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J Asthma Allergy ; 15: 1005-1019, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993634


Purpose: To develop and evaluate the effectiveness/clinical application of an eosinophil cationic protein-myeloperoxidase (ECP-MPO) test paper before and after treatment in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). Patients and Methods: We included 40 controls and 106 AR patients who were enrolled in the Allergy Clinic of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University. Total IgE, specific IgE and skin prick test (SPT) were detected in all participants. AR patients were treated with oral cetirizine hydrochloride for 14 days. The ECP-MPO test paper results, nasal secretion smear and eosinophil counts, rhinoconjunctivitis total nasal symptom score (TNSS), quality of life questionnaire (RQLQ), visual analogue scale (VAS), serum Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine, and chemokine data were collected pre- and post-treatment. ECP concentrations in nasal secretions were assessed by ELISA. Pearson correlation test and Kappa consistency test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The post-treatment colour grade of the ECP-MPO test paper was lower in AR patients than the pre-treatment grade. The chromogenic grade correlated positively with the ECP concentration and the eosinophil count in nasal secretions both before and after treatment. Positive ECP-MPO test paper results were consistent with positive SPT, Der p-IgE and Der f-IgE result (Kappa values, 0.843, 0.810, 0.795, respectively). The pre- and post-treatment chromogenic grades correlated positively with the TNSS (r1=0·691; r2=0·539), RQLQ (r1=0·783; r2=0·625), and VAS (r1=0·703; r2=0·682) scores in AR patients. Conclusion: The ECP-MPO test paper can effectively detect ECP in nasal secretions, and its results are consistent with those from the SPT, Der p-IgE and Der f-IgE result. Its chromogenic grade can reflect the symptom severity and specific cytokine and chemokine levels in AR patients.

Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(1): 102-116, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892267


A large-scale survey study was conducted to assess trauma, burnout, posttraumatic growth, and associated factors for nurses in the COVID-19 pandemic. The Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory-Short Form were utilized. Factors associated with trauma, burnout, and posttraumatic growth were analysed using logistic and multiple regressions. In total, 12 596 completed the survey, and 52.3% worked in COVID-19 designated hospitals. At the survey's conclusion in April, 13.3% reported trauma (Trauma ≥ 6), there were moderate degrees of emotional exhaustion, and 4,949 (39.3%) experienced posttraumatic growth. Traumatic response and emotional exhaustion were greater among (i) women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.48, 95% CI 1.12-1.97 P = 0.006; emotional exhaustion OR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.09-1.54, P = 0.003), (ii) critical care units (OR: 1.20, 95% CI 1.06-1.35, P = 0.004; emotional exhaustion OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.12-1.33, P < 0.001) (iii) COVID-19 designated hospital (OR: 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.38; P < 0.001; emotional exhaustion OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.17-1.36; P < 0.001) and (iv) COVID-19-related departments (OR: 1.16, 95% CI 1.04-1.29, P = 0.006, emotional exhaustion only). To date, this is the first large-scale study to report the rates of trauma and burnout for nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study indicates that nurses who identified as women, working in ICUs, COVID-19 designated hospitals, and departments involved with treating COVID-19 patients had higher scores in mental health outcomes. Future research can focus on the factors the study has identified that could lead to more effective prevention and treatment strategies for adverse health outcomes and better use of resources to promote positive outcomes.

Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/nursing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/nursing , Nurses/psychology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/nursing , Adult , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Critical Care Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Personality Inventory , Sex Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan
J Virol ; 94(6)2020 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824860


Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an important pathogen that affects the pig industry, is a highly genetically diverse RNA virus. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of this virus have not been completely elucidated. In this study, comparative analyses of all available genomic sequences of North American (NA)-type PRRSVs (n = 355, including 138 PRRSV genomes sequenced in this study) in China and the United States during 2014-2018 revealed a high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and the GP2 to GP3 regions. Lineage 1 (L1) PRRSV was found to be susceptible to recombination among PRRSVs both in China and the United States. The recombinant major parent between the 1991-2013 data and the 2014-2018 data showed a trend from complex to simple. The major recombination pattern changed from an L8 to L1 backbone during 2014-2018 for Chinese PRRSVs, whereas L1 was always the major backbone for US PRRSVs. Intralineage recombination hot spots were not as concentrated as interlineage recombination hot spots. In the two main clades with differential diversity in L1, NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, NADC34-like PRRSVs have been relatively stable in population genetic diversity for years. Systematic analyses of insertion and deletion (indel) polymorphisms of NSP2 divided PRRSVs into 25 patterns, which could generate novel references for the classification of PRRSVs. The results of this study contribute to a deeper understanding of the recombination of PRRSVs and indicate the need for coordinated epidemiological investigations among countries.IMPORTANCE Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most significant swine diseases. However, the phylogenetic and genomic recombination properties of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we systematically compared differences in the lineage distribution, recombination, NSP2 polymorphisms, and evolutionary dynamics between North American (NA)-type PRRSVs in China and in the United States. Strikingly, we found high frequency of interlineage recombination hot spots in nonstructural protein 9 (NSP9) and in the GP2 to GP3 region. Also, intralineage recombination hot spots were scattered across the genome between Chinese and US strains. Furthermore, we proposed novel methods based on NSP2 indel patterns for the classification of PRRSVs. Evolutionary dynamics analysis revealed that NADC30-like PRRSVs are undergoing a decrease in population genetic diversity, suggesting that a dominant population may occur and cause an outbreak. Our findings offer important insights into the recombination of PRRSVs and suggest the need for coordinated international epidemiological investigations.

Polymorphism, Genetic , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Proteins/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Phylogeography , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Swine , United States/epidemiology