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1.
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149375

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence supports the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);however, the precise mechanism and therapeutic strategy are poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), a pivotal adaptor that bridges toll-like receptors to their downstream signaling by recruiting the signaling complex called ‘myddosome’, was up-regulated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after exposure to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. The inducible expression of MyD88 in the mPFC primed neuroinflammation and conferred stress susceptibility via amplifying immune danger signals, such as high-mobility group box 1 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Overexpression of MyD88 aggravated, whereas knockout or pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 ameliorated CSDS-induced depressive-like behavior. Notably, TJ-M2010-5, a novel synthesized targeting inhibitor of MyD88 dimerization, alleviated both CSDS- and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced depressive-like behavior. Taken together, our findings indicate that inhibiting MyD88 signaling represents a promising therapeutic strategy for stress-related mental disorders, such as MDD and COVID-19-related neuropsychiatric symptoms.

3.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (5):353, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2119063

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the epidemiology and etiology of a cluster of cases with gastroenteritis in a nursing home in Anning district of Lanzhou, and to provide a scientific evidence for the prevention and control of norovirus diarrhea in community nursing centers. Methods From January 28 to February 4 2021, an epidemiological investigation was conducted on all diarrhea cases, nursing staff and chefs in a nursing home in Anning district, Lanzhou city.Samples of patients′ anal swabs, feces, vomitus were collected for norovirus detection by real-time fluorescent PCR.ORF1/ORF2 junction region of norovirus in some selected positive samples(Ct value ≤ 25) was sequenced.MEGA-X software was used to construct a phylogenetic tree for genetic evolution analysis using the neighboring method. Results The first case was confirmed on January20,2021,and the number of cases peaked during January 25and 29.A total of 58clinically diagnosed cases were reported,57were older people,with an incidence of(57/360,15.83%).Diarrhea(50/58,86.21%),vomiting(35/58,60.34%),nausea(13/58,22.41%)and abdominal pain(6/58,10.34%)were common symptoms,all cases were mild.Fifty-three asymptomatic cases were detected among chefs,housekeepers and nurses.A total of 163specimens were tested,the positive rate of norovirus GⅡwas 49.08%(80/163).The positive rate of fecal samples collected from nurses,chefs and housekeepers was 48.62%(53/109),and was11.11%(2/18)in environmental surface swabs.The possibility of other pathogenic infections such as SARS-CoV-2was ruled out by further tests.Thirteen positive samples were selected for sequencing,and 9were successfully sequenced,they were all recombinant GⅡ.4Sydney_2012 [P16]genotypes,forming an independent cluster,while in a large evolutionary branch with the 2020GⅡ.10 [P16]and 2019GⅡ.2 [P16]virus strains in Lanzhou city,showing a relative close genetic connection. Conclusions GⅡ.4Sydney_2012[P16]genotype of norovirus is found to be causative pathogen of this outbreak,and close contact is the main reason of the outbreak and persistence of the infection,so asymptomatic infections of norovirus play an important role in the disease spreading.Therefore,public health management in nursing homes and other centralized nursing facilities should be strengthened especially for asymptomatic workers in order to prevent virus transmission.

4.
Psychology research and behavior management ; 15:3147-3166, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2093140

ABSTRACT

Introduction The telecommuting experience and job performance have been significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and job performance stability of telecommuting employees has become a critical concern. Objective A decision model for telecommuting experience service design was constructed based on a backpropagation (BP) neural network to provide a theoretical basis for enterprises to evaluate telework performance and the psychological health of employees. Methods The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was used to determine the core stakeholders. The grey relational analysis (GRA) method and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) scale were used to measure the factors affecting employees’ telecommuting experience and job performance. A BP neural network relationship model of employees’ telecommuting experience was established to predict its impact on employees’ job performance. Results Based on the model prediction results, a service system map was created, and the potential to enhance the telework performance of employees was evaluated. Discussion It was concluded that the factors affecting the telecommuting experience were diverse, but emotions had the dominant influence. Significant positive correlations were found between emotional impact and temporal perception, execution difficulty, and communication barriers. Conclusion The proposed decision model for telecommuting experience service design accurately predicted the impact of telecommuting efficiency, providing an effective approach for innovative remote management.

5.
Asia - Pacific Journal of Operational Research ; 37(3), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2088889

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China, numerous forecasting models have been proposed to project the trajectory of coronavirus infection cases. Most of these forecasts are based on epidemiology models that utilize deterministic differential equations and have resulted in widely varying predictions. We propose a new discrete-time Markov chain model that directly incorporates stochastic behavior and for which parameter estimation is straightforward from available data. Using such data from China’s Hubei province (for which Wuhan is the provincial capital city and which accounted for approximately 82% of the total reported COVID-19 cases in the entire country), the model is shown to be flexible, robust, and accurate. As a result, it has been adopted by the first Shanghai assistance medical team in Wuhan’s Jinyintan Hospital, which was the first designated hospital to take COVID-19 patients in the world. The forecast has been used for preparing medical staff, intensive care unit (ICU) beds, ventilators, and other critical care medical resources and for supporting real-time medical management decisions.

6.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 400, 2022 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the effectiveness of inactivated and Ad5-nCoV COVID-19 vaccines in real-world use-especially against Omicron variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-naïve population. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted among people aged ≥ 3 years between 2 December 2021 and 13 May 2022. Cases were SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, individuals with severe/critical COVID-19, or COVID-19-related deaths. Controls were selected from consecutively test-negative individuals at the same time as cases were diagnosed and were exact-matched on year-of-age, gender, birthplace, illness onset date, and residential district in ratios of 1:1 with infected individuals and 4:1 with severe/critical COVID-19 and COVID-19-related death. Additionally, two subsets were constructed to analyze separate vaccine effectiveness (VE) of inactivated vaccines (subset 1) and Ad5-vectored vaccine (subset 2) against each of the three outcomes. RESULTS: Our study included 612,597 documented SARS-CoV-2 infections, among which 1485 progressed to severe or critical illness and 568 died. Administering COVID-19 vaccines provided limited protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection across all age groups (overall VE: 16.0%, 95% CI: 15.1-17.0%) but high protection against severe/critical illness (88.6%, 85.8-90.8%) and COVID-19-related death (91.6%, 86.8-94.6%). In subset 1, inactivated vaccine showed 16.3% (15.4-17.2%) effective against infection, 88.6% (85.8-90.9%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19, and 91.7% (86.9-94.7%) against COVID-19 death. Booster vaccination with inactivated vaccines enhanced protection against severe COVID-19 (92.7%, 90.1-94.6%) and COVID-19 death (95.9%, 91.4-98.1%). Inactivated VE against infection began to wane 12 weeks after the last dose, but two and three doses sustained high protection levels (> 80%) against severe/critical illness and death, while subset 2 showed Ad5-vectored vaccine was 13.2% (10.9-15.5%) effective against infection and 77.9% (15.6-94.2%) effective against severe/critical COVIID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Our real-world study found high and durable two- and three-dose inactivated VE against Omicron-associated severe/critical illness and death across all age groups, but lower effectiveness against Omicron infection, which reinforces the critical importance of full-series vaccination and timely booster dose administration for all eligible individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Severity of Illness Index
7.
Malar J ; 21(1): 245, 2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to understand the epidemiological characteristics of imported malaria in Shanghai specifically during the epidemic period of novel corona-virus pneumonia (COVID-19), to provide a reference for preventing the transmission of imported malaria after this disease had been previously eliminated. METHODS: The data of malaria cases reported in Shanghai from 2020 to 2021 were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) and the Information System for Parasitic Disease Control and Prevention (ISPDCP). The characteristics of demographic and epidemiological distribution, travel-related information, diagnosis information, regions of infection acquisition and disposal information of epidemic situation were analysed with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 112 cases of malaria were reported in Shanghai from January 2020 to December 2021. There were 18 cases and 94 cases in 2020 and 2021, respectively, reaching the lowest and highest levels in the past 10 years. The incidence of malaria associated with seasons had an increasing trend (χ2 = 81.143, P < 0.05). These cases included Plasmodium falciparum (97, 86.61%), Plasmodium vivax (4, 3.57%), Plasmodium ovale (8, 7.14%) and Plasmodium malariae (3, 2.68%). The median age of patients with malaria was 38.0 years, the majority of these individuals were males (109, 97.32%), and most of them were labour personnel (93, 83.04%). Of the reported cases, 8 of these individuals (7.14%) reported experiencing malaria symptoms before their arrival in China after their stay overseas; 97 of these individuals (86.61%) reported experiencing symptoms within 14 days after their initial arrival from overseas; 15 of these individuals (13.39%) were diagnosed with 'severe malaria'; and 4 of these individuals (3.57%) were also diagnosed with COVID-19. All cases were imported from Africa, and there were no indigenous cases and deaths. CONCLUSION: Due to the impact of COVID-19, the number of imported malaria cases in Shanghai had greatly increased; however, prevention and control measures for imported malaria could be implemented to prevent re-transmission of this condition. Considering that the number of individuals returning from overseas labour is likely to increase in the next few years, it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of imported malaria and to review the protocol for potential epidemic situations. Together, these measures could support the maintation of free-malaria status in Shanghai.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Malaria , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Malaria/prevention & control , Male , Travel , Travel-Related Illness
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006013

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe and critical cases of COVID-19 had high mortality rates. Clinical features, laboratory data, and radiological features provided important references for the assessment of COVID-19 severity. The machine learning analysis of clinico-radiological features, especially the quantitative computed tomography (CT) image analysis results, may achieve early, accurate, and fine-grained assessment of COVID-19 severity, which is an urgent clinical need. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if machine learning algorithms using CT-based clinico-radiological features could achieve the accurate fine-grained assessment of COVID-19 severity. METHODS: The clinico-radiological features were collected from 78 COVID-19 patients with different severities. A neural network was developed to automatically measure the lesion volume from CT images. The severity was clinically diagnosed using two-type (severe and non-severe) and fine-grained four-type (mild, regular, severe, critical) classifications, respectively. To investigate the key features of COVID-19 severity, statistical analyses were performed between patients' clinico-radiological features and severity. Four machine learning algorithms (decision tree, random forest, SVM, and XGBoost) were trained and applied in the assessment of COVID-19 severity using clinico-radiological features. RESULTS: The CT imaging features (CTscore and lesion volume) were significantly related with COVID-19 severity (p < 0.05 in statistical analysis for both in two-type and fine-grained four-type classifications). The CT imaging features significantly improved the accuracy of machine learning algorithms in assessing COVID-19 severity in the fine-grained four-type classification. With CT analysis results added, the four-type classification achieved comparable performance to the two-type one. CONCLUSIONS: CT-based clinico-radiological features can provide an important reference for the accurate fine-grained assessment of illness severity using machine learning to achieve the early triage of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
9.
J Asthma Allergy ; 15: 1005-1019, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993634

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To develop and evaluate the effectiveness/clinical application of an eosinophil cationic protein-myeloperoxidase (ECP-MPO) test paper before and after treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients and Methods: We included 40 controls and 106 AR patients who were enrolled in the Allergy Clinic of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Total IgE, specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) were detected in all participants. AR patients were treated with oral cetirizine hydrochloride for 14 days. The ECP-MPO test paper results, nasal secretion smear and eosinophil counts, rhinoconjunctivitis total nasal symptom score (TNSS), quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine, and chemokine data were collected pre- and post-treatment. ECP concentrations in nasal secretions were assessed by ELISA. Pearson correlation test and Kappa consistency test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The post-treatment colour grade of the ECP-MPO test paper was lower in AR patients than the pre-treatment grade. The chromogenic grade correlated positively with the ECP concentration and the eosinophil count in nasal secretions both before and after treatment. Positive ECP-MPO test paper results were consistent with positive SPT, Der p-IgE and Der f-IgE result (Kappa values, 0.843, 0.810, 0.795, respectively). The pre- and post-treatment chromogenic grades correlated positively with the TNSS (r1=0·691; r2=0·539), RQLQ (r1=0·783; r2=0·625), and VAS (r1=0·703; r2=0·682) scores in AR patients. Conclusion: The ECP-MPO test paper can effectively detect ECP in nasal secretions, and its results are consistent with those from the SPT, Der p-IgE and Der f-IgE result. Its chromogenic grade can reflect the symptom severity and specific cytokine and chemokine levels in AR patients.

10.
Journal of Shandong University ; 58(10):120-126, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1975290

ABSTRACT

Objective: To develop a colloidal gold kit for rapid detection of IgM-IgG antibodies of SARS-CoV-2, optimize the development and application strategy, and investigate the diagnostic value of SARS-CoV-2 IgM-IgG antibodies by detecting serum of clinically confirmed patients.

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964011

ABSTRACT

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), the primary pathogen causing Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS), brings massive economic losses worldwide. Genomic variability and post-translational protein modification can enhance the immune evasion of Mhp, which makes MPS prone to recurrent outbreaks on farms, even with vaccination or other treatments. The reverse vaccinology pipeline has been developed as an attractive potential method for vaccine development due to its high efficiency and applicability. In this study, a multi-epitope vaccine for Mhp was developed, and its immune responses were evaluated in mice and piglets. Genomic core proteins of Mhp were retrieved through pan-genome analysis, and four immunodominant antigens were screened by host homologous protein removal, membrane protein screening, and virulence factor identification. One immunodominant antigen, AAV27984.1 (membrane nuclease), was expressed by E. coli and named rMhp597. For epitope prioritization, 35 B-cell-derived epitopes were identified from the four immunodominant antigens, and 10 MHC-I and 6 MHC-II binding epitopes were further identified. The MHC-I/II binding epitopes were merged and combined to produce recombinant proteins MhpMEV and MhpMEVC6His, which were used for animal immunization and structural analysis, respectively. Immunization of mice and piglets demonstrated that MhpMEV could induce humoral and cellular immune responses. The mouse serum antibodies could detect all 11 synthetic epitopes, and the piglet antiserum suppressed the nuclease activity of rMhp597. Moreover, piglet serum antibodies could also detect cultured Mhp strain 168. In summary, this study provides immunoassay results for a multi-epitope vaccine derived from the reverse vaccinology pipeline, and offers an alternative vaccine for MPS.


Subject(s)
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal , Animals , Bacterial Vaccines , Epitopes , Escherichia coli , Immunity, Cellular , Immunodominant Epitopes , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/genetics , Pneumonia of Swine, Mycoplasmal/prevention & control , Swine
12.
mSphere ; 7(4): e0021122, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938010

ABSTRACT

The innate interferon (IFN) response constitutes the first line of host defense against viral infections. It has been shown that IFN-I/III treatment could effectively contain severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication in vitro. However, how SARS-CoV-2 survives through the innate antiviral mechanism remains to be explored. Our study uncovered that human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), identified as a primary receptor for SARS-CoV-2 entry, can disturb the IFN-I signaling pathway during SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells. We identified that ACE2 was significantly upregulated by SARS-CoV-2 and Sendai virus (SeV) infection, and exogenous expression of ACE2 suppressed IFN-I production in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, ACE2 disrupted poly (I:C)-mediated inhibition of SARS-CoV2 replication by antagonizing IFN-I production by blocking IRF3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Moreover, ACE2 quenched the IFN-mediated antiviral immune response by degrading endogenous STAT2 protein, inhibiting STAT2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Interestingly, IFN-inducible short ACE2 (dACE2 or MIRb-ACE2) can also be induced by virus infection and inhibits the IFN signaling. Thus, our findings provide mechanistic insight into the distinctive role of ACE2 in promoting SARS-CoV-2 infection and enlighten us that the development of interventional strategies might be further optimized to interrupt ACE2-mediated suppression of IFN-I and its signaling pathway. IMPORTANCE Efficient antiviral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection play a key role in controlling the coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) caused by this virus. Although SARS-CoV-2 has developed strategies to counteract the IFN-I signaling through the virus-derived proteins, our knowledge of how SARS-CoV-2 survives through the innate antiviral mechanism remains poor. We herein discovered the distinctive role of ACE2 as a restraining factor of the IFN-I signaling in facilitating SARS-CoV-2 infection in human lung cells. Both full-length ACE2 and truncated dACE2 can antagonize IFN-mediated antiviral response. These findings are key to understanding the counteraction between SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity and the host antiviral defenses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Signal Transduction , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 37(10): 1944-1950, 2022 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hemodialysis patients are at high risk of Covid-19, though vaccination has significant efficacy in preventing and reducing the severity of infection. Little information is available on disease severity and vaccine efficacy since the dissemination of the Omicron variant. METHODS: In a multi-center study, during a period of the epidemic driven by the Omicron variant, all hemodialysis patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Outcomes were analyzed according to predictor variables including vaccination status. Risk of infection was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1126 patients including 200 (18%) unvaccinated, 56 (5%) post first dose, 433 (38%) post second dose, and 437 (39%) at least 7 days beyond their third dose. The majority of patients had a mild course but 160 (14%) were hospitalized and 28 (2%) died. In regression models adjusted for age and comorbidity, two-dose vaccination was associated with a 39% (95%CI: 2%-62%) reduction in admissions, but third doses provided additional protection, with a 51% (95%CI: 25%-69%) further reduction in admissions. Among 1265 patients at risk at the start of the observation period, SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed in 211 (17%). Two-dose vaccination was associated with a 41% (95%CI: 3%-64%) reduction in the incidence of infection, with no clear additional effect provided by third doses. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate lower incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination in dialysis patients during an Omicron dominant period of the epidemic. Among those developing infection, severe illness was less common with prior vaccination, particularly after third vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 384, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly affected emergency department (ED) visits and urgent psychiatric consultation (UPC) seeking behavior in EDs. Our study explored the changes in UPCs during and after the pandemic peak. METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated UPCs in the ED of a referral medical center in Taiwan, where treated both physical and psychiatric complaints. We defined the COVID-19 pandemic peak period as calendar week 4-18, 2020. The corresponding baseline as calendar week 4-18, 2019, and the slack period as week 4-18, 2021. The total number of UPCs, patient demographic data such as sex and age of the patients seen, the referral system (whether police or emergency medical service [EMS] or other sources), and the chief complaint (self-harm or violence) were recorded. RESULTS: Compared with the baseline period, a significant decline in UPCs was observed in the pandemic peak period, and a rebound was observed in the slack period, with the median [IQR] Q1, Q3 values of 22 [18, 26], 12 [10, 17]), and 16 [15, 23], respectively. We observed significantly few men (34.9% vs 45.2%) and less violence (10.2% vs 17.6%) in the peak period compared with in the baseline period, but no significant difference was found compared with the slack period. Throughout the pandemic, younger patients (41.8 ± 17.4 in 2019, 39.2 ± 18.5 [p = 0.121] in 2020, and 35.6 ± 17.2 [p < 0.001] in 2021), higher proportions of police/EMS referral (38.7% in 2019, 41.9% [p = 0.473] in 2020, and 51.9% [p = 0.001] in 2021) and self-harm-related complaints (57% in 2019, 62.4% [p = 0.233] in 2020, and 64.9% [p = 0.049] in 2021) was noted among UPC seekers during the pandemic. However, the proportion of violence-related UPCs (17.6% in 2019, 10.2% [p = 0.023] in 2020, and 12.3% [p = 0.072] in 2021) declined. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that UPCs changed throughout the pandemic. This result raises the concern that mental health needs are masked during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Violence
16.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(6): 843-850, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients receiving hemodialysis are at high risk from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and demonstrate impaired immune responses to vaccines. There have been several descriptions of their immunologic responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, but few studies have described the clinical efficacy of vaccination in patients on hemodialysis. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: In a multicenter observational study of the London hemodialysis population undergoing surveillance PCR testing during the period of vaccine rollout with BNT162b2 and AZD1222, all of those positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to predictor variables, including vaccination status, using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Risk of infection was analyzed in a subgroup of the base population using a Cox proportional hazards model with vaccination status as a time-varying covariate. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection was identified in 1323 patients of different ethnicities (Asian/other, 30%; Black, 38%; and White, 32%), including 1047 (79%) unvaccinated, 86 (7%) after first-dose vaccination, and 190 (14%) after second-dose vaccination. The majority of patients had a mild course; however, 515 (39%) were hospitalized, and 172 (13%) died. Older age, diabetes, and immune suppression were associated with greater illness severity. In regression models adjusted for age, comorbidity, and time period, prior two-dose vaccination was associated with a 75% (95% confidence interval, 56 to 86) lower risk of admission and 88% (95% confidence interval, 70 to 95) fewer deaths compared with unvaccinated patients. No loss of protection was seen in patients over 65 years or with increasing time since vaccination, and no difference was seen between vaccine types. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a substantially lower risk of severe COVID-19 after vaccination in patients on dialysis who become infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Renal Dialysis , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/administration & dosage , Humans , London , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination
17.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(2):97-101, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1865685

ABSTRACT

After the epidemic of novel Coronavirus Disease 2019(COVID-19), construction of disease prevention and control has become a top priority. As a pioneer in the recovery of global economy and society, Shanghai should play a fundamental role in building a comprehensive system of public health and advanced disease prevention and control in the new era. In this article, we systematically categorize the requirements for the construction of disease prevention and control system in the new era, identify the weakness and challenges during and after the epidemic, and then make suggestions. It is proposed that we should utilize the important window period of the"14th Five-Year Plan", with the"Healthy China"strategy and municipal"20 Tasks for Public Health Construction"as the starting point, to make substantial contribution to the functional orientation, investment of resources, capacity building, operational mechanism and team building, which may provide scientific evidence for the reform and development of disease prevention and control system.

18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 336, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846812

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a major public health crisis, harms individuals' mental health. This 3-wave repeated survey aimed to examine the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation at different stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in a large sample of college students in China. METHODS: Using a repeated cross-sectional survey design, we conducted 3 online surveys of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic at 22 universities in Guandong, China. The 3 surveys were conducted during the outbreak period (T1: 3 February to 10 February 2020, N = 164,101), remission period (T2: 24 March to 3 April 2020, N = 148,384), and normalized prevention and control period (T3: 1 June to 15 June 2020, N = 159,187). Suicidal ideation was measured by the ninth item of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. A range of suicide-related factors was assessed, including sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, insomnia, pre-existing mental health problems, and COVID-19-related factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 8.5%, 11.0% and 12.6% at T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Male sex (aOR: 1.35-1.44, Ps < 0.001), poor self-perceived mental health (aOR: 2.25-2.81, Ps < 0.001), mental diseases (aOR: 1.52-2.09, P < 0.001), prior psychological counseling (aOR: 1.23-1.37, Ps < 0.01), negative perception of the risk of the COVID-19 epidemic (aOR: 1.14-1.36, Ps < 0.001), depressive symptoms (aOR: 2.51-303, Ps < 0.001) and anxiety symptoms (aOR: 1.62-101.11, Ps < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation. CONCLUSION: Suicidal ideation appeared to increase during the COVID-19 pandemic remission period among college students in China. Multiple factors, especially mental health problems, are associated with suicidal ideation. Psychosocial interventions should be implemented during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to reduce suicide risk among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/psychology , Suicidal Ideation
19.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med ; 2022: 2056630, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807677

ABSTRACT

Background: Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) has become a thorny and unsolved clinical problem. The pathological mechanisms of MIRI are intricate and unclear, so it is of great significance to explore potential hub genes and search for some natural products that exhibit potential therapeutic efficacy on MIRI via targeting the hub genes. Methods: First, the differential expression genes (DEGs) from GSE58486, GSE108940, and GSE115568 were screened and integrated via a robust rank aggregation algorithm. Then, the hub genes were identified and verified by the functional experiment of the MIRI mice. Finally, natural products with protective effects against MIRI were retrieved, and molecular docking simulations between hub genes and natural products were performed. Results: 230 integrated DEGs and 9 hub genes were identified. After verification, Emr1, Tyrobp, Itgb2, Fcgr2b, Cybb, and Fcer1g might be the most significant genes during MIRI. A total of 75 natural products were discovered. Most of them (especially araloside C, glycyrrhizic acid, ophiopogonin D, polyphyllin I, and punicalagin) showed good ability to bind the hub genes. Conclusions: Emr1, Tyrobp, Itgb2, Fcgr2b, Cybb, and Fcer1g might be critical in the pathological process of MIRI, and the natural products (araloside C, glycyrrhizic acid, ophiopogonin D, polyphyllin I, and punicalagin) targeting these hub genes exhibited potential therapeutic efficacy on MIRI. Our findings provided new insights to explore the mechanism and treatments for MIRI and revealed new therapeutic targets for natural products with protective properties against MIRI.

20.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 829879, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785327

ABSTRACT

Owing to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we need to pay a particular focus on the impact of coronavirus infection on breast cancer patients. Approximately 70% of breast cancer patients express estrogen receptor (ER), and intervention therapy for ER has been the primary treatment strategy to prevent the development and metastasis of breast cancer. Recent studies have suggested that selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a potential therapeutic strategy for COVID-19. With its anti-ER and anti-viral combined functions, SERMs may be an effective treatment for COVID-19 in patients with breast cancer. In this review, we explore the latent effect of SERMs, especially tamoxifen, and the mechanism between ER and virus susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use , Estrogens/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Receptors, Estrogen , Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators/therapeutic use
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