Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 33
Filter
1.
Viruses ; 14(8), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2024290

ABSTRACT

DNA damage response (DDR) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense DNA lesions caused by intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, including virus infection. Although interactions between DNA viruses and DDR have been extensively studied, how RNA viruses, especially coronaviruses, regulate DDR remains unknown. A previous study showed that the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the Coronaviridae family, induces DDR in infected cells. However, the underlying mechanism was unclear. This study showed that PEDV activates the ATM-Chk2 signaling, while inhibition of ATM or Chk2 dampens the early stage of PEDV infection. Additionally, we found that PEDV-activated ATM signaling correlates with intracellular ROS production. Interestingly, we showed that, unlike the typical PH2AX foci, PEDV infection leads to a unique PH2AX staining pattern, including phase I (nuclear ring staining), II (pan-nuclear staining), and III (co-staining with apoptotic bodies), which highly resembles the apoptosis process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PEDV-induced H2AX phosphorylation depends on the activation of caspase-7 and caspase-activated DNAse (CAD), but not ATM-Chk2. Finally, we showed that the knockdown of H2AX attenuates PEDV replication. Taken together, we conclude that PEDV induces DDR through the ROS-ATM and caspase7-CAD-PH2AX signaling pathways to foster its early replication.

2.
Viruses ; 14(8):1782, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987996

ABSTRACT

DNA damage response (DDR) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense DNA lesions caused by intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli, including virus infection. Although interactions between DNA viruses and DDR have been extensively studied, how RNA viruses, especially coronaviruses, regulate DDR remains unknown. A previous study showed that the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus in the Coronaviridae family, induces DDR in infected cells. However, the underlying mechanism was unclear. This study showed that PEDV activates the ATM-Chk2 signaling, while inhibition of ATM or Chk2 dampens the early stage of PEDV infection. Additionally, we found that PEDV-activated ATM signaling correlates with intracellular ROS production. Interestingly, we showed that, unlike the typical γH2AX foci, PEDV infection leads to a unique γH2AX staining pattern, including phase I (nuclear ring staining), II (pan-nuclear staining), and III (co-staining with apoptotic bodies), which highly resembles the apoptosis process. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PEDV-induced H2AX phosphorylation depends on the activation of caspase-7 and caspase-activated DNAse (CAD), but not ATM-Chk2. Finally, we showed that the knockdown of H2AX attenuates PEDV replication. Taken together, we conclude that PEDV induces DDR through the ROS-ATM and caspase7-CAD-γH2AX signaling pathways to foster its early replication.

3.
BMC Neurosci ; 23(1): 43, 2022 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious, and the neurological symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection have already been reported. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on patients with central nervous system injuries remain unclear. METHODS: The high-throughput RNA sequencing was applied to analyze the transcriptomic changes in SK-N-SH cells after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were performed to identify the functions of differentially expressed genes and related pathways. RESULTS: A total of 820 mRNAs were significantly altered, including 671 upregulated and 149 downregulated mRNAs (showing an increase of ≥ 2-fold or decrease to ≤ 0.5-fold, respectively; p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, we verified the significant induction of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors, as well as the activation of NF-κB, p38, and Akt signaling pathways, in SK-N-SH by SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first time the transcriptional profiles of the host mRNAs involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection of SK-N-SH cells have been reported. These findings provide novel insight into the pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and might constitute a new approach for future prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2-induced central nervous system infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuroblastoma , Cytokines , Humans , NF-kappa B , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(7): 759-766, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1927456

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virtual teaching in medical education is rising with the increased need caused by the recent pandemic. However, evaluations of the perception of clinical teachers across professions for setting a virtual class in different teaching scenarios are limited. This study aims to identify cross-professional clinical teachers' perception of virtual classes and the acceptability of the virtual class-specific checklist for setting a virtual class. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate clinical teachers' need to set and teach a virtual class and then designed a virtual class-specific checklist with five essential steps and a related training program in July 2021. After the training, 186 participants were randomly enrolled in October 2021 to evaluate their perceptions about setting virtual classes and the acceptability of the virtual class-specific checklist using an online assessment questionnaire. RESULTS: In our institution, the number of faculty-led virtual classes has recently been on the increase. Our study revealed that most teachers agreed that virtual classes could break space and time limitations, but that the Internet environment could affect the fluency of the virtual class. They further agreed that the essential five steps in the checklist should vary depending on the type of teaching scenario. Most clinical teachers, with the exception of those who teach in the operating room, considered the operating room as the most difficult scenario for setting virtual classes. CONCLUSION: Faculty training for setting virtual classes is essential, and the essential virtual class-specific five steps are suitable for different teachers and teaching scenarios. However, the virtual class-specific checklist should be further adjusted according to the limitations caused by emerging innovative virtual teaching technology.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical , Faculty , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Teaching
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 19(1): 149, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the novel, pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global health emergency. SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has a high mortality rate in severe patients. However, there is very limited information on the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). METHODS: RNA-sequencing profiling was performed to analyze the transcriptomic changes in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hBMECs) after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bioinformatic tools were used for differential analysis. Immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR, and Western blotting analysis were used to explore biological phenotypes. RESULTS: A total of 927 differentially expressed genes were identified, 610 of which were significantly upregulated while the remaining 317 were downregulated. We verified the significant induction of cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules in hBMECs by SARS-CoV-2, suggesting an activation of the vascular endothelium in brain. Moreover, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection could increase the BBB permeability, by downregulating as well as remodeling the intercellular tight junction proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause BBB dysfunction, providing novel insights into the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 neuropathogenesis. Moreover, this finding shall constitute a new approach for future prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2-induced CNS infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain , Endothelial Cells , Humans
6.
Journal of Interactive Advertising ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1886335
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 827853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776027

ABSTRACT

Background: Mixed urinary incontinence increasingly undermines women's quality of life. Previous studies showed some effects of acupuncture for MUI, but no systematic review has been done to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for MUI in women. Objective: To systematically review the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for women with MUI. Methods: Ten databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, CBM, Scoups, CNKI, VIP and WANFANG DATA) were searched up to July 19th, 2021, using tailored search strategies with keywords not limited to "female," "mixed urinary incontinence," "acupuncture," and "randomized controlled trial," etc. RCTs and quasi-RCTs were included if investigating effect of any type of acupuncture for female patients with MUI. Data were extracted from eligible studies, and risks of bias were assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook from seven aspects using the RevMan 5.4 software. Results: A total of three randomized studies with 591 women were included. The risk of bias among the studies varied, with major concerns on blinding of participants and outcome assessor. Liu's study (497) mainly showed that electroacupuncture's effect on reduction of numbers of incontinence, urgency, nocturia episodes, and amount of urine leakage etc. was not inferior to that of PFMT-Solifenacin group at 12, 24, and 36 weeks. Zhan's study (60) showed that electroacupuncture reduced significantly more amount of urine leakage than Tolterodine at 8 weeks, with no data on incontinence episodes frequency. All 3 studies reported that acupuncture significantly increased the quality of life assessed by ICIQ score. In addition, incidence of acupuncture-related adverse events was rare, while antimuscarinic agents related adverse events were common in two studies. Conclusion: Although acupuncture showed some benefit for women with MUI, more evidences were required to draw a solid conclusion of effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for women with MUI. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO, identifier: CRD42021224600.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Urinary Incontinence , Female , Humans , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Solifenacin Succinate , Urinary Incontinence/therapy
8.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728094

ABSTRACT

Background Evidence increasingly suggested that impaired respiratory function remained in about 40% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge, jeopardizing their activities of daily living and quality of life (QoL) in a long term. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) can improve exercise capacity and QoL in individuals with chronic lung disease;however, evidence on the effect of PR for patients with post-COIVD-19 was scarce. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of PR on lung impairment for patients with post-COVID-19. Methods Five databases were searched for all the published trials of PR for patients with post-COVID-19 from 2019 to October 2021. Data were extracted using a standardized form. The risks of bias of included studies were assessed using the Cochrane risk of the bias assessment tool. Data were synthesized where possible;otherwise, qualitative analysis was done. Results Among 6,000 retrieved studies, 3 studies with 233 patients after COVID-19 were included. The pooled estimate of PR effect on 6-min walk test (6-MWT) (50.41, 95% CI 34.34 to 66.48;p < 0.0001) was in favor of the experiment group with clinical importance. It is found that PR could improve the symptom of dyspnea and QoL;however, its effect on pulmonary function test was inconsistent across studies. The risk of bias of included studies varied, with major concerns on the risk of blinding of participants and interventions performers. Conclusion The review showed that PR could improve exercise capacity measured by 6-MWT among patients with mild-to-moderate lung impairment after COVID-19. The interpretation of effects on lung function, dyspnea, and QoL should be cautious due to inadequate and conflicting data reported across studies. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021289562, identifier: CRD42021289562.

9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To avoid the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical clerkship, supplemental teachings such as digital materials in the scenario-based distal simulations were implemented. This study utilized the OSCE (objective-structured clinical examination) to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the learning outcome of medical students from the regular group (class of 2020) and pandemic-impacted group (class of 2021). METHODS: All medical students serially took, firstly, the mock-OSCE, secondly, the mock-OSCE, and the national OSCE. Then, the serial OSCE scores were compared between groups. RESULTS: Although with similar scores in the first mock OSCE, the regular group (n = 78) had a higher average score in the national OSCE than the pandemic-impacted group (n = 80) (872.18 vs. 834.96, p = 0.003). In terms of improvement, the performances of the regular group were also better than the pandemic-impacted group between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (79.10 vs. 38.14, p = 0.014), and between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (125.11 vs. 77.52, p = 0.003). While separating distinct genres, the regular group had more of a score increment in standardized patient-based stations between the second mock OSCE and the national OSCE (regular vs. pandemic-impacted: 57.03 vs. 18.95, p = 0.003), as well as between the first mock OSCE and the national OSCE (75.97 vs. 26.36, p < 0.001), but there was no significant difference among the skill-based stations. In particular, the scores of the emergency medicine associated station in the national OSCE of the pandemic-impacted group was lower. CONCLUSIONS: Our study implies that the pandemic significantly hampered the learning outcomes of final year medical students in their clinical participation. Especially facing the COVID-19 pandemic, more supplemental teachings are needed to compensate the decreasing emergency medicine exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Clinical Competence , Educational Measurement , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
11.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 678157, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417107

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aimed to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics and the parameters of the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia and to clarify the risk or protective factors for weaning failure. Methods: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia were selected from the special intensive care unit (ICU) of the Sino-French New City Branch of Tong Ji Hospital, Wuhan, and treated by the National Medical Team Work. They were divided into successful weaning (SW) group (N = 15) and unsuccessful weaning (USW) group (N = 18) according to the prognosis. Information of these patients was analyzed. Results: There were 33 patients included in this study. Patients in the USW group were associated with a poor outcome; the 28-day mortality rate was higher than in the SW group (86.7 vs. 16.7% p < 0.001). By comparison, we found that the initial plateau pressure (Pplat) and driving pressure (DP) of the USW group were higher and that compliance was lower than that of the SW group, but there was no difference between positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), and the ratio of partial pressure arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F ratio). Comparing the worst respiratory mechanics parameters of the two groups, the results of the Pplat, DP, compliance, and PEEP were the same as the initial data. The PCO2 of the USW group was higher, while the P/F ratio was lower. A logistic regression analysis suggested that higher Pplat might be an independent risk factor and that higher compliance and lower DP might be protective factors for weaning failure of invasive mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusions: Patients with USW were associated with a poor outcome, higher Pplat might be a risk factor, and a higher compliance and a lower DP might be protective factors for the weaning failure of ventilated COVID-19 patients. Mechanical ventilation settings will affect the patient's prognosis.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 654658, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325536

ABSTRACT

Purpose: A phenotype of COVID-19 ARDS patients with extremely low compliance and refractory hypercapnia was found in our ICU. In the context of limited number of ECMO machines, feasibility of a low-flow extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) based on the renal replacement therapy (RRT) platform in these patients was assessed. Methods: Single-center, prospective study. Refractory hypercapnia patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS were included and divided into the adjusted group and unadjusted group according to the level of PaCO2 after the application of the ECCO2R system. Ventilation parameters [tidal volume (VT), respiratory rate, and PEEP], platform pressure (Pplat) and driving pressure (DP), respiratory system compliance, arterial blood gases, and ECCO2R system characteristics were collected. Results: Twelve patients with refractory hypercapnia were enrolled, and the PaCO2 was 64.5 [56-88.75] mmHg. In the adjusted group, VT was significantly reduced from 5.90 ± 0.16 to 5.08 ± 0.43 ml/kg PBW; DP and Pplat were also significantly reduced from 23.5 ± 2.72 mmHg and 29.88 ± 3.04 mmHg to 18.5 ± 2.62 mmHg and 24.75 ± 3.41 mmHg, respectively. In the unadjusted group, PaCO2 decreased from 94 [86.25, 100.3] mmHg to 80 [67.50, 85.25] mmHg but with no significant difference, and the DP and Pplat were not decreased after weighing the pros and cons. Conclusions: A low-flow ECCO2R system based on the RRT platform enabled CO2 removal and could also decrease the DP and Pplat significantly, which provided a new way to treat these COVID-19 ARDS patients with refractory hypercapnia and extremely low compliance. Clinical Trial Registration: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/, identifier NCT04340414.

13.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 139(9): 975-982, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300334

ABSTRACT

Importance: Interest in teleophthalmology has been growing, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The advent of fifth-generation (5G) wireless systems has the potential to revolutionize teleophthalmology, but these systems have not previously been leveraged to conduct therapeutic telemedicine in the ophthalmology field. Objective: To assess the feasibility of 5G real-time laser photocoagulation as a telemedicine-based treatment for diabetic retinopathy (DR). Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a prospective study involving a retinal specialist from the Peking Union Medical College Hospital in Beijing, China, who performed online 5G real-time navigated retinal laser photocoagulation to treat participants with proliferative or severe nonproliferative DR who had been recruited in the Huzhou First People's Hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, located 1200 km from Beijing from October 2019 to July 2020. Interventions: These teleretinal DR and laser management procedures were conducted using a teleophthalmology platform that used the videoconference platform for teleconsultation, after which telelaser planning and intervention were conducted with a laser system and a platform for remote computer control, which were connected via 5G networks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diabetic eye prognosis and the real-time laser therapy transmission speed were evaluated. Results: A total of 6 participants (9 eyes) were included. Six eyes were treated via panretinal photocoagulation alone, while 1 eye underwent focal/grid photocoagulation and 2 eyes underwent both panretinal photocoagulation and focal/grid photocoagulation. The mean (SD) age was 53.7 (13.6) years (range, 32-67 years). The mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 14.3 (6.4) years (range, 3-20 years). The mean (SD) logMAR at baseline was 0.32 (0.20) (20/30 Snellen equivalent). Retinal telephotocoagulation operations were performed on all eyes without any noticeable delay during treatment. The mean (SD) number of panretinal photocoagulation laser spots per eye in 1 session was 913 (243). Conclusions and Relevance: This study introduces a novel teleophthalmology paradigm to treat DR at a distance. Applying novel technologies may continue to ensure that remote patients with DR and other conditions have access to essential health care. Further studies will be needed to compare this approach with the current standard of care to determine whether visual acuity or safety outcomes differ.


Subject(s)
Diabetic Retinopathy/surgery , Light Coagulation , Telemedicine , Wireless Technology , Adult , Aged , Beijing , Diabetic Retinopathy/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Light Coagulation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
14.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(10): 870.e1-870.e7, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292829

ABSTRACT

Late-onset severe pneumonia (LOSP) is defined as severe pneumonia developing during the late phase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Because of the high mortality in patients with LOSP, it is important to identify prognostic factors. In this study, we aimed to develop a risk score system with broad applicability that can help predict the risk of LOSP-associated mortality. We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with LOSP after allo-HSCT between June 2009 and July 2017. The assessment variables included immune, nutritional, and metabolic parameters at the onset of LOSP. Of these 100 patients, 45 (45%) eventually died, and 55 (55%) were positive for organisms, most commonly viruses. In the multivariate analysis, higher monocyte count (≥0.20 × 109/L versus <0.20 × 109/L; P = .001), higher albumin level (≥30.5 g/L versus <30.5 g/L; P = .044), lower lactic dehydrogenase level (<250 U/L versus ≥250 U/L; P = .008) and lower blood urea nitrogen concentration (<7.2 mmol/L versus ≥7.2 mmol/L; P = .026) at the onset of LOSP were significantly associated with better 60-day survival. A risk score system based on the foregoing results showed that the probability of 60-day survival decreased with increasing risk factors, from 96.3% in the low-risk group to 49.1% in the intermediate-risk group and 12.5% in the high-risk group. Our results indicate that this scoring system using 4 variables can stratify patients with different probabilities of survival after LOSP, which suggests that patients' immune, nutritional, and metabolic status are crucial factors in determining outcome.


Subject(s)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Pneumonia , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous
15.
J Virol ; 95(9)2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180915

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is an α-coronavirus causing severe diarrhea and high mortality rates in suckling piglets and posing significant economic impact. PEDV replication is completed and results in a large amount of RNA in the cytoplasm. Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic RNA granules formed under various stress conditions, including viral infections. Several previous studies suggested that SGs were involved in the antiviral activity of host cells to limit viral propagation. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study aimed to delineate the molecular mechanisms regulating the SG response to PEDV infection. SG formation is induced early during PEDV infection, but as infection proceeds, this ability is lost and SGs disappear at late stages of infection (>18 h postinfection). PEDV infection resulted in the cleavage of Ras-GTPase-activating protein-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) mediated by caspase-8. Using mutational analysis, the PEDV-induced cleavage site within G3BP1 was identified, which differed from the 3C protease cleavage site previously identified. Furthermore, G3BP1 cleavage by caspase-8 at D168 and D169 was confirmed in vitro as well as in vivo The overexpression of cleavage-resistant G3BP1 conferred persistent SG formation and suppression of viral replication. Additionally, the knockdown of endogenous G3BP1 abolished SG formation and potentiated viral replication. Taken together, these data provide new insights into novel strategies in which PEDV limits the host stress response and antiviral responses and indicate that caspase-8-mediated G3BP1 cleavage is important in the failure of host defense against PEDV infection.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) are drawing extensive attention again since the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019. CoVs are prone to variation and own the transmission capability by crossing the species barrier resulting in reemergence. How CoVs manipulate the antiviral responses of their hosts needs to be explored. Overall, the study provides new insight into how porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) impaired SG assembly by targeting G3BP1 via the host proteinase caspase-8. These findings enhanced the understanding of PEDV infection and might help identify new antiviral targets that could inhibit viral replication and limit the pathogenesis of PEDV.


Subject(s)
Caspase 8/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/physiology , Proteolysis , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication , Animals , Caspase 8/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytoplasmic Granules/genetics , Cytoplasmic Granules/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , RNA Recognition Motif Proteins/genetics , Swine , Vero Cells
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113001, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064880

ABSTRACT

Amplification-based nucleic acid detection is widely employed in food safety, medical diagnosis and environment monitoring. However, conventional nucleic acid analysis has to be carried out in laboratories because of requiring expensive instruments and trained personnel. If people could do nucleic acid detection at home by themselves, the application of nucleic acid detection would be greatly accelerated. We herein reported a polypropylene (PP) bag-based method for convenient detection of nucleic acids in the oil-sealed space. The PP bag has three chambers which are responsible for lysis, washing and amplification/detection, respectively. After adding sample, nucleic acids are adsorbed on magnetic particles (MPs) and moved into these three chambers successively through immiscible oil channel by an external magnet. Combined with isothermal amplification, the PP bag can be incubated in a water bath or milk warmer and acted as a reaction tube. With highly specific CRISPR technology, Salmonella typhimurium (St) and SARS-CoV-2 can be visually detected in these PP bags within 1 h, indicating its potential household application. To further improve the reliability of nucleic acid testing at home, a logic decision method is introduced by detecting both target and endogenous reference gene. Positive/negative/invalid detection result can be obtained by chronologically adding the CRISPR reagents of target and endogenous reference gene. We anticipate that this PP bag can provide a novel toolkit for nucleic acid detection in people's daily life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Food Microbiology , Humans , Magnetics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Polypropylenes , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Salmonella typhimurium/genetics , Salmonella typhimurium/isolation & purification , Self-Testing
17.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 23(3): 575-583, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060427

ABSTRACT

The incidence of large disasters has been increasing worldwide. This has led to a growing interest in disaster medicine. In this review, we report current evidence related to disasters and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, such as cardiovascular diseases during disasters, management of disaster hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19. This review summarizes the time course and mechanisms of disaster-related diseases. It also discusses the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as a cardiovascular risk management strategy to prevent cardiovascular events. During the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, we used the "Disaster Cardiovascular Prevention" system that was employed for blood pressure (BP) monitoring and risk management using ICT. We introduced an ICT-based BP monitoring device at evacuation centers and shared patients' BP values in the database to support BP management by remote monitoring, which led to improved BP control. Effective use of telemedicine using ICT is important for risk management of cardiovascular diseases during disasters and pandemics in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Disasters , Hypertension , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e928835, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND This study summarizes the characteristics of children screened for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and reports the case of 1 child who was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center and the cases of his family members. MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical records of 159 children who were admitted to our hospital from January 23 to March 20, 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Samples from pharyngeal or/and anal swabs were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing for SARS-CoV-2 within 12 h of patient admission; a second RT-PCR test was done 24 h after the first test. RESULTS Of the 159 patients, 151 patients had epidemiological histories, 14 patients had cluster onset, and 8 patients had no epidemiological history but had symptoms similar to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most common symptom was fever (n=125), followed by respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. A 7-year-old boy in a cluster family from Wuhan was confirmed with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection with ground-glass opacity shadows on his lung computed tomography scan, and his swab RT-PCR test had not turned negative until day 19 of his hospitalization. In patients who did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2, influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus were observed. A total of 158 patients recovered, were discharged, and experienced no abnormalities during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS For SARS-CoV-2 nosocomial infections, taking a "standard prevention & contact isolation & droplet isolation & air isolation" strategy can prevent infection effectively. Children with clustered disease need close monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Medical Records , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
19.
Chin J Acad Radiol ; 3(4): 175-180, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938653

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has swept across China and spread to other countries. The rapid spreading of COVID-19 and panic combined with the lack of a hierarchical medical system in China have resulted in a huge number of hospital visiting which are overwhelming local medical system and increasing the incidence of cross infection. To meliorate this situation, we adopted the management concept of the system of Tiered Diagnosis and Treatment and developed an online tool for self-triage based on the mostly used multi-purpose smartphone app Wechat in China. This online tool helps people perform self-triage so that they can decide whether to quarantine at home or visit hospital. This tool further provides instructions for home quarantine and help patients make an appointment online if hospital visiting suggested. This smartphone application can reduce the burden on hospitals without losing the truly COVID-19 patients and protect people from the danger of cross infection.

20.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(12): 1998-2004, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coagulopathy is one of the characteristics observed in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) contribute to coagulopathy, though their role in COVID-19 remains unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and characteristics of aPLs in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera collected from 66 COVID-19 patients who were critically ill and 13 COVID-19 patients who were not critically ill were tested by chemiluminescence immunoassay for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCLs), anti-ß2 -glycoprotein I (anti-ß2 GPI) (IgG, IgM, and IgA), and IgG anti-ß2 GPI-domain 1 (anti-ß2 GPI-D1) and IgM and IgG anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT) antibodies were detected in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Of the 66 COVID-19 patients in critical condition, aPLs were detected in 31 (47% ). Antiphospholipid antibodies were not present among COVID-19 patients who were not in critical condition. The IgA anti-ß2 GPI antibody was the most commonly observed aPL in patients with COVID-19 and was present in 28.8% (19 of 66) of the critically ill patients, followed by IgA aCLs (17 of 66, or 25.8%) and IgG anti-ß2 GPI (12 of 66, or 18.2%). For multiple aPLs, IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCLs was the most common antibody profile observed (15 of 66, or 22.7%), followed by IgA anti-ß2 GPI + IgA aCL + IgG anti-ß2 GPI (10 of 66, or 15.2%). Antiphospholipid antibodies emerge ~35-39 days after disease onset. A dynamic analysis of aPLs revealed 4 patterns based on the persistence or transient appearance of the aPLs. Patients with multiple aPLs had a significantly higher incidence of cerebral infarction compared to patients who were negative for aPLs (P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: Antiphospholipid antibodies were common in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Repeated testing demonstrating medium to high titers of aPLs and the number of aPL types a patient is positive for may help in identifying patients who are at risk of developing cerebral infarction. Antiphospholipid antibodies may be transient and disappear within a few weeks, but in genetically predisposed patients, COVID-19 may trigger the development of an autoimmune condition similar to the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), referred to as "COVID-19-induced APS-like syndrome." Long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients who are positive for aPLs would be of great importance in understanding the pathogenesis of this novel coronavirus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL