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1.
International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing (IJIDeM) ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610556

ABSTRACT

How to improve employees' satisfaction in the remote office mode while working together has become a challenge for enterprises to deal with the new office management mode. The concept of service design touch point is introduced into the remote office management system to improve employees' office experience and help enterprises complete the remote office service design. From the perspective of virtuous circle, the cost of failure analysis and preventive measures for service design touch point in the process of service design is lower than that of dealing with failure after service failure. Therefore, this paper made a risk assessment on the failure mode of service design touch point loss analysis method based on the triangular fuzzy number evaluation method. In the failure risk assessment, the fuzzy failure mode and effect analysis theory and the failure mode of service design touch point are analyzed first, and the expert scoring method is used to evaluate and determine the fuzzy level of severity, occurrence and detection of each failure mode;Then, aiming at the ability difference of different experts in evaluating different objects, the expert importance matrix, which is based on attribute difference, is determined;On this basis, the risk priority value of each failure mode is analyzed and determined by fuzzy calculation method. The risk evaluation ranking results of touch point failure modes are obtained according to the risk priority value. Finally, taking the failure analysis of Y company's remote collaborative office service as an example, the feasibility of the method is verified by the case of protection during COVID-19.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 736617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) self-quarantine period, the transition to online-course has profoundly changed the learning modes of millions of school-aged children and put them at an increased risk of asthenopia. Therefore, we aimed to determine associations of the total screen/online-course time with asthenopia prevalence among that children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether the associations were mediated by psychological stress. Methods: Asthenopia was defined according to a validated computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q). We used CVS-Q to collect the frequency and intensity of 16 asthenopia-related eye symptoms of 25,781 children. Demographic features, eye care habits, visual disorders, lifestyle, psychological and environmental factors, were also collected. Results: The overall asthenopia prevalence was 12.1%, varying from 5.4 to 18.2% across grade/gender-classified subgroups. A 100-h increment of total screen/online-course time were associated with an increased risk of asthenopia by 9% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09] and 11% (OR = 1.11), respectively. Mediation analysis showed that the proportions of total effects mediated by psychological stress were 23.5 and 38.1%, respectively. Age, female gender, having myopia or astigmatism, bad habits when watching screens were also risk factors. Conversely, keeping 34-65 cm between eyes and screen, increased rest time between classes, and increased eye exercise were all associated with a decreased risk. Conclusion: Our study indicated that the influence of long total screen or online-course time on psychological stress increases asthenopia risk. The findings of this study have provided a new avenue for intervening screen-related asthenopia in addition to incorporating a reasonable schedule of online courses into educational policy.


Subject(s)
Asthenopia , COVID-19 , Asthenopia/epidemiology , Asthenopia/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. However, the expression of ACE2 is extremely low in a variety of human tissues, especially in the airways. Thus, other coreceptors and/or cofactors on the surface of host cells may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) as an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection of human pulmonary cells by using APEX2 proximity-labeling techniques. Genetic ablation of MYH9 significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in wild type (WT) A549 and Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of MYH9 enhanced the pseudovirus infection in WT A549 and H1299 cells. MYH9 was colocalized with the SARS-CoV-2 S and directly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 S through the S2 subunit and S1-NTD (N-terminal domain) by its C-terminal domain (designated as PRA). Further experiments suggested that endosomal or myosin inhibitors effectively block the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into PRA-A549 cells, while transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) inhibitors do not, indicating that MYH9 promotes SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis and bypasses TMPRSS2 and CatB/L pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of MYH9 reduces authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Calu-3, ACE2-A549, and ACE2-H1299 cells. Together, our results suggest that MYH9 is a candidate host factor for SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the virus entering host cells by endocytosis in an ACE2-dependent manner, and may serve as a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.

4.
Virology ; 566: 56-59, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recombinant protein subunit vaccination is considered to be a safe, fast and reliable technique when combating emerging and re-emerging diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Typically, such subunit vaccines require the addition of adjuvants to attain adequate immunogenicity. AS01, which contains adjuvants MPL and saponin QS21, is a liposome-based vaccine adjuvant system that is one of the leading candidates. However, the adjuvant effect of AS01 in COVID-19 vaccines is not well described yet. METHODS: In this study, we utilized a mixture of AS01 as the adjuvant for an S1 protein-based COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: The adjuvanted vaccine induced robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding antibody and virus-neutralizing antibody responses. Importantly, two doses induced similar levels of IgG binding antibody and neutralizing antibody responses compared with three doses and the antibody responses weakened only slightly over time up to six weeks after immunization. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that two doses may be enough for a clinical vaccine strategy design using MPL & QS21 adjuvanted recombinant protein, especially in consideration of the limited production capacity of COVID-19 vaccine in a public health emergency.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2102189, 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536112

ABSTRACT

Sustainable solutions on fabricating and using a face mask to block the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread during this coronavirus pandemic of 2019 (COVID-19) are required as society is directed by the World Health Organization (WHO) toward wearing it, resulting in an increasingly huge demand with over 4 000 000 000 masks used per day globally. Herein, various new mask technologies and advanced materials are reviewed to deal with critical shortages, cross-infection, and secondary transmission risk of masks. A number of countries have used cloth masks and 3D-printed masks as substitutes, whose filtration efficiencies can be improved by using nanofibers or mixing other polymers into them. Since 2020, researchers continue to improve the performance of masks by adding various functionalities, for example using metal nanoparticles and herbal extracts to inactivate pathogens, using graphene to make masks photothermal and superhydrophobic, and using triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) to prolong mask lifetime. The recent advances in material technology have led to the development of antimicrobial coatings, which are introduced in this review. When incorporated into masks, these advanced materials and technologies can aid in the prevention of secondary transmission of the virus.

6.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292322

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented severe challenges to emergency practice of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). However, poor evidence was shown on ACS in a non-hot-spot region. We sought to clarify the influence of the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic on emergency ACS from a non-epicenter region. Methods: : This retrospective multicenter study was conducted in emergency ACS patients during the pandemic (from 2020-01-23 to 2020-03-29) and the ones during the same period in 2019. Clinical characteristics, timeline parameters and treatment strategies were compared between different groups. Association of the pandemic with non-invasive therapy was further assessed. Results: : Compared with 2019, ACS had a drop in admission (267 cases vs. 475 cases) and invasive therapy (140 cases vs. 318 cases). Also, process delays were detected including the period from symptom onset to first medical contact (S-to-FMC, 5h vs. 2.5h), the period from FMC to electrocardiogram (ECG) completed (8min vs. 4min) and the period from FMC to dual antiplatelet therapy (FMC-to-DAPT, 25min vs. 19min). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) decreased by 54.9% in STEMI and early invasive therapy decreased by 59.2% in NSTE-ACS. The proportion of invasive therapy in NSTE-ACS decreased more than in STEMI (16.9% vs. 10.1%) with longer process delay. The pandemic was associated with increased non-PPCI in STEMI (OR=1.707, 95%CI 1.082-2.692, P=0.021) and elevated medication in NSTE-ACS (OR=2.029, 95%CI 1.268-3.247, P=0.003), respectively. Conclusion: Even in a non-epicenter region, the first-wave COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant reduction of invasive therapy and evident process delays in emergency ACS.

7.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506112

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a surge in demand for face masks, with the massive consumption of masks leading to an increase in resource-related and environmental concerns. In this work, we fabricated meltblown polypropylene (mb-PP)-based high-performance planar face masks and investigated the effects of six commonly used disinfection methods and various mask-wearing periods on the reusability of these masks. The results show that, after three cycles of treatment using hot water at 70 °C for 30 min, which is one of the most scalable, user-friendly methods for viral disinfection, the particle filtration efficiency (PFE) of the mask remained almost unchanged. After mask wearing for 24 h and subsequent disinfection using the same treatment procedures, the PFE decreased to 91.3%; the average number of bacterial and fungal colonies was assessed to be 9.2 and 51.6 CFU∙g-1, respectively; and coliform and pyogenic bacteria were not detected. Both the PFE and the microbial indicators are well above the standard for reusable masks after disinfection. Schlieren photography was then used to assess the capabilities of used and disinfected masks during use; it showed that the masks exhibit a high performance in suppressing the spread of breathed air.

8.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291709

ABSTRACT

The black-box nature of machine learning models hinders the deployment of some high-accuracy models in medical diagnosis. It is risky to put one's life in the hands of models that medical researchers do not fully understand. However, through model interpretation, black-box models can promptly reveal significant biomarkers that medical practitioners may have overlooked due to the surge of infected patients in the COVID-19 pandemic. This research leverages a database of 92 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 laboratory tests between 18th Jan. 2020 and 5th Mar. 2020, in Zhuhai, China, to identify biomarkers indicative of severity prediction. Through the interpretation of four machine learning models, decision tree, random forests, gradient boosted trees, and neural networks using permutation feature importance, Partial Dependence Plot (PDP), Individual Conditional Expectation (ICE), Accumulated Local Effects (ALE), Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME), and Shapley Additive Explanation (SHAP), we identify an increase in N-Terminal pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NTproBNP), C-Reaction Protein (CRP), and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), a decrease in lymphocyte (LYM) is associated with severe infection and an increased risk of death, which is consistent with recent medical research on COVID-19 and other research using dedicated models. We further validate our methods on a large open dataset with 5644 confirmed patients from the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, at São Paulo, Brazil from Kaggle, and unveil leukocytes, eosinophils, and platelets as three indicative biomarkers for COVID-19.

9.
Cell Rep Methods ; 1(7): 100117, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487678

ABSTRACT

High-resolution and rapid imaging of host cell ultrastructure can generate insights toward viral disease mechanism, for example for a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we employ full-rotation soft X-ray tomography (SXT) to examine organelle remodeling induced by SARS-CoV-2 at the whole-cell level with high spatial resolution and throughput. Most of the current SXT systems suffer from a restricted field of view due to use of flat sample supports and artifacts due to missing data. In this approach using cylindrical sample holders, a full-rotation tomogram of human lung epithelial cells is performed in less than 10 min. We demonstrate the potential of SXT imaging by visualizing aggregates of SARS-CoV-2 virions and virus-induced intracellular alterations. This rapid whole-cell imaging approach allows us to visualize the spatiotemporal changes of cellular organelles upon viral infection in a quantitative manner.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715023, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477819

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has unveiled the secondary infection as one of the mortal causes of post-SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the factors related to secondary bacterial or fungi infection remains largely unexplored. We here systematically investigated the factors that might contribute to secondary infection. By clinical examination index analysis of patients, combined with the integrative analysis with RNA-seq analysis in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell isolated shortly from initial infection, this study showed that the antibiotic catabolic process and myeloid cell homeostasis were activated while the T-cell response were relatively repressed in those with the risk of secondary infection. Further monitoring analysis of immune cell and liver injury analysis showed that the risk of secondary infection was accompanied by severe lymphocytopenia at the intermediate and late stages and liver injury at the early stages of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, the metagenomics analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the microbial culture analysis, to some extent, showed that the severe pneumonia-related bacteria have already existed in the initial infection.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Mycoses/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacterial Infections/mortality , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Liver/injuries , Liver/virology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
11.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 304(11): 2566-2578, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1460147

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (coronavirus) has spread all over the world with a high infection rate. Currently, there are no targeted therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 as well as for stress induced by COVID-19. The unpredictable events of COVID-19 can trigger feelings of fear, worry, or unease in people, leading to stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety. It has been reported that individuals, including COVID-19 patients, medical staff, and ordinary people, are under both physical and psychological pressure, and many of them have developed depression or anxiety during this pandemic. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in treating depression with relatively better safety and efficacy and may have an important role in treating stress-related disorders induced by COVID-19. In this review, we collected the common TCM treatment methods including Qigong, Acupuncture, Five Elements Musical Therapy, Five Elements Emotional Therapy, and Chinese herbal medicine from the databases of PubMed and the China National Knowledge Internet to illustrate the effect of TCM on depression. The better knowledge of TCM and implementation of TCM in COVID-19 clinics may help to effectively improve depression induced by COVID-19, may assist people to maintain a healthy physical and mental quality, and may alleviate the current shortage of medical resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Acupuncture Therapy/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Qigong/methods , Treatment Outcome
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437314

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused increasing public attention to laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs), especially for a mobile Bio-Safety Level 4 Lab (BSL-4) with high potential of exposure. In this paper, the distribution and removal mechanism of bioaerosols in the biosafety laboratory were studied. A simulation model of airflow distribution in the opening and closing state of air-tight door was established and verified. The results showed that the airflow entrainment velocity during the opening of the door was approximately 0.12 m/s. It increased the probability of vortex generation in the laboratory. The deposition rate of particles was doubled when the air-tight door opening is compared with air-tight door closing. Besides, nearly 80% of the particles deposited on the surface of the wall and ceiling, increasing the possibility of LAIs. The findings of this paper could provide new scientific methods for high-level biosafety laboratories to avoid cross-infection. Moreover, future work regarding air-tight door rotation speed regulation and control should be emphasized.

13.
Phys Fluids (1994) ; 33(9): 092106, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404902

ABSTRACT

Face masks play a critical role in reducing the transmission risk of COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases. Masks made with nanofibers have drawn increasingly more attention because of their higher filtration efficiency, better comfort, and lower pressure drop. However, the interactions and consequences of the nanofibers and microwater droplets remain unclear. In this work, the evolution of fibers made of polymers with different contact angles, diameters, and mesh sizes under water aerosol exposure is systematically visualized. The images show that capillarity is very strong compared with the elasticity of the nanofiber. The nanofibers coalesce irreversibly during the droplet capture stage as well as the subsequent liquid evaporation stage. The fiber coalescence significantly reduces the effective fiber length for capturing aerosols. The nanofiber mesh that undergoes multiple droplet capture/evaporation cycles exhibits a fiber coalescing fraction of 40%-58%. The hydrophobic and orthogonally woven fibers can reduce the capillary forces and decrease the fiber coalescing fraction. This finding is expected to assist the proper design, fabrication, and use of face masks with nanofibers. It also provides direct visual evidence on the necessity to replace face masks frequently, especially in cold environments.

17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23935, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neutral-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and many diseases, but there are few data about the reference interval (RI) of NLR, LMR, and PLR. METHODS: The neutrophil count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, and platelet count of 404,272 Chinese healthy adults (>18 years old) were measured by Sysmex XE-2100 automatic hematology analyzer, and NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. According to CLSI C28-A3, the nonparametric 95% percentile interval is defined as the reference interval. RESULTS: The results of Mann-Whitney U test showed that NLR (p < .001) in male was significantly higher than that in female; LMR (p < .001) and PLR (p < .001) in male were significantly lower than that in female. Kruskal-Wallis H test showed that there were significant differences in NLR, LMR, and PLR among different genders and age groups (p < .001). The linear graph showed that the reference upper limit of NLR and PLR increased with age and the reference upper limit of LMR decreases with age in male population. In female population, the reference upper limit of NLR in 50-59 group, LMR in >80 group, and PLR in 70-79 group appeared a trough; the reference upper limit of NLR in >80 group, LMR in 50-59 group, and PLR in 40-49 group appeared peak. CONCLUSION: The establishment of RI for NLR, LMR, and PLR in Chinese healthy adults according to gender and age will promote the standardization of clinical application.


Subject(s)
Leukocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Monocytes , Neutrophils , Platelet Count/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Reference Values , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
18.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1161-1174, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343620

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a fatal and fast-spreading viral infection. To date, the number of COVID-19 patients worldwide has crossed over six million with over three hundred and seventy thousand deaths (according to the data from World Health Organization; updated on 2 June 2020). Although COVID-19 can be rapidly diagnosed, efficient clinical treatment of COVID-19 remains unavailable, resulting in high fatality. Some clinical trials have identified vitamin C (VC) as a potent compound pneumonia management. In addition, glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is clinically as an anti-inflammatory medicine against pneumonia-induced inflammatory stress. We hypothesized that the combination of VC and GA is a potential option for treating COVID-19. METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine pharmacological targets and molecular mechanisms of VC + GA treatment for COVID-19, using bioinformational network pharmacology. RESULTS: We uncovered optimal targets, biological processes and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of VC + GA against COVID-19. Our findings suggested that combinatorial VC and GA treatment for COVID-19 was associated with elevation of immunity and suppression of inflammatory stress, including activation of the T cell receptor signaling pathway, regulation of Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, ErbB signaling pathway and vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway. We also identified 17 core targets of VC + GA, which suggest as antimicrobial function. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study uncovered the pharmacological mechanism underlying combined VC and GA treatment for COVID-19. These results should benefit efforts to address the most pressing problem currently facing the world.


Subject(s)
Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Computational Biology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1660-1668, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343597

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a major challenge worldwide. However, the epidemic potential of common human coronaviruses (HCoVs) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological and co-infection characteristics of common HCoVs in individuals with influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). This retrospective, observational, multicentre study used data collected from patients admitted to nine sentinel hospitals with ILI and SARI from January 2015 through December 2020 in Shanghai, China. We prospectively tested patients for a total of 22 respiratory pathogens using multi-real-time polymerase chain reaction. Of the 4541 patients tested, 40.37% (1833/4541) tested positive for respiratory pathogens and 3.59% (163/4541) tested positive for common HCoVs. HCoV infection was more common in the non-endemic season for respiratory pathogens (odds ratio: 2.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.64-3.31). HCoV-OC43 (41.72%, 68/163) was the most common type of HCoV detected. The co-infection rate was 31.29% (51/163) among 163 HCoV-positive cases, with HCoV-229E (53.13%, 17/32), the HCoV type that was most frequently associated with co-infection. Respiratory pathogens responsible for co-infections with HCoVs included parainfluenza virus, rhinovirus/enterovirus, influenza A virus, and adenovirus. Furthermore, we identified one patient co-infected with HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-NL63/HKU1. The prevalence of common HCoVs remains low in ILI/SARI cases, in Shanghai. However, the seasonal pattern of HCoVs may be opposite to that of other respiratory pathogens. Moreover, HCoVs are likely to co-exist with specific respiratory pathogens. The potential role of co-infections with HCoVs and other pathogenic microorganisms in infection and pathogenesis of ILI and SARI warrants further study.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alphacoronavirus/classification , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/history , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/history , Female , History, 21st Century , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Seasons
20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 718089, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340189

ABSTRACT

Sepsis is a host immune disorder induced by infection. It can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which has high morbidity and mortality. There has been great progress in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sepsis, such as improvements in pathogen detection technology, innovations regarding anti-infection drugs, and the development of organ function support. Abnormal immune responses triggered by pathogens, ranging from excessive inflammation to immunosuppression, are recognized to be an important cause of the high mortality rate. However, no drugs have been approved specifically for treating sepsis. Here, we review the recent research progress on immune responses in sepsis to provide a theoretical basis for the treatment of sepsis. Constructing and optimizing a dynamic immune system treatment regimen based on anti-infection treatment, fluid replacement, organ function support, and timely use of immunomodulatory interventions may improve the prognosis of sepsis patients.

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