Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 10 de 10
Filter
1.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105345, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850639

ABSTRACT

In addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), SARS-CoV-2 has become the third deadly coronavirus that infects humans and causes the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 has already caused more than six million deaths worldwide and it is likely the biggest pandemic of this century faced by mankind. Although many studies on SARS-CoV-2 have been conducted, a detailed understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 is still lacking. Animal models are indispensable for studying its pathogenesis and developing vaccines and antivirals. In this review, we analyze animal models of coronavirus infections and explore their applications on antivirals and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Animal , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315634

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To investigate the CT changes of different clinical types of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This retrospective study included 50 confirmed patients with COVID-19 from 16 January 2020 to 25 February 2020. We analyzed the clinical and CT characteristics of the patients between the moderate group and the severe and critical group, and the dynamic changes of severity with the CT follow-up time. Results: There were no differences in the occurrence rate of CT characteristics between the moderate group (n=34) and the severe and critical group (n=16) in the initial CT (all p >0.05). There were differences in the CT score of right lung and total CT score at the initial CT between the two groups (all p <0.05). There was a quadratic relationship between total CT score and CT follow-up time in the severe and critical group (r2=0.137, p=0.008), the total CT severity score peaked at the second follow-up CT. There was no correlation between total CT score and CT follow-up time in the moderate group (p >0.05). The total CT score of the severe and critical group was different between the initial and first follow-up, the second and third follow-ups, the third and fourth follow-ups, and the fourth and fifth follow-ups CT (all p<0.05). The total CT score of the moderate group was different between the second and third follow-ups CT (p<0.05). Conclusions: COVID-19 pneumonia with the severe and critical types progressed rapidly with the greatest severity at the second follow-up CT, and the moderate type was relatively stable.

3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 285: 114905, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611829

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tongue coating has been used as an effective signature of health in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The level of greasy coating closely relates to the strength of dampness or pathogenic qi in TCM theory. Previous empirical studies and our systematic review have shown the relation between greasy coating and various diseases, including gastroenteropathy, coronary heart disease, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the objective and intelligent greasy coating and related diseases recognition methods are still lacking. The construction of the artificial intelligent tongue recognition models may provide important syndrome diagnosis and efficacy evaluation methods, and contribute to the understanding of ethnopharmacological mechanisms based on TCM theory. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to develop an artificial intelligent model for greasy tongue coating recognition and explore its application in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Herein, we developed greasy tongue coating recognition networks (GreasyCoatNet) using convolutional neural network technique and a relatively large (N = 1486) set of tongue images from standard devices. Tests were performed using both cross-validation procedures and a new dataset (N = 50) captured by common cameras. Besides, the accuracy and time efficiency comparisons between the GreasyCoatNet and doctors were also conducted. Finally, the model was transferred to recognize the greasy coating level of COVID-19. RESULTS: The overall accuracy in 3-level greasy coating classification with cross-validation was 88.8% and accuracy on new dataset was 82.0%, indicating that GreasyCoatNet can obtain robust greasy coating estimates from diverse datasets. In addition, we conducted user study to confirm that our GreasyCoatNet outperforms TCM practitioners, yet only consuming roughly 1% of doctors' examination time. Critically, we demonstrated that GreasyCoatNet, along with transfer learning, can construct more proper classifier of COVID-19, compared to directly training classifier on patient versus control datasets. We, therefore, derived a disease-specific deep learning network by finetuning the generic GreasyCoatNet. CONCLUSIONS: Our framework may provide an important research paradigm for differentiating tongue characteristics, diagnosing TCM syndrome, tracking disease progression, and evaluating intervention efficacy, exhibiting its unique potential in clinical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Ethnopharmacology/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Tongue , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Qi , SARS-CoV-2 , Tongue/microbiology , Tongue/pathology
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2066-2072, 2020 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thousands of medical staff have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with hundreds of deaths reported. Such loss could be prevented if there were a serologic assay for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies for serological surveillance of its infection at the early stage of disease. METHODS: Using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cell-expressed full-length SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein as capturing antigen, a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)/SARS-CoV-2 S1 serology enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit was developed and validated with negative samples collected prior to the outbreak or during the outbreak and positive samples from patients confirmed with COVID-19. RESULTS: The specificity of the ELISA kit was 97.5%, as examined against total 412 normal human samples. The sensitivity was 97.1% by testing against 69 samples from hospitalized and/or recovered COVID-19 patients. The overall accuracy rate reached 97.3%. The assay was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day 1 after the onset of COVID-19 disease. The average antibody levels increased during hospitalization and 14 days after discharge. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 28 of 276 asymptomatic medical staff and 1 of 5 nucleic acid test-negative "close contacts" of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: With the assays developed here, we can screen medical staff, incoming patients, passengers, and people who are in close contact with the confirmed patients to identify the "innocent viral spreaders," protect the medical staff, and stop further spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19/virology , Cricetulus , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serologic Tests
5.
Eur J Med Chem ; 215: 113242, 2021 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086914

ABSTRACT

Currently, SARS-CoV-2 virus is an emerging pathogen that has posed a serious threat to public health worldwide. However, no agents have been approved to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections to date, underscoring the great need for effective and practical therapies for SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks. We reported that a focused screen of OA saponins identified 3-O-ß-chacotriosyl OA benzyl ester 2 as a novel small molecule inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 virus entry, via binding to SARS-CoV-2 glycoprotein (S). We performed structure-activity relationship profiling of 2 and discovered C-17-COOH of OA was an important modification site that improved both inhibitor potency toward SARS-CoV-2 and selectivity index. Then optimization from hit to lead resulted in a potent fusion inhibitor 12f displaying strong inhibition against infectious SARS-CoV-2 with an IC50 value of 0.97 µM in vitro. Mechanism studies confirmed that inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 viral entry of 12f was mediated by the direct interaction with SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit to block membrane fusion. These 3-O-ß-chacotriosyl OA amide saponins are suitable for further optimization as SARS-CoV-2 entry inhibitors with the potential to be developed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 virus infections.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Saponins/chemical synthesis , Saponins/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/chemical synthesis , Triterpenes/metabolism , Vero Cells
6.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 581691, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979030

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of new infectious pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a significant threat to public health, but specific medicines and vaccines are still being developed. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has thousands of years of experience in facing the epidemic disease, such as influenza and viral pneumonia. In this study, we revealed the efficacy and pharmacological mechanism of Ma Xing Shi Gan (MXSG) Decoction against COVID-19. First, we used liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to analyze the chemical components in MXSG and identified a total of 97 components from MXSG. Then, the intervention pathway of MXSG based on these components was analyzed with network pharmacology, and it was found that the pathways related to the virus infection process were enriched in some of MXSG component targets. Simultaneously, through literature research, it was preliminarily determined that MXSG, which is an essential prescription for treating COVID-19, shared the feature of antiviral, improving clinical symptoms, regulating immune inflammation, and inhibiting lung injury. The regulatory mechanisms associated with its treatment of COVID-19 were proposed. That MXSG might directly inhibit the adsorption and replication of SARS-CoV-2 at the viral entry step. Besides, MXSG might play a critical role in inflammation and immune regulatory, that is, to prevent cytokine storm and relieve lung injury through toll-like receptors signaling pathway. Next, in this study, the regulatory effect of MXSG on inflammatory lung injury was validated through transcriptome results. In summary, MXSG is a relatively active and safe treatment for influenza and viral pneumonia, and its therapeutic effect may be attributed to its antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.

7.
J Med Chem ; 63(22): 13205-13227, 2020 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741659

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to more than 20 million people infected worldwide with an average mortality rate of 3.6%. This virus poses major challenges to public health, as it not only is highly contagious but also can be transmitted by asymptomatic infected individuals. COVID-19 is clinically difficult to manage due to a lack of specific antiviral drugs or vaccines. In this article, Chinese therapy strategies for treating COVID-19 patients, including current applications of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), are comprehensively reviewed. Furthermore, 72 small molecules from natural products and TCM with reported antiviral activity against human coronaviruses (CoVs) are identified from published literature, and their potential applications in combating SARS-CoV-2 are discussed. Among these, the clinical efficacies of some accessible drugs such as remdesivir (RDV) and favipiravir (FPV) for COVID-19 are emphatically summarized. We hope this review provides a foundation for managing the worsening pandemic and developing antivirals against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Small Molecule Libraries/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology
8.
BMC Med Imaging ; 20(1): 92, 2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the CT changes of different clinical types of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: This retrospective study included 50 patients with COVID-19 from 16 January 2020 to 25 February 2020. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, CT characteristics and the pneumonia involvement of the patients between the moderate group and the severe and critical group, and the dynamic changes of severity with the CT follow-up time. RESULTS: There were differences in the CT severity score of the right lung in the initial CT, and total CT severity score in the initial and follow-up CT between the moderate group and the severe and critical group (all p < 0.05). There was a quadratic relationship between total CT severity score and CT follow-up time in the severe and critical group (r2 = 0.137, p = 0.008), the total CT severity score peaked at the second follow-up CT. There was no correlation between total CT severity score and CT follow-up time in the moderate group (p > 0.05). There were no differences in the occurrence rate of CT characteristics in the initial CT between the two groups (all p > 0.05). There were differences in the occurrence rate of ground-glass opacity and crazy-paving pattern in the second follow-up CT, and pleural thickening or adhesion in the third follow-up CT between the two groups (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The CT changes of COVID-19 pneumonia with different severity were different, and the extent of pneumonia involvement by CT can help to assess the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia rather than the initial CT characteristics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/virology , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
9.
Vaccine ; 38(35): 5653-5658, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has become a global pandemic responsible for over 2,000,000 confirmed cases and over 126,000 deaths worldwide. In this study, we examined the immunogenicity of CHO-expressed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc fusion protein in mice, rabbits, and monkeys as a potential candidate for a COVID-19 vaccine. We demonstrate that the S1-Fc fusion protein is extremely immunogenic, as evidenced by strong antibody titers observed by day 7. Strong virus neutralizing activity was observed on day 14 in rabbits immunized with the S1-Fc fusion protein using a pseudovirus neutralization assay. Most importantly, in <20 days and three injections of the S1-Fc fusion protein, two monkeys developed higher virus neutralizing titers than a recovered COVID-19 patient in a live SARS-CoV-2 infection assay. Our data strongly suggests that the CHO-expressed SARS-CoV-2 S1-Fc recombinant protein could be a strong candidate for vaccine development against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/chemistry , Macaca/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , CHO Cells , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cricetulus , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Mice , Pandemics , Rabbits
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(16): e19900, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-105218

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus, tentatively designated as 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, emerged in Wuhan, China, at the end of 2019 and which continues to expand. On February 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) named the disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). On February 28, WHO increased our assessment of the risk of spread and the risk of impact of COVID-19 to very high at a global level. The COVID-19 poses significant threats to international health.Computed tomography (CT) has been an important imaging modality in assisting in the diagnosis and management of patients withCOVID-19. Some retrospective imaging studies have reported chest CT findings of COVID-19 in the past 2 months, suggesting that several CT findings may be characteristic. To our knowledge, there has been no prospective multicentre imaging study of COVID-19 to date.We proposed a hypothesis: There are some specific CT features on Chest CT of COVID-19 patients. And the mechanism of these CT features is explicable based on pathological findings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the specific CT features of COVID-19 and the formation mechanism of these CT features. METHOD: This study is a prospective multicenter observational study. We will recruit 100 patients with COVID-19 at 55 hospitals. All patients undergo chest CT examination with the same scan protocol. The distribution and morphology of lesions on chest CT, clinical data will be recorded. A number of patients will be pathologically examined after permission is granted. The data of these three aspects will be analyzed synthetically. DISCUSSION: This study will help us to identify the chest CT features of COVID-19 and its mechanism. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This retrospective study was approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee of West China Hospital of Sichuan University (No. 2020-140). Written informed consent will be obtained from all study participants prior to enrollment in the study. To protect privacy of participants, all private information were kept anonymous. The results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and will be disseminated electronically and in print regardless of results.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , World Health Organization/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL