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1.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 883597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952423

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Accompanying the rapid spread of the error-prone RNA-based genome, several dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants have been genetically identified. The mutations in the spike protein, which are essential for receptor binding and fusion, have been intensively investigated for their contributions to viral transmission. Nevertheless, the importance of other viral proteins and their mutations in SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle and transmission remains fairly understood. Here, we report the strong potency of an accessory protein ORF8 in modulating the level and processing of the spike protein. The expression of ORF8 protein does not affect propagation but expression of spike protein, which may lead to pseudovirions with less spike protein on the surface, therefore less infection potential. At the protein level, ORF8 expression led to downregulation and insufficient S1/S2 cleavage of the spike protein in a dose-dependent manner. ORF8 exhibits a strong interaction with the spike protein mainly at S1 domains and mediates its degradation through multiple pathways. The dominant clinical isolated ORF8 variants with the reduced protein stability exhibited the increased capacity of viral transmission without compromising their inhibitory effects on HLA-A2. Although the increase in spike protein level and Spike pseudovirus production observed by using highly transmissible clinical spike variants, there was no significant compromise in ORF8-mediated downregulation. Because ORF8 is important for immune surveillance and might be required for viral fitness in vivo, the alteration of the spike protein might be an optional strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to promote viral transmission by escaping the inhibitory effects of ORF8. Therefore, our report emphasized the importance of ORF8 in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein production, maturation, and possible evolution.

2.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 1617-1625, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917095

ABSTRACT

Background: As the number of COVID-19 cases grows worldwide, one solution to the global pandemic is vaccination. Unfortunately, the hesitancy of receiving vaccines is still high, particularly among younger age groups (eg, students). Because the hesitancy of receiving vaccines is an important issue, instruments have been developed to assess vaccine hesitancy. Moreover, the use of these instruments among specific groups such as students is of critical importance. Aim: The present study examined the psychometric properties of the nine-item MoVac-COVID19S (also known as the DrVac-COVID19S) including its measurement invariance among university students in three different countries (ie, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia). Methods: A multi-country, web-based cross-sectional survey study was conducted among 1809 university students, recruited from the three countries from May to September 2021. The nine-item scale was translated into Traditional Chinese, Bahasa Indonesian, and Malay. Results: The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the one-factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S was fully supported among Indonesian and Malay participants (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.991 and 0.998; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] = 0.997 and 0.987; root mean sqaure error of approximation [RMSEA] = 0.040 and 0.071; and standardized root mean square residual [SRMR] = 0.014 and 0.039). Moreover, the four-factor structure was supported among Indonesian, Malay, and Taiwanese participants (CFI = 0.998, 0.998, and 0.985; TLI = 0.997, 0.996, and 0.973; RMSEA = 0.044, 0.038, and 0.091; and SRMR = 0.013, 0.018, and 0.049). Conclusion: The MoVac-COVID19S has good construct validity among university students from three different countries (ie, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Malaysia). The four-factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S was supported. Therefore, health-care providers may want to assess the four underlying constructs to better understand why a university student accepts or declines COVID-19 vaccine uptake in the three countries. Using the findings, government policymakers and health-care authorities can design appropriate programs to help decrease vaccine hesitancy.

3.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1876861

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Accompanying the rapid spread of the error-prone RNA-based genome, several dominant SARS-CoV-2 variants have been genetically identified. The mutations in the spike protein, which are essential for receptor binding and fusion, have been intensively investigated for their contributions to viral transmission. Nevertheless, the importance of other viral proteins and their mutations in SARS-CoV-2 lifecycle and transmission remains fairly understood. Here, we report the strong potency of an accessory protein ORF8 in modulating the level and processing of the spike protein. The expression of ORF8 protein does not affect propagation but expression of spike protein, which may lead to pseudovirions with less spike protein on the surface, therefore less infection potential. At the protein level, ORF8 expression led to downregulation and insufficient S1/S2 cleavage of the spike protein in a dose-dependent manner. ORF8 exhibits a strong interaction with the spike protein mainly at S1 domains and mediates its degradation through multiple pathways. The dominant clinical isolated ORF8 variants with the reduced protein stability exhibited the increased capacity of viral transmission without compromising their inhibitory effects on HLA-A2. Although the increase in spike protein level and Spike pseudovirus production observed by using highly transmissible clinical spike variants, there was no significant compromise in ORF8-mediated downregulation. Because ORF8 is important for immune surveillance and might be required for viral fitness in vivo, the alteration of the spike protein might be an optional strategy used by SARS-CoV-2 to promote viral transmission by escaping the inhibitory effects of ORF8. Therefore, our report emphasized the importance of ORF8 in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein production, maturation, and possible evolution.

4.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-17, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1827089

ABSTRACT

Utilizing a large-scale cross-sectional survey, the present study tested the advanced psychometric properties of Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) in specific populations (i.e., primary and middle schoolteachers, and their students). The present study also examined the association between perceived fear of COVID-19 and psychological distress among home-room teachers (i.e., teachers who teach all their students in one classroom all day) and their students. The results among participants (11,134 teachers and 4,335 students) indicated good internal reliability of FCV-19S and excellent factorial validity with a two-factor structure utilizing these specific populations. Furthermore, the multilevel analysis showed that home-room teachers' psychological distress, but not fear of COVID-19, was positively associated with their students. In sum, the FCV-19S is a useful tool to assess the fear of COVID-19 on potentially vulnerable populations (i.e., primary/middle schoolteachers and their students). Future studies are encouraged to use the present study's findings to investigate possible underlying mechanisms for developing effective coping strategies and interventions. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-021-02471-3.

5.
Data Brief ; 42: 108103, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757266

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to plague the world. Hence, there is been an effort to mitigate this virus and its effects with several means including vaccination which is one of the most effective ways of controlling the virus. However, efforts at getting people to vaccinate have met several challenges. To help with understanding the reasons underlying an individual's willingness to take COVID-19 vaccine or not, a scale called Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed. To expand its usability worldwide (as it has currently been limited to only China and Taiwan), data were collected in other countries (regions) too. Therefore, this MoVac-COVID19S data is from five countries (that is, India, Ghana, Afghanistan, Taiwan, and mainland China) which cut across five regions. A total of 6053 participants across the stated countries completed the survey between January and March 2021 using a cross-sectional survey design. The different sections of the survey solicited sociodemographic information (e.g., country, age, gender, educational level, and profession) and the MoVac-COVID19S data from the participants. The data collected from this survey were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which were carried out using the IBM SPSS version 22.0.

6.
Risk management and healthcare policy ; 15:435-445, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1743910

ABSTRACT

Purpose The percentage of individuals who were fully vaccinated against COVID-19 was 53% worldwide, 62% in Asia, and 11% in Africa at the time of writing (February 9, 2022). In addition to administrative issues, vaccine hesitancy is an important factor contributing to the relatively low rate of vaccination. The Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) was developed to assess COVID-19 vaccination acceptance levels. However, it has only been tested among Taiwanese, mainland Chinese, and Ghanaian populations (Chen et al, 2021;Fan et al, 2021;Yeh et al, 2021). Therefore, the present study examined the construct validity and measurement invariance of the MoVac-COVID19S among individuals from five countries (ie, Taiwan, mainland China, India, Ghana, and Afghanistan). Participants and Methods A cross-sectional survey study recruited 6053 participants across five countries who completed the survey between January and March 2021. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) fit indices were used to examine factor structure and measurement invariance across the five countries. Results The fit indices of the CFA were relatively good across the countries except for the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Moreover, the four-factor structure (either nine or 12 items) had a better fit than the one-factor structure. However, the four-factor model using nine MoVac-COVID19S items was the only model that had measurement invariance support for both factor loadings and item intercepts across the five countries. Conclusion The present study confirmed that the MoVac-COVID19S has acceptable psychometric properties and can be used to assess an individual’s willingness to get COVID-19 vaccination.

7.
Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education ; 12(11):4018-4023, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1743506

ABSTRACT

With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control of COVID-19, the psychological problems of college students' employment have become more prominent. In this situation, college students' employment psychological problems are more complex than before, which to a large extent affects the students' employment psychology, employment objectives, but also affects the society's accurate selection of talents. This paper expounds the employment psychological problems of college students, from the perspective of positive psychology based on prevention, put forward coping strategies, to help college students to successfully complete the psychological adaptation and identity transformation from school to society, to achieve employment.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308193

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals’ willingness to vaccinate. The present study developed and validated the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). Methods: A total of 3145 university students (mean age=20.80 years;SD=2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. Results: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω=0.921) and 12-item version (ω=0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (CFI=0.984, TLI=0.971, RMSEA=0.088, SRMR=0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. Conclusions: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308166

ABSTRACT

Objective: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and its resulting social policy changes, may result in psychological distress among schoolchildren with overweight. This study thus aimed to (1) compare psychological distress (including fear of COVID-19 infection, stress, anxiety, and depression), perceived weight stigma, and problematic internet-related behaviors between schoolchildren with and without overweight;(2) assess whether perceived weight stigma and problematic internet-related behaviors explained psychological distress. Methods: : Schoolchildren (n=1 357;mean age=10.7 years) with overweight (n=236) and without overweight (n=1 121) completed an online survey assessing their fear of COVID-19 infection, stress, anxiety, depression, perceived weight stigma, problematic smartphone application use, problematic social media use, and problematic gaming. Results: : Schoolchildren with overweight had significantly higher levels of COVID-19 infection fear, stress, depression, perceived weight stigma, and problematic social media use than those without overweight. Regression models showed that perceived weight stigma and problematic internet-related behaviors were significant predictors of psychological distress among schoolchildren with overweight. Conclusion: Strategies to manage perceived weight stigma and problematic internet-related behaviors may have a positive influence on mental health among schoolchildren with overweight under health-threatening circumstances, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic.

10.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444162

ABSTRACT

There are limited data concerning the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among teachers. Therefore, the present study estimated the prevalence of PTSD among mainland Chinese teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic and to construct a model with mediation and moderation effects to explain the PTSD. Data collection was conducted in schools in the Jiangxi province between October and November 2020 among k-12 schoolteachers. An online survey, including five different psychometric scales, was used to collect data. All participants were assessed for PTSD using the Chinese version of the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Hayes' PROCESS Model 8 was used to examine the potential factors explaining a higher PTSD scores. A total of 2603 teachers from k-12 schools participated. With the cutoff score at 31, the prevalence of PTSD was 12.3% but decreased to 1.0% when the cutoff score was at 49. Nomophobia moderated the effects of Fear of COVID-19 Scale on PTSD. The findings suggest that fear of COVID-19 among teachers leads to PTSD via psychological distress, highlighting the moderating effect of nomophobia in this association. Based on the study's findings, psychological interventions and educational training are needed to reduce fear among teachers at higher risk of developing PTSD.

11.
J Behav Addict ; 10(3): 731-746, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416927

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present longitudinal study examined the changes in problematic internet use (problematic smartphone use, problematic social media use, and problematic gaming) and changes in COVID-19-related psychological distress (fear of COVID-19 and worry concerning COVID-19) across three time-points (before the COVID-19 outbreak, during the initial stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, and during the COVID-19 outbreak recovery period). METHODS: A total of 504 Chinese schoolchildren completed measures concerning problematic internet use and psychological distress across three time-points. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify participants into three groups of problematic internet use comprising Group 1 (lowest level), Group 2 (moderate level), and Group 3 (highest level). RESULTS: Statistical analyses showed that as problematic use of internet-related activities declined among Group 3 participants across the three time points, participants in Group 1 and Group 2 had increased problematic use of internet-related activities. Although there was no between-group difference in relation to worrying concerning COVID-19 infection, Groups 2 and 3 had significantly higher levels of fear of COVID-19 than Group 1 during the COVID-19 recovery period. Regression analysis showed that change in problematic internet use predicted fear of COVID-19 during the recovery period. CONCLUSION: The varied levels of problematic internet use among schoolchildren reflect different changing trends of additive behaviors during COVID-19 outbreak and recovery periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Child , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internet , Internet Addiction Disorder , Latent Class Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409290

ABSTRACT

Problematic Internet use (PIU) is a risk factor for psychological distress during COVID-19, as teachers are a psychologically vulnerable population. We explored the role of PIU in terms of primary and middle school teachers' fear of COVID-19 and psychological need thwarting (PNT) of online teaching. We empirically evaluated the relationships among these research variables in explaining teachers' psychological distress during COVID-19. Online survey data were collected from 9030 teachers. A high proportion of participants demonstrated psychological distress: depression (20.4%), anxiety (26.4%), and stress (10.2%). Structural equation modeling was used to test our proposed conceptual model, wherein PIU behaviors served as predictors, mediated by fear of COVID-19 and PNT of online teaching, for teachers' psychological distress. With ideal model fit, the results of the path coefficients indicated that PIU behaviors were associated with fear of COVID-19 (p < 0.001); fear of COVID-19 and PNT of online teaching were associated with psychological distress (p < 0.001); and fear of COVID-19 was also positively associated with PNT of online teaching (p < 0.001). PSU and PSMU had an indirect positive effect on psychological distress through the mediator of fear of COVID-19 and PNT of online teaching. As such, we suggest that school administrators pay greater attention to teachers' psychological needs through efforts to enhance teachers' autonomy and relatedness from interpersonal relationships, alleviating PNT of online teaching. Our PNT of online teaching scale may also serve as a contribution for further research and practice.

13.
Sleep Epidemiol ; 1: 100005, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401865

ABSTRACT

The implementation of mandatory stay-at-home and isolation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in people relying more on smartphone use to obtain the latest developments regarding the pandemic, interact with people, and for entertainment. Unfortunately, as people spend more time participating in Internet activities, they are more likely to encounter problematic internet use (PIU) issues. The main purpose of this study was to examine the association between two kinds of PIU [problematic smartphone use (PSU) and problematic social media use (PSMU)], psychological distress, and sleep problems. In addition, the moderating effect of sleep problems was examined. A total of 11014 school teachers completed the online survey. The participants were divided into two (high and low sleep problem) groups, according to the severity of their sleep problems, for comparison. The research conducted a comparison between the degree of PIU and psychological distress, and then provided correction for the two groups separately. The results indicated that the high sleep problem group exhibited significantly greater psychological distress [mean (SD) = 12.94 (11.29)] than the low sleep problem group [(mean (SD) = 3.42 (6.57)]. Both PSU and PSMU were positively correlated with psychological distress in the two groups. The moderating effect of sleep problems was supported and PSMU was more harmful to psychological distress in the high sleep problem group, while the effect of PSU on psychological distress was not significantly different between the two groups.

14.
Sleep Epidemiol ; 1: 100004, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401864

ABSTRACT

Objective: Sleep difficulty is one of the main concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined factors related to vaccination and physical and psychological health conditions, and sleep difficulty in college students in China. Methods: An online, cross-sectional, anonymous survey was used to investigate college students' perceived sleep difficulty and relevant components (i.e., physical health condition, psychological distress, knowledge of vaccine, and autonomy of vaccine uptake). Hierarchical ordinal logistic regression was conducted to examine the proposed model with the control of participants' demographics (i.e., gender and age). Results: Valid data of 3,145 students from 43 universities in mainland China was collected in January 2021. The average age of participants was 20.8 years old (S. D. = 2.09). The majority were single (97.4%), and about half were male (49.8%). Results showed that participants had less psychological distress when they had more knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine and more autonomy to decide whether to receive it. In addition, participants with better physical health experienced less sleep difficulty. In contrast, those with more psychological distress experienced more sleep difficulty. Conclusions: These findings can inform healthcare providers about the relationship between different factors and difficulty sleeping and aid them in developing interventions addressing sleep difficulties associated with the global pandemic. Health authorities also can improve vaccine uptake and reduce hesitancies in future vaccination campaigns based on the study results showing that greater vaccine knowledge and autonomy reduced psychological distress.

15.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(10): 3413-3420, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281831

ABSTRACT

Objective: The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the most robust models in explaining health-related behavior. In this study, we tested the extended TPB to predict university students' intentions to uptake COVID-19 vaccination.Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was developed to investigate students' intention to uptake the COVID-19 vaccine based on the components of the TPB (i.e., attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and extended components (i.e., knowledge about COVID-19, risk perception of COVID-19, and past influenza vaccination behavior). Non-probability sampling was used to collect data from 3145 students from 43 universities in mainland China in January 2021. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to examine the proposed model. Enrolled students were relatively young (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09), half of them are female (50.2%), and most of them were studying in undergraduate programs (n = 3026; 96.2%).Results: The results showed that students' knowledge of the COVID-19 vaccine and risk perception of COVID-19 positively influenced their attitude toward the uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine. Also, students' attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination uptake and their past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors were positively associated with the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination. Subjective norm and perceived behavioral control were not significant predictors for the intention to uptake COVID-19 vaccination (R2 = 0.49).Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that the extended TPB appears to be an efficient model with the focus on attitude, knowledge, risk perception, and past influenza vaccination uptake behaviors in explaining students' intention for COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Intention , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
Vaccine ; 39(32): 4510-4515, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275754

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 continues to ravage the world with economies and life significantly and negatively affected. Fortunately, there has been significant progress in the production of vaccines to stem the infection. However, with controversies and myths surrounding vaccinations, it is timely to examine individuals' willingness to vaccinate. The present study adapted the Motors of Influenza Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-Flu Scale) into the Motors of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale (MoVac-COVID19S) for validation and assessed the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination utilizing the cognitive model of empowerment (CME). METHODS: A total of 3145 university students (mean age = 20.80 years; SD = 2.09) were recruited for the present study between January 5 and 16, 2021. Two MoVac-COVID19S scales (9-item and 12-item) were adapted from the MoVac-Flu Scale, an instrument developed using CME. Psychometric tests were conducted to ascertain reliability and validity properties. RESULTS: The findings indicated that the MoVac-COVID19S had high internal consistency in both the 9-item version (ω = 0.921) and 12-item version (ω = 0.898). The factor structure of the MoVac-COVID19S (9-item and 12-item versions) corresponded well with CME theory. All the fit indices were satisfactory (comparative fit index = 0.984, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.971, root mean square error of approximation = 0.088, standardized root mean square residual = 0.058) but the 9-item MoVac-COVID had better fit indices than the 12-item MoVac-COVID due to the negative wording effects existing in the 12-item MoVac-COVID19S. The scale had satisfactory known-group validity in both 9-item and 12-item versions. CONCLUSIONS: The MoVac-COVID19S has promising psychometric properties based on internal consistency, factor structure, and known-group validity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Vaccination , Young Adult
17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 675839, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264391

ABSTRACT

Background: Social distancing and school suspension due to the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) may have a negative impact on children's behavior and well-being. Problematic smartphone use (PSU), problematic social media use (PSMU) and perceived weight stigma (PWS) are particularly important issues for children, yet we have a poor understanding of how these may have been affected by lockdowns and physical isolation resulting from COVID-19. This research aimed to understand how these psychosocial and behavioral variables may be associated with psychological distress, and how these associations may have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A total of 489 children completed a three-wave longitudinal study from January 2020 to June 2020. The first wave was conducted before the COVID-19 outbreak. The second wave was conducted during the outbreak. The third wave was conducted during post-COVID-19 lockdown. Questionnaires measured psychological distress, PSU, PSMU, and PWS. Results: PSU, PSMU, PWS and psychological distress were all significantly associated with each other. PSU was significantly higher during outbreak. PWS was significantly higher before outbreak. We found an increased association between PSMU and PWS across three waves in all three models. The association between PSU and depression/anxiety decreased across three waves; however, association between PSMU and depression/anxiety increased across three waves. Conclusions: COVID-19 initiated school suspension and associated lockdowns appear to have exacerbated PSU and depression among children. However, PWS was reduced during this period. Children should use smartphones and social media safely and cautiously, and be aware of the potential exposure to weight stigmatization.

18.
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking ; : No Pagination Specified, 2021.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1209414

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the mediating roles of problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use in the associations between psychological distress and screen time use among primary school children during the school hiatus due to the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Students (n = 2,026;mean [standard deviation] age = 10.71 years [1.07];1,011 [49.9 percent] girls) in Sichuan, China completed a cross-sectional online survey, and this study was approved by the ethics committee of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University (IRB ref: HSEARS20190718001). The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form, Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale, and Smartphone Application-Based Addiction Scale were used to assess problematic gaming, social media use, and smartphone use. The Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 was used to assess distress, and an item rated on a 0-10 scale was included to assess fear of being infected by COVID-19. Fear of being infected by COVID-19 was assessed because this could be a confounding variable in the association between psychological distress and screen time use. Increased time spent on gaming, social media, and smartphones was associated with greater problematic gaming, problematic social media use, problematic smartphone use, and psychological distress, but was not associated with fear of COVID-19 infection. Mediation analyses showed that problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic smartphone use were significant mediators in the association between psychological distress and increased time spent on Internet-related activities during the COVID-19 outbreak period. Children who had psychological distress during COVID-19 outbreak might have spent longer time on Internet-related activities due to the school hiatus and problematic use of Internet-related activities. Parents/caregivers are recommended to monitor their children's use of Internet while encouraging children to engage in positive activities to ease the concern of negative psychological responses during the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved)

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(4)2021 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187068

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aims of the present study were to examine the prediction of the threat and coping appraisal utilizing an extended protection motivation theory (PMT) for the motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination and the influence of various information sources on coping appraisal among university students in China. METHODS: The sample comprised 3145 students from 43 universities in China who completed an online survey including PMT constructs as well as constructs added to PMT. The PMT constructs comprised motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination, threat appraisal, and coping appraisal. The extended PMT constructs comprised knowledge about mechanisms and information sources of COVID-19 vaccination. RESULTS: Perceived severity of COVID-19 was positively associated with motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination. Receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from medical personnel was associated with greater self-efficacy, response efficacy, and knowledge, whereas receiving information concerning COVID-19 vaccination from coworkers/colleagues was associated with less response efficacy and knowledge. Receiving online information concerning COVID-19 vaccination was associated with greater response cost of vaccination efficacy and less knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: This study supported the prediction of perceived severity in the PMT for motivation to have COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. Vaccination information sources have different effects on students' coping appraisal of COVID-19 vaccination.

20.
J Addict Med ; 16(2): e73-e80, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has generated negative effects on psychological well-being worldwide, including in schoolchildren. Government requirements to stay at home and avoid social and school settings may impact psychological well-being by modifying various behaviors such as problematic phone and Internet use, yet there is a paucity of research on this issue. This study examined whether the COVID-19 outbreak may have impacted problematic smartphone use (PSU), problematic gaming (PG), and psychological distress, specifically the pattern of relationships between PSU, PG, and psychological distress in schoolchildren. METHODS: Longitudinal data on psychological distress, PSU, and PG were collected from 575 children in primary schools in 3 waves: Waves 1 and 2 were conducted before the COVID-19 outbreak and Wave 3 during the outbreak. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine relationships between factors across the 3 waves. RESULTS: Cross-lagged models found that higher levels of PSU were not significantly related prospectively to greater psychological distress before the COVID-19 outbreak, but this prospective relationship became significant during the COVID-19 outbreak. Whereas PG was associated prospectively with psychological distress before the COVID-19 outbreak (ie, between Waves 1 and 2), this association became nonsignificant during the COVID-19 lockdown (ie, between Waves 2 and 3). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak has seemed to change prospective relationships between PSU and psychological distress and PG and psychological distress in schoolchildren. Future research should examine whether restrictions on or information provided to schoolchildren may exacerbate PSUs effects on psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Internet , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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