and have a slower recovery. Pay attention to avoid using drugs that can aggravate liver damage while treating the primary disease. If there is no alternative drug, we can give some liver protection treatment appropriately.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311704

ABSTRACT

Background: Seasonal human coronaviruses (HCoVs) including HCoV-229E, -OC43, -NL63 and -HKU1 are widely spreading in global human populations. However, the relevance of humoral response against seasonal HCoVs to COVID-19 pathogenesis is elusive.Methods: We profiled the temporal changes of IgG antibodies against spike (S;S-IgG) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs in 838 plasma samples collected from 344 COVID-19 patients. We tested the antigenic cross-reactivity of S protein between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal HCoVs and evaluated the correlations between HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody and disease severity in COVID-19 patients.Findings: SARS-CoV-2 S-IgG titers mounted until days 22–28, whereas HCoV-OC43 antibody titers increased until days 15–21 and then plateaued until day 46. However, IgG antibody titers against HCoV-NL63, -229E, and -HKU1 showed no significant increasing. A two-way cross-reactivity was identified between SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-OC43. Neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were not detected in healthy controls who were positive for HCoV-OC43 S-IgG. HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers were significantly higher in patients with severe disease than those in mild/moderate patients at days 1–21 post symptom onset (PSO). Higher levels of HCoV-OC43 S-IgG were also observed in patients requiring mechanical ventilation and the elderly. At days 1–10 PSO, HCoV-OC43 S-IgG titers correlated to disease severity in all age groups, and to fatality in over 60-year group.Interpretation: Our data indicate that there exist a humoral cross-reactive response between HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2. The cross-reactive HCoV-OC43 S-IgG antibody is not protective against SARS-CoV-2, but may be a risk factor for the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19.Funding Statement: This study was funded in part by the National Major Science & Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases in China (2017ZX10204401, 2018ZX10734404), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2016-I2M-1–014, 2018-I2M-1-003, 2020-I2M-1-001, 2020-I2M-CoV19-005), Natural Science Foundation of China (82041011/H0104), and National Key R&D Program of China (2020YFA0707600). Declaration of Interests: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Infectious Disease Hospital of Heilongjiang Province (Harbin), and Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Written informed consent was obtained from each healthy volunteer and COVID-19 patients in cohort 4. Written informed consents from the remaining patients were waived in light of the emerging infectious disease of high public health relevance.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311595

ABSTRACT

In view of the fact that the 2019-nCoV has spread to most countries in the world, it is necessary to make scientific and well-founded predictions of the current pandemic situation caused by the virus worldwide, which are conducive to public, social and government responses that mitigate and appropriately address the pandemic. We collected data from provinces with more than 200 cases in China and from eight other countries. Our analyses showed that the disease duration has no correlation with the number of patients, with r = 0.184. The number of deaths was not correlated to the disease duration, with r = 0.242. However, a positive correlation between the days of disease duration and infection rate, with a r = 0.626. Furthermore, there is a strong positive correlation between the disease duration and total death rate, with a r = 0.707. Using death rate of first 25 days, we obtained a positive relationship with a r value of 0.597. Based on the data from first 25 days, the minimum and maximum days of COVID-19 pandemic duration of eight countries was estimated between days of 37 and 114 days.

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