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1.
Gerontol Geriatr Med ; 8: 23337214221111227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957037

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Due to the insufficient and inadequate policies on the psychological well-being of the aged population, we aimed to examine the multidimensional determinants of well-being during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with1,232 participants aged 50 and older living in Southern Taiwan. We used multivariate logistic regression to examine the associations between demographics, the physical health, mental health, social ties domains, and well-being. Results: We found that (i) in physical health, no dental problems and exercise were related to better well-being; (ii) in mental health, stress and depression decreased well-being, but laughing every day, and a positive attitude toward aging had adverse effects; and (iii) in social ties, subjective social status, family support, and place attachment to the community were positively associated with well-being. Discussion: Our findings highlight the multidimensional needs at the individual and community levels for the Chinese population.

2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 857709, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952628

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused colleges and universities to rely heavily on online learning to continue knowledge dissemination to learners. This study used the second-generation model of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) to comprehensively analyze the mediating effects of self-efficacy, which affects learners' effective use of online tools for learning, and capability of metacognition and self-regulation, which can independently adjust learning progress into the UTAUT2 model, on the learner's willingness to continue online learning [i.e., their behavioral intention (BI)] by constructing a UTAUT2-based e-learning model. This study administered questionnaires to undergraduates in universities in East China to collect data. The effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), and facilitating conditions (FCs), hedonic motivation (HM), price value (PV), and habits on BI (directly or through mediators) were analyzed through data analysis and structural equation modeling, and the UTAUT2-based e-learning model was accordingly modified. The results indicated that the self-efficacy enhanced the effects of EE, SI, FCs, HM, and PV on learners' BI; that metacognition and self-regulation (MS) capabilities enhanced the effects of EE on learners' BI; and that habits had a direct and strong effect on BI. This study also provided some suggestions to enhance higher education learners' willingness to continue online learning, such as improving social recognition and support, careful design of teaching content, easy-to-use technology, financial support. These results and suggestions may guide colleges and universities in conducting, continuing, or enhancing online education, particularly as the pandemic continues.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933953

ABSTRACT

The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) has the potential to replace the use of non-human primates in biomedical research. To increase the availability of this species, we have undertaken the ambitious task of establishing inbred lines of the Chinese tree shrew; however, we have been hindered by a low survival rate of inbred pups. Here, we report our artificial rearing (AR) of Chinese tree shrew pups using four different milk substitutes: the formula described by Tsang and Collins (milk TC) and three commercially available milk substitutes intended for possums (milk A and milk C) and for guinea pigs (milk B). We compared the effects of these milk substitutes and maternal milk on the daily milk consumption, growth performance, and survival of the pups. We also assessed the life span and reproductive performance of the F1 individuals given the best milk substitute as compared to the maternally reared (MR) pups. Milk B was found to be appropriate for AR. Pups fed with milk B had a high survival rate at the weaning age compared to those fed with the other milk substitutes. The AR pups fed with milk B had a life span similar to that of MR pups. AR females fed with milk B had an earlier age of the first reproduction, a larger number of litters, and a higher rate of survival of the offspring at the weaning age compared with the MR females. The successful optimization of a milk substitute for AR of Chinese tree shrew pups will undoubtedly facilitate the wide usage of this experimental animal.

4.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(7): 760-4, 2022 Jul 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" on the sequelae of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the recovery period. METHODS: A total of 33 patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period were treated with filiform-fire needling at the acupoints of Mingmen (GV 4), Shenzhu (GV 12), Gaohuang (BL 43), Zusanli (ST 36) and Shangjuxu (ST 37), etc., once every other day, 3 times a week, and 3 times was one course of treatment and totally 2 courses of treatment were required. The TCM symptom, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) scores, pulmonary function indexes (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]) and chest CT imaging change were observed before and after treatment, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated. RESULTS: After treatment, the scores of TCM symptom, HAMA and HAMD were decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the levels of FVC, FEV1 and PEF were increased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05), and the recovery rate of 22 patients with pulmonary ventilation dysfunction was 86.4% (19/22). After treatment, the lung shadow area was smaller than that before treatment (P<0.05). The effective rate of 25 patients with lung CT abnormalities was 84.0% (21/25). After treatment, 23 cases were cured, 5 cases were markedly effective, 4 cases were effective, 1 case was ineffective, the cured and markedly effective rate was 84.8%. CONCLUSION: The filiform-fire needling of "Biaoben acupoint combination" could significantly reduce the sequelae of cough, fatigue, chest tightness, etc. and mental symptoms such as anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during the recovery period, and promote inflammatory exudation absorption of pulmonary lesion and improve lung ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Acupuncture Points , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Lung , Vascular Surgical Procedures
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(6): 1009-1015, 2022 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924339

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the effects and influencing factors of the COVID-19 epidemic on the employment intention of resident physicians in China. METHODOLOGY: 409 questionnaires were statistically analyzed after removing the missing values. We used the Chi-Square test for single-factor analysis and logistic regression analysis for multivariate analysis. The questions include the residents' employment intention and their willingness to engage in epidemic-related subspecialties and participate in epidemic-related work. RESULTS: Residents of severe and high-risk epidemic regions had much lower employment intentions than those of stable epidemic regions (OR = 1.917, 95% CI: 1.024, 3.591, p = 0.042). The higher the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score, the more susceptible was the resident's employement intention (OR = 1.085, 95% CI: 1.044, 1.128, p < 0.001). Residents from severe and high-risk epidemic regions were more willing to participate in clinical work (OR = 4.263, 95% CI: 1.892, 9.604, p < 0.001), and the higher the CES-D score, the lower was the proportion of residents willing to choose clinical work (OR = 0.941, 95% CI: 0.893, 0.992, p = 0.023). Residents from severe epidemics and high-risk provinces were less willing to participate in respiratory medicine (χ2 = 5.070, p = 0.027) and critical care medicine (χ2 = 7.046, p = 0.011). Compared to residents with bachelor's degrees, residents with master's and doctoral degrees were less willing to participate in isolation wards (OR = 1.831, 95% CI: 1.122, 2.990, p = 0.016). Residents in epidemic-related current rotation departments were less willing to go to Wuhan as volunteers (OR = 2.197, 95% CI: 1.110, 4.347, p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 outbreak had a negative impact on the job intentions of Chinese residents in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Physicians , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Employment , Humans , Intention , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Placenta ; 126: 125-132, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914907

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and can have effects on the placenta, even in the absence of severe disease or vertical transmission to the fetus. This study aimed to evaluate histopathologic and molecular effects in the placenta after SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a study of 45 pregnant participants from the Generation C prospective cohort study at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. We compared histologic features and the expression of 48 immune and trophoblast genes in placentas delivered from 15 SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody positive and 30 IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative mothers. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher's exact tests, Spearman correlations and linear regression models. RESULTS: The median gestational age at the time of SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology test was 35 weeks. Two of the IgG positive participants also had a positive RT-PCR nasal swab at delivery. 82.2% of the infants were delivered at term (≥37 weeks), and gestational age at delivery did not differ between the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive and negative groups. No significant differences were detected between the groups in placental histopathology features. Differential expression analyses revealed decreased expression of two trophoblast genes (PSG3 and CGB3) and increased expression of three immune genes (CXCL10, TLR3 and DDX58) in placentas delivered from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants. DISCUSSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with gene expression changes of immune and trophoblast genes in the placenta at birth which could potentially contribute to long-term health effects in the offspring.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 890773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887155

ABSTRACT

Background: Virtual simulation has been widely used in nursing education and nursing training. This study aims to characterize the publications in terms of countries, institutions, journals, authors, collaboration relationships, and analyze the trends of virtual simulation in nursing research. Methods: Publications regarding virtual simulation in nursing were retrieved from Web of Science core collection. Microsoft Excel 2010, VOSviewer were used to characterize the contributions of the authors, journals, institutions, and countries. The trends, hot-spots and knowledge network were analyzed by Citespace and VOSviewer. Results: We identified 677 papers between 1999 and 2021. The number of publications grew slowly until 2019, after that, it got a sharp increase in 2020 and 2021. The USA, Canada and Australia were three key contributors to this field. Centennial College and University of San Paulo, University of Ottawa and Ryerson University were top major institutions with a larger number of publications. Verkuyl M was the most productive and highest cited author. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, Nurse Education Today, Journal of Nursing Education were the three productive journals. The foundational themes of virtual simulation research in nursing are "virtual learning during COVID-19, clinical nursing care, education in nurse practitioners, education technology". Conclusion: Virtual simulation in nursing field has attracted considerable attention during COVID-19 pandemic. The research hotspot is gradually shifting from clinical nursing care to studies of nursing education using different virtual simulation technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Nursing , Bibliometrics , Computer Simulation , Humans , Pandemics
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 892773, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879482

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital business and the contribution of Internet healthcare to hospital operations during the epidemic by analyzing the degree of impact on major business indicators. Methods: The three-year period from 2019 to 2021 was compared and analyzed, and the main medical business indicators such as outpatient and emergency visits, inpatients, operations, patient improvement rate, cure rate and fatality rate in tertiary hospitals were compared and analyzed, and the impact of the epidemic on medical services and hospital operation was analyzed. degree and the impact of Internet medical development on medical service capacity. Results: During the outbreak of COVID-19, the number of hospital outpatient and emergency visits, inpatients, and operations decreased significantly; after the normalization of the epidemic, the main medical business indicators such as outpatient and emergency visits, inpatients, and operations gradually returned to pre-epidemic levels; patient improvement rate, the cure rate and mortality rate and other indicators did not change significantly. During the epidemic period, the number of visits to the Internet outpatient clinic has increased significantly, which has significantly improved the hospital's medical service capacity. Conclusion: With the normalization of epidemic prevention and control, the main business indicators of Tianjin tertiary hospitals have gradually recovered. The operation of Internet medical care during the epidemic has changed the management and operation mode of the hospital to a certain extent, improved the main business indicators of the hospital, and eased the pressure on the hospital's economic operation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338472

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly in 2019, the risks to human health cannot be underestimated. There is still lack of antiviral drugs for COVID-19, and the development of effective treatments is urgent. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely used in the treatment of epidemic infectious diseases, The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial will to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of Hanshiyi Formula (HSYF) in patients with COVID-19. Methods We will conduct this randomized, controlled, open, non-inferiority test clinical study in 240 COVID-19 subjects. Eligible patients will be divided into a control group ( LH granule ) or a treatment group ( HSYF ) in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention duration will be 14 days, and the medication could be stopped in advance if the discharge standard was reached. Clinical efficacy measures will be analyzed at baseline and on day 1–14 of enrollment, The occurrence of adverse events will be monitored throughout the trial. The statistical analysis plan included the treatment of missing data, the analysis of outcome measures, and the method of safety endpoints. Discussion To investigate the efficacy and safety of HSYF in the treatment of COVID-19, provide more sufficient high-quality evidence-based medical basis for TCM intervention in the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19. To avoid selective reporting bias and data-driven analysis, the statistical analysis plan will standardize the statistical analysis of clinical trials. Trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR2200058384. Version V1.2, created on April 11, 2022.https://www.chictr.org.cn/com/25/hvshowproject.aspx?id=159938.

10.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(11):7105-7129, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1870616

ABSTRACT

This study estimates the influence of anthropogenic emission reductions on the concentration of particulate matter with a diameter smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) during the 2020 lockdown period in German metropolitan areas. After accounting for meteorological effects, PM2.5 concentrations during the spring 2020 lockdown period were 5 % lower compared to the same time period in 2019. However, during the 2020 pre-lockdown period (winter), PM2.5 concentrations with meteorology accounted for were 19 % lower than in 2019. Meanwhile, NO2 concentrations with meteorology accounted for dropped by 23 % during the 2020 lockdown period compared to an only 9 % drop for the 2020 pre-lockdown period, both compared to 2019. SO2 and CO concentrations with meteorology accounted for show no significant changes during the 2020 lockdown period compared to 2019. GEOS-Chem (GC) simulations with a COVID-19 emission reduction scenario based on the observations (23 % reduction in anthropogenic NOx emission with unchanged anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and SO2) are consistent with the small reductions of PM2.5 during the lockdown and are used to identify the underlying drivers for this. Due to being in a NOx-saturated ozone production regime, GC OH radical and O3 concentrations increased (15 % and 9 %, respectively) during the lockdown compared to a business-as-usual (BAU, no lockdown) scenario. Ox (equal to NO2+O3) analysis implies that the increase in ozone at nighttime is solely due to reduced NO titration. The increased O3 results in increased NO3 radical concentrations, primarily during the night, despite the large reductions in NO2. Thus, the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere is increased in all three important oxidants, OH, O3, and NO3. PM nitrate formation from gas-phase nitric acid (HNO3) is decreased during the lockdown as the increased OH concentration cannot compensate for the strong reductions in NO2, resulting in decreased daytime HNO3 formation from the OH + NO2 reaction. However, nighttime formation of PM nitrate from N2O5 hydrolysis is relatively unchanged. This results from the fact that increased nighttime O3 results in significantly increased NO3, which roughly balances the effect of the strong NO2 reductions on N2O5 formation. Ultimately, the only small observed decrease in lockdown PM2.5 concentrations can be explained by the large contribution of nighttime PM nitrate formation, generally enhanced sulfate formation, and slightly decreased ammonium. This study also suggests that high PM2.5 episodes in early spring are linked to high atmospheric ammonia concentrations combined with favorable meteorological conditions of low temperature and low boundary layer height. Northwest Germany is a hot-spot of NH3 emissions, primarily emitted from livestock farming and intensive agricultural activities (fertilizer application), with high NH3 concentrations in the early spring and summer months. Based on our findings, we suggest that appropriate NOx and VOC emission controls are required to limit ozone, and that should also help reduce PM2.5. Regulation of NH3 emissions, primarily from agricultural sectors, could result in significant reductions in PM2.5 pollution.

11.
Frontiers in psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837946

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused colleges and universities to rely heavily on online learning to continue knowledge dissemination to learners. This study used the second-generation model of unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) to comprehensively analyze the mediating effects of self-efficacy, which affects learners’ effective use of online tools for learning, and capability of metacognition and self-regulation, which can independently adjust learning progress into the UTAUT2 model, on the learner’s willingness to continue online learning [i.e., their behavioral intention (BI)] by constructing a UTAUT2-based e-learning model. This study administered questionnaires to undergraduates in universities in East China to collect data. The effects of performance expectancy, effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), and facilitating conditions (FCs), hedonic motivation (HM), price value (PV), and habits on BI (directly or through mediators) were analyzed through data analysis and structural equation modeling, and the UTAUT2-based e-learning model was accordingly modified. The results indicated that the self-efficacy enhanced the effects of EE, SI, FCs, HM, and PV on learners’ BI;that metacognition and self-regulation (MS) capabilities enhanced the effects of EE on learners’ BI;and that habits had a direct and strong effect on BI. This study also provided some suggestions to enhance higher education learners’ willingness to continue online learning, such as improving social recognition and support, careful design of teaching content, easy-to-use technology, financial support. These results and suggestions may guide colleges and universities in conducting, continuing, or enhancing online education, particularly as the pandemic continues.

12.
BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online) ; 368, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1837197

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo delineate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) who died.DesignRetrospective case series.SettingTongji Hospital in Wuhan, China.ParticipantsAmong a cohort of 799 patients, 113 who died and 161 who recovered with a diagnosis of covid-19 were analysed. Data were collected until 28 February 2020.Main outcome measuresClinical characteristics and laboratory findings were obtained from electronic medical records with data collection forms.ResultsThe median age of deceased patients (68 years) was significantly older than recovered patients (51 years). Male sex was more predominant in deceased patients (83;73%) than in recovered patients (88;55%). Chronic hypertension and other cardiovascular comorbidities were more frequent among deceased patients (54 (48%) and 16 (14%)) than recovered patients (39 (24%) and 7 (4%)). Dyspnoea, chest tightness, and disorder of consciousness were more common in deceased patients (70 (62%), 55 (49%), and 25 (22%)) than in recovered patients (50 (31%), 48 (30%), and 1 (1%)). The median time from disease onset to death in deceased patients was 16 (interquartile range 12.0-20.0) days. Leukocytosis was present in 56 (50%) patients who died and 6 (4%) who recovered, and lymphopenia was present in 103 (91%) and 76 (47%) respectively. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, cardiac troponin I, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and D-dimer were markedly higher in deceased patients than in recovered patients. Common complications observed more frequently in deceased patients included acute respiratory distress syndrome (113;100%), type I respiratory failure (18/35;51%), sepsis (113;100%), acute cardiac injury (72/94;77%), heart failure (41/83;49%), alkalosis (14/35;40%), hyperkalaemia (42;37%), acute kidney injury (28;25%), and hypoxic encephalopathy (23;20%). Patients with cardiovascular comorbidity were more likely to develop cardiac complications. Regardless of history of cardiovascular disease, acute cardiac injury and heart failure were more common in deceased patients.ConclusionSevere acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can cause both pulmonary and systemic inflammation, leading to multi-organ dysfunction in patients at high risk. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory failure, sepsis, acute cardiac injury, and heart failure were the most common critical complications during exacerbation of covid-19.

14.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(3): 281-6, 2022 Mar 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" on sequela symptoms, mental state and pulmonary ventilation function in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during recovery period. METHODS: Fifty cases of COVID-19 during recovery period were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 25 cases in each group. The patients in the observation group were treated with thumb-tack needles at Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36) and Taiyuan (LU 9). The patients in the control group were treated with sham thumb-tack needles at identical acupoints as the observation group. The treatment in the two groups was given once a day, 7-day treatment was taken as a course of treatment, and totally two courses of treatment were given. The TCM symptom score, Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA) score, Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) score, pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC], forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1], peak expiratory flow [PEF]), the severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction and pulmonary imaging changes in the two groups were compared before and after treatment. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the total scores and each item scores of TCM symptom scale, HAMA scores and HAMD scores in the two groups were reduced after treatment (P<0.05). Except for the symptom scores of dry throat and dry stool, the total score and each item score of TCM symptom scale, HAMA score and HAMD score in the observation group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FVC, FEV1 and PEF in the two groups were increased after treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were higher than the control group (P<0.05). The severity of pulmonary ventilation dysfunction in the two groups was reduced after treatment (P<0.05), and the severity in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the lung shadow area in the two groups was decreased (P<0.05), and that in the observation group was smaller than the control group (P<0.05). The improvement of imaging change in the observation group was better than that in the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The thumb-tack needles based on "Biaoben acupoint compatibility" could significantly reduce the sequela symptoms, anxiety and depression in patients with COVID-19 during recovery stage, and improve the pulmonary ventilation function.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , COVID-19 , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/etiology , Humans , Needles , Respiratory Function Tests , Thumb
15.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21740, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732450

ABSTRACT

After the surging rise in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved emergency approval of vaccinations to prevent life-threatening complications of COVID-19 infection. These vaccines are BNT162b2, mRNA-1273. Later, the FDA also approved JNJ-78436735. COVID-19 vaccination does not have major side effects, but there are some concerning adverse events reported right after vaccination. Myocarditis is one of them. Based on our analysis of 40 case reports, we are presenting the epidemiology and clinical picture of myocarditis related to the COVID-19 vaccine. Based on our analysis, we found that the majority of cases were seen in males with 90% predominance, and these cases were seen in the age group of 29.13 years old (mean, SD of 14.39 years). In 65% of cases, patients took the BNT162b2 vaccine; 30% of cases were reported with the mRNA-1273 vaccine; and 5% of cases with JNJ-78436735. Of all the cases, 80% of them are reported after the second dose of the vaccine with either Moderna or Pfizer. The characteristics of COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis were analyzed in this study. We identified several findings, ranging from age, gender, type of vaccination, presentation of symptoms, and diagnosis modality. This depicts the picture of COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis and what physicians should expect when dealing with the disease. Our analysis showed that more cases were reported after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine compared to mRNA-1273 and JNJ-78436735 vaccines. Further research needs to be conducted to analyze the underlying cause of this association.

16.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329268

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and can have effects on the placenta, even in the absence of severe disease or vertical transmission to the fetus. This study aimed to evaluate histopathologic and molecular effects in the placenta after SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy. Methods: We performed a study of 45 pregnant participants from the Generation C prospective cohort study at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. We compared histologic features and the expression of 48 immune and trophoblast genes in placentas delivered from 15 SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody positive and 30 IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative mothers. Statistical analyses were performed using Fisher exact tests, Spearman correlations and linear regression models. Results: The median gestational age at the time of SARS-CoV-2 IgG serology test was 35 weeks. Two of the IgG positive participants also had a positive RT-PCR nasal swab at delivery. 82.2% of the infants were delivered at term (≥37 weeks), and gestational age at delivery did not differ between the SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive and negative groups. No significant differences were detected between the groups in placental histopathology features. Differential expression analyses revealed decreased expression of two trophoblast genes (PSG3 and CGB3) and increased expression of three immune genes (CXCL10, TLR3 and DDX58) in placentas delivered from SARS-CoV-2 IgG positive participants. Discussion: SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with gene expression changes of immune and trophoblast genes in the placenta at birth which could potentially contribute to long-term health effects in the offspring.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325434

ABSTRACT

Objective: To compare the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of confirmed and suspected corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases via the process of “triage-screening-isolation-transfer” in the hospitals of non-epidemic areas. Methods: : The general data, epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, laboratory examination, and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging characteristics of 38 patients with suspected COVID-19, admitted between January 21 and March 5, 2020, were analyzed. Results: : According to the results of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) ribonucleic acid (RNA) testing, the patients were divided into study group (RNA positive) and control group (RNA negative). Ultimately, 8 cases were RNA-positive and diagnosed as CDVID-19, and 30 cases were negative. Approximately half of the patients in the study group returned to Chongqing from Wuhan;this number was significantly larger than that of the control group (P<0.05). The number of subjects in close contact with the confirmed cases with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive and the incidence of aggregation was significantly larger in the study group than in the control group (both P<0.05). The clinical symptom of the study group was mainly low fever (with or without cough). The patients with decreased white blood cells (WBC) in the study group were significantly more than those in the control group (P<0.05). Both group had reduced lymphocytes (Lym) but the number of patients with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) in the study group was significantly more than that in the control group (P<0.05). There were different degrees of chest CT abnormalities in both study and control group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The epidemiological investigations in screening for infectious diseases is crucial. The risk of infection was high from the primary epidemic area and/or in close contact with the confirmed case. The most common form of clustering occurrence was family aggregation. CDVID-19 was mainly characterized by fever and respiratory symptoms, although asymptomatic infection may also occur. Decreased WBC, decreased Lym, and increased CRP are common characteristics but can also be combined with other respiratory tract virus infections. COVID 19 screening by chest CT alone had certain limitations in non- epidemic areas.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324789

ABSTRACT

Background: Frontline epidemic prevention workers play a pivotal role against COVID-19. Their baseline of dietary and behavior habits and willingness to change these habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19 remains unclear.Methods: A self-developed online questionnaire survey was carried out via the WeChat platform, and 22,459 participated, including 9402 frontline epidemic prevention workers.Findings: Before COVID-19, 23.9% of frontline epidemic prevention workers reported a high-salt diet, 46.9% reported a high frequency of fried food intake, 21.6% reported a low frequency of fresh vegetable intake, and 50.9% smoked cigarettes. After experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19, 34.6% had the willingness to reduce salt intake, and 43.7% want to reduce the frequency of pickled vegetable intake. 37.9% had the willingness to decrease or quit smoking, and 44.5% want to increase sleep duration. Significant differences in the baseline of dietary and behavioral habits and willingness to change their habits were observed between the frontline epidemic prevention worker and others(P<0.05). However, for the frontline epidemic prevention workers with poor dietary and behavioral habits, the frontline epidemic prevention experience might be a promoting factor to adopt worse dietary and behavioral habits, including the high-salt intake subgroup (OR 2.824, 95% CI 2.341-3.405) and shortest physical exercise time subgroup (OR 1.379, 95% CI 1.041-1.828).Interpretation: The dietary and behavior habits of the frontline epidemic prevention workers were worse than others before COVID-19. They had more willingness to adopt healthy dietary and behavior habits after experiencing the outbreak of COVID-19. Because the frontline epidemic prevention workers, who had poor dietary and behavior habits before COVID-19, still choose worse habits, dietary and behavior intervention policies should be drafted to protect their health, especially for those poor habits subgroups.Funding: This work was supported by The Science and Technology Project of Bao'an (NO.2020JD101).Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of Guangdong Medical University.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308234

ABSTRACT

Background: As of July 24 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases was > 15.4 millions, with over 640,000 deaths. The present study aimed to carry out an epidemiological analysis of confirmed cases and asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City to provide scientific reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods The epidemiological information of the 462 confirmed cases and 45 asymptomatic infections from January 19th to June 30th was collected in Shenzhen City, Southern China, and a descriptive analysis was performed. Results A total of 462 confirmed COVID-19 cases from January 19 to April 30, 2020 were reported in Shenzhen City, including 423 domestic cases (91.56%) and 39 imported cases (8.44%) who came back from other countries. Among domestic cases, the majority were cases imported from Hubei Province (n = 312, 67.53%), followed by local ones (n = 69, 14.94%). During the same period, a total of 45 asymptomatic infections were reported in Shenzhen City, including 31 local ones (68.89%) and 14 imported from abroad (31.11%). The proportion of asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City was increasing over time (Z = 13.1888, P  < 0.0001). The total number of local asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City exceeded as the same pattern as that in other provinces ( χ 2  = 118.830, P  < 0.0001). The proportion of asymptomatic infections among cases imported from abroad was higher than that of the same in domestic cases ( χ 2  = 22.5121, P  < 0.0001, OR  = 4.8983, 95%: 2.4052, 9.9756). No statistical significance was noted in the proportions of asymptomatic infections among imported cases from different countries ( χ 2  = 7.7202, P  = 0.6561). Conclusions The majority of COVID-19 cases in Shenzhen City were imported cases who came back from Hubei Province in the early stage (before 1st March, 2020) and from abroad in the later stage (after 1st April, 2020). Scientific and effective prevention and control measures have resulted in only a few local infections in Shenzhen City. Asymptomatic infections accounted for an increasing proportion among cases imported from abroad, indicating that the prevention measures carried out in Shenzhen City did avoid the import of infected cases. Improving the detection capability to identify asymptomatic infections as early as possible will be of significance for the control outbreak of COVID-19.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622609

ABSTRACT

Kiwifruit is moderately sweet and sour and quite popular among consumers; it has been widely planted in some areas of the world. In 2019, the crown gall disease of kiwifruit was discovered in the main kiwifruit-producing area of Guizhou Province, China. This disease can weaken and eventually cause the death of the tree. The phylogeny, morphological and biological characteristics of the bacteria were described, and were related to diseases. The pathogenicity of this species follows the Koch hypothesis, confirming that A. fabacearum is the pathogen of crown gall disease of kiwifruit in China. In this study, Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) analysis for genome-specific gene sequences was developed for the specific detection of A. fabacearum. The detection limit of the LAMP method is 5 × 10-7 ng/µL, which has high sensitivity. At the same time, the amplified product is stained with SYBR Green I after the reaction is completed, so that the amplification can be detected with the naked eye. LAMP analysis detected the presence of A. fabacearum in the roots and soil samples of the infected kiwifruit plant. The proposed LAMP detection technology in this study offers the advantages of ease of operation, visibility of results, rapidity, accuracy and high sensitivity, making it suitable for the early diagnosis of crown gall disease of kiwifruit.


Subject(s)
Actinidia/microbiology , Agrobacterium/physiology , Fruit/microbiology , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Plant Tumors/microbiology , Agrobacterium/pathogenicity , Base Sequence , China , Phylogeny , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Species Specificity
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