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1.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 10(17): e2207249, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299008

ABSTRACT

Highly pathogenic coronavirus (CoV) infection induces a defective innate antiviral immune response coupled with the dysregulated release of proinflammatory cytokines and finally results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A timely and appropriate triggering of innate antiviral response is crucial to inhibit viral replication and prevent ARDS. However, current medical countermeasures can rarely meet this urgent demand. Here, an antiviral nanobiologic named CoVR-MV is developed, which is polymerized of CoVs receptors based on a biomimetic membrane vesicle system. The designed CoVR-MV interferes with the viral infection by absorbing the viruses with maximized viral spike target interface, and mediates the clearance of the virus through its inherent interaction with macrophages. Furthermore, CoVR-MV coupled with the virus promotes a swift production and signaling of endogenous type I interferon via deregulating 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation in macrophages. These sequential processes re-modulate the innate immune responses to the virus, trigger spontaneous innate antiviral defenses, and rescue infected Syrian hamsters from ARDS caused by SARS-CoV-2 and all tested variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Innate , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Cell Rep ; 38(12): 110558, 2022 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797096

ABSTRACT

Mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) may alter viral host tropism and affect the activities of neutralizing antibodies. Here, we investigated 153 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs) (including Omicron) for their antigenic changes and cross-species tropism in cells expressing 18 ACE2 orthologs. Several RBD mutations strengthened viral infectivity in cells expressing ACE2 orthologs of non-human animals, particularly those less susceptible to the ancestral strain. The mutations surrounding amino acids (aas) 439-448 and aa 484 are more likely to cause neutralization resistance. Strikingly, enhanced cross-species infection potential in the mouse and ferret, instead of the neutralization-escape scores of the mutations, account for the positive correlation with the cumulative prevalence of mutations in humans. These findings present insights for potential drivers of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and provide informative parameters for tracking and forecasting spreading mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Ferrets , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Tropism , Viral Envelope Proteins
3.
Cell reports ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1728589

ABSTRACT

Zhang et al. show in vitro cross-species infectivity and neutralization-escape characteristics of 153 SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants and 11 globally circulating VOC/VOI variants. They reveal an association between enhanced cross-species infection potential and the current cumulative prevalence of mutations, which can inform surveillance and forecasting of SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations.

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