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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 209: 114226, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767929

ABSTRACT

Protein sensors based on allosteric enzymes responding to target binding with rapid changes in enzymatic activity are potential tools for homogeneous assays. However, a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is difficult to achieve in their construction. A high S/N is critical to discriminate signals from the background, a phenomenon that might largely vary among serum samples from different individuals. Herein, based on the modularized luciferase NanoLuc, we designed a novel biosensor called NanoSwitch. This sensor allows direct detection of antibodies in 1 µl serum in 45 min without washing steps. In the detection of Flag and HA antibodies, NanoSwitches respond to antibodies with S/N ratios of 33-fold and 42-fold, respectively. Further, we constructed a NanoSwitch for detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, which showed over 200-fold S/N in serum samples. High S/N was achieved by a new working model, combining the turn-off of the sensor with human serum albumin and turn-on with a specific antibody. Also, we constructed NanoSwitches for detecting antibodies against the core protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Interestingly, these sensors demonstrated a high S/N and good performance in the assays of clinical samples; this was partly attributed to the combination of off-and-on models. In summary, we provide a novel type of protein sensor and a working model that potentially guides new sensor design with better performance.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Luciferases , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765949

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy and vaccine development need more novel adenovirus vectors. Here, we attempt to provide strategies to construct adenovirus vectors based on restriction-assembly for researchers with little experience in this field. Restriction-assembly is a combined method of restriction digestion and Gibson assembly, by which the major part of the obtained plasmid comes from digested DNA fragments instead of PCR products. We demonstrated the capability of restriction-assembly in manipulating the genome of simian adenovirus 1 (SAdV-1) in this study. A PCR product of the plasmid backbone was combined with SAdV-1 genomic DNA to construct an infectious clone, plasmid pKSAV1, by Gibson assembly. Restriction-assembly was performed repeatedly in the steps of intermediate plasmid isolation, modification, and restoration. The generated adenoviral plasmid was linearized by restriction enzyme digestion and transfected into packaging 293 cells to rescue E3-deleted replication-competent SAdV1XE3-CGA virus. Interestingly, SAdV1XE3-CGA could propagate in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. The E1 region was similarly modified to generate E1/E3-deleted replication-defective virus SAdV1-EG. SAdV1-EG had a moderate gene transfer ability to adherent mammalian cells, and it could efficiently transduce suspension cells when compared with the human adenovirus 5 control vector. Restriction-assembly is easy to use and can be performed without special experimental materials and instruments. It is highly effective with verifiable outcomes at each step. More importantly, restriction-assembly makes the established vector system modifiable, upgradable and under sustainable development, and it can serve as the instructive method or strategy for the synthetic biology of adenoviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Adenoviruses, Simian , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Simian/genetics , Animals , DNA , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Mammals
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323548

ABSTRACT

Background: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia are different in Hubei compared to other regions in China. But there are few comparative studies on the differences between imported and local patients which may provide information of the different courses of the virus after transmission. Methods: : We investigated 169 cases of COVID-19 pneumonia in two centers in Hunan Province, and divided them into two groups according to epidemiological history, "imported patients" refers to patient with a clear history of travel in Wuhan within 14 days before onset, and " local patients” refers to local resident without a recent history of travel in Wuhan, aiming to analyze the difference in clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. All the epidemiological, clinical, imaging, and laboratory data were analyzed and contrasted. Results: : The incidence of fever on admission in imported patients was significantly higher than local patients. There was a significantly higher proportion of abnormal pulmonary signs, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, prolonged PT, elevated D-dimer and elevated blood glucose in imported patients. Compared with local patients, the proportion using antibiotics, glucocorticoids and gamma globulin were significantly higher in imported patients. The moderate type was more common in local patients, and the severe type were more frequent in imported patients. In addition, the median duration of viral clearance was longer in imported patients. Conclusions: : In summary, we found that imported cases were more likely to develop into severe cases, compared with local patients and required more powerful treatments. Trial registration: Registered 21 st March 2020, and this study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee (Approved Number. 2020017).

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307708

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 carries the largest single-stranded RNA genome and is the causal pathogen of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. How the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome is folded in the virion remains unknown. To fill the knowledge gap and facilitate structure-based drug development, we developed a virion RNA in situ conformation sequencing technology, named vRIC-seq, for probing viral RNA genome structure unbiasedly. Using vRIC-seq data, we reconstructed the tertiary structure of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and revealed a surprisingly "unentangled globule" conformation. We uncovered many long-range duplexes and higher-order junctions, both of which were under purifying selections and contributed to the sequential package of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Unexpectedly, the D614G and the other two accompanying mutations might remodel duplexes into more stable forms. Lastly, the structure-guided design of potent small interfering RNAs could obliterate the SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Overall, our work provides a framework for studying the genome structure, function, and dynamics of emerging deadly RNA viruses.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307612

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To describe the correlation between the clinical, laboratory and radiological findings with hospitalization days in Coronavirus Infected Disease-19 (COVID-19) discharged patients. Method In this multicenter study, we retrospectively identified 153 discharged patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from Jan 16, 2020 to Feb 26, 2020 in Hunan province. Patients were grouped based on the hospitalization days: Group 1 (hospitalization days≦12 days) and Group 2((hospitalization days> 12days). Demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings on admission and the imaging features of the first Chest CT on admission were analyzed. The differences between groups were analyzed using univariate logistic regression to find the impact factors. Results The cohort included 153 discharged patients (85 males and 68 females, with the mean age of 42.32±14.03 years old). 90(58.8%) patients had hospitalization days≦12 and 63(41.2%) patients had hospitalization days>12. 44(48.9%) patients in Group1 and 28(44.4%) in Group 2 had been to Wuhan. In both Group1 and Group2, most common symptoms at onset were fever (62.2%, 60.3%) and cough (33.3%, 50.8%). Cough was occurred more common in Group 2(50.8%) than Group 1(33.3%) with a significant difference (p=0.03). 6(6.7%) patients in Group1 and 10(15.9%) in Group2 had admitting diagnosis as non-pneumonia (p=0.07), some of them occurred mild pneumonia during hospital stay. White blood cell (2.2%, 9.5%) and neutrophil (9.5%) count above normal were more common on in Group 2 (p=0.04, p=0.04). Patients in Group 2 had higher concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (P=0.04) than Group 1. Most of patients had multiple lesions (75.6%, 69.8%) with bilateral distribution (73.3%, 58.7%) in both groups. Mixed ground-glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation appearance were seen in most patients. GGO components > consolidation appearance were more common in Group 1(31.1%) than in Group 2(8.0%) with a significant difference between groups (P<0.01). Patients had cough at onset disease (OR, 0.47;95%CI, 0.23 to 0.96, p=0.04) and CT represented as GGO components more than consolidation (OR, 4.84;95%CI, 1.80 to 13.04, p<0.01) were associated with hospitalization days. Conclusions COVID-19 non-pneumonia patients with longer hospitalization days might have the persistent symptoms or pneumonia occurrence after admission. Chest CT could help prompt diagnosis and monitor disease progression, GGO/consolidation >1 in mixed lesions was associated with shorter hospitalization days. Special attention should be paid to the role of radiological features in monitoring disease prognosis.

6.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Tourism Review of AIEST - International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism ; 77(1):113-128, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1642520

ABSTRACT

PurposeA transportation connectivity strategy is a crucial part of an adaptive, congruent and sustainable tourism transportation system and is of concern to countries focusing on growing their tourism economy. This study aims to gain a better understanding of the relationship between transportation connectivity and the tourism economy through a configuration analysis.Design/methodology/approachThis study uses fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis on a sample of 153 cities in China to provide an understanding of the impacts of transportation connectivity strategies, with the co-effecting factors of socio-economic status, tourism resource endowment and hospitality capacity, on the development of regional tourism economies.FindingsThere are multiple paths that lead to regional tourism economic development (a high level of tourist arrivals or a high level of tourism revenue). High-speed rail can play a supportive role, while air travel or traditional rail remains central to the tourism economy. Socio-economic status (i.e. city size and city gross domestic product) and hospitality capacity are identified as crucial influencers for the development of the tourism economy.Research limitations/implicationsThis study confirms the validity of deploying configuration analysis (based on the equifinality theory) to establish the relationship between transportation and the tourism economy. The finding of more than one configuration led to a new consensus on how multiple factors influence the tourism economy.Practical implicationsSuggestions on transportation connectivity strategies for different regions are provided.Originality/valueThis study demonstrates the need to place greater emphasis on configurations that lead to tourism economy development instead of the effect of a single transportation mode.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 774776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581334

ABSTRACT

Both RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of SARS-CoV-2 and immune characteristics of the human body have been reported to play an important role in COVID-19, but how the m6A methylation modification of leukocytes responds to the virus infection remains unknown. Based on the RNA-seq of 126 samples from the GEO database, we disclosed that there is a remarkably higher m6A modification level of blood leukocytes in patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without COVID-19, and this difference was related to CD4+ T cells. Two clusters were identified by unsupervised clustering, m6A cluster A characterized by T cell activation had a higher prognosis than m6A cluster B. Elevated metabolism level, blockage of the immune checkpoint, and lower level of m6A score were observed in m6A cluster B. A protective model was constructed based on nine selected genes and it exhibited an excellent predictive value in COVID-19. Further analysis revealed that the protective score was positively correlated to HFD45 and ventilator-free days, while negatively correlated to SOFA score, APACHE-II score, and crp. Our works systematically depicted a complicated correlation between m6A methylation modification and host lymphocytes in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and provided a well-performing model to predict the patients' outcomes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Leukocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adenosine/metabolism , Cluster Analysis , Computational Biology/methods , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve
10.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 4393-4399, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496757

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Relevant studies show that population migration has a great impact on the early spread of infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to explore whether there is an explicit relationship between population migration and the number of confirmed cases for the control of the COVID-19 epidemic. This paper mainly explores the impact of population migration on early COVID-19 transmission, and establishes a predictive nonlinear mathematical model to predict the number of early cases. METHODS: Data of confirmed cases were sourced from the official website of the Municipal Health Committee, and the proportions of migration from Wuhan to other cities were sourced from the Baidu data platform. The data of confirmed cases and the migration proportions of 14 cities in Hubei Province were collected, the COVID-19 cases study period was determined as 10 days based on the third quartile of the interval of the incubation period, and a non-linear mathematical model was constructed to clarify the relationship between the migration proportion and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases. Finally, eight typical regions were selected to verify the accuracy of the model. RESULTS: The daily population migration rates and the growth curves of the number of confirmed cases in the 14 cities were basically consistent, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.91. The specific mathematical expression of 14 regions is . In each of the fourteen cities, The nonlinear exponential model structure is as follows:. It was found that the R 2 values of the fitted mathematical model were greater than 0.8 in all studied regions, excluding Suizhou (p < 0.05). The established mathematical model was used to fit eight regions in China, and the correlations between the predicted and actual numbers of confirmed cases were greater than 0.9, excluding that of Hebei Province (0.82). CONCLUSION: The study found that population migration has a positive and significant impact on the spread of COVID-19. Modeling COVID-19 risk may be a useful strategy for directing public health surveillance and interventions. Restricting the migration of the population is of great significance to the joint prevention and control of the pandemic worldwide.

11.
Cell Res ; 31(11): 1148-1162, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493088

ABSTRACT

Increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive (SARS-CoV-2pos) subjects are detected at silent SARS-CoV-2 infection stage (SSIS). Yet, SSIS represents a poorly examined time-window wherein unknown immunity patterns may contribute to the fate determination towards persistently asymptomatic or overt disease. Here, we retrieved blood samples from 19 asymptomatic and 12 presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2pos subjects, 47 age/gender-matched patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and 27 normal subjects, and interrogated them with combined assays of 44-plex CyTOF, RNA-seq and Olink. Notably, both asymptomatic and presymptomatic subjects exhibited numerous readily detectable immunological alterations, while certain parameters including more severely decreased frequencies of CD107alow classical monocytes, intermediate monocytes, non-classical monocytes and CD62Lhi CD8+ Tnaïve cells, reduced plasma STC1 level but an increased frequency of CD4+ NKT cells combined to distinguish the latter. Intercorrelation analyses revealed a particular presymptomatic immunotype mainly manifesting as monocytic overactivation and differentiation blockage, a likely lymphocyte exhaustion and immunosuppression, yielding mechanistic insights into SSIS fate determination, which could potentially improve SARS-CoV-2 management.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 57(1): 49-56, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437078

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Few studies have explored the clinical features in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 and other common respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), Influenza virus (IV), and adenovirus (ADV). Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and cytokine profiling in children with COVID-19 or other acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI). METHODS: We enrolled 20 hospitalized children confirmed as COVID-19 positive, 58 patients with ARTI, and 20 age and sex-matched healthy children. The clinical information and blood test results were collected. A total of 27 cytokines and chemokines were measured and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age in the COVID-19 positive group was 14.5 years, which was higher than that of the ARTI groups. Around one-third of patients in the COVID-19 group experienced moderate fever, with a peak temperature of 38.27°C. None of the patients displayed wheezing or dyspnea. In addition, patients in the COVID-19 group had lower white blood cells, platelet counts as well as a neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Lower serum concentrations of 14 out of 27 cytokines were observed in the COVID-19 group than in healthy individuals. Seven cytokines (IL-1Ra, IL-1ß, IL-9, IL-10, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and VEGF) changed serum concentration in COVID-19 compared with other ARTI groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID-19 were older and showed milder symptoms and a favorable prognosis than ARTI caused by RSV, IV, and ADV. There was a low grade or constrained innate immune reaction in children with mild COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , China/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 8972-8981, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380166

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major global health threat. Monitoring viral transmission and disease characteristics as the disease spreads globally is vital. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and source of infection in patients with secondary transmission of COVID-19 outside the outbreak area. METHODS: The epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data of five patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were treated in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University (Ningxia, China) from 1 January 2020 to 1 March 2020 were presented. The final follow-up evaluation was performed on 12 March 2020. RESULTS: The five participants included two couples and a young woman, none of whom had visited Hubei. It was likely that four of the participants had been infected by exposure to asymptomatic visitors from Wuhan. The other participant lived in a densely-populated community with potential COVID-19 cases. A variety of symptoms were presented by four participants, including cough, fevers, sputum, breathlessness, chest pain, fatigue, sore limbs, sore throats, headaches, and rhinorrhea. A severe infection, with dyspnea and decreased oxygen saturation, was experienced by one participant who had a history of chronic bronchitis. A single participant was asymptomatic, but had ground-glass opacities (GGOs) on chest imaging. Another two participants also displayed GGOs. Lymphopenia was noted in three participants. During the follow-up period, all participants were cured and discharged to their homes. CONCLUSIONS: This study included patients who had acquired infections of COVID-19 through local transmission. These findings will provide a better understanding of secondary transmission of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cough , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Fever , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(4): 429-433, 2021 Jul 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346610

ABSTRACT

This research analyzed Chinese emergency approval policies and practices of medical devices at the local level under the circumstance of COVID-19 disease. The legal basis and administrative system were clarified, the implementation and characteristics of emergency approval policies were investigated, the products information including total approved number, product type and license's validity period were counted. Advices as enhancing the standardization of emergency approval system, strengthening registration guidance and optimize information disclose and management were provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Device Approval , Humans , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e531-e539, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with no licensed vaccine or specific antiviral agents for therapy. Little is known about the longitudinal dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 173) were collected from 30 patients with COVID-19 over a 3-month period after symptom onset and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs using the lentiviral pseudotype assay, coincident with the levels of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific NAb titers were low for the first 7-10 days after symptom onset and increased after 2-3 weeks. The median peak time for NAbs was 33 days (interquartile range [IQR], 24-59 days) after symptom onset. NAb titers in 93.3% (28/30) of the patients declined gradually over the 3-month study period, with a median decrease of 34.8% (IQR, 19.6-42.4%). NAb titers increased over time in parallel with the rise in immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels, correlating well at week 3 (r = 0.41, P < .05). The NAb titers also demonstrated a significant positive correlation with levels of plasma proinflammatory cytokines, including stem cell factor (SCF), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). CONCLUSIONS: These data provide useful information regarding dynamic changes in NAbs in patients with COVID-19 during the acute and convalescent phases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 700498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295682

ABSTRACT

Combination therapy using Western and traditional Chinese medicines has shown notable effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The He-Jie-Shen-Shi decoction (HJSS), composed of Bupleurum chinense DC., Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., and nine other herbs, has been used to treat severe COVID-19 in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of HJSS combination therapy and Western monotherapy against severe COVID-19 and to study the potential action mechanism of HJSS. From February 2020 to March 2020, 81 patients with severe COVID-19 in Wuhan Tongji Hospital were selected for retrospective cohort study. Network pharmacology was conducted to predict the possible mechanism of HJSS on COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Targets of active components in HJSS were screened using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) and PharmMapper databases. The targets of COVID-19 and ARDS were obtained from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The key targets of HJSS in COVID-19 and ARDS were obtained based on the protein-protein interaction network (PPI). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis (KEGG) was conducted to predict the pathways related to the targets of HJSS in COVID-19 and ARDS. A "herb-ingredient-target-pathway" network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Results showed that the duration of the negative conversion time of nucleic acid was shorter in patients who received HJSS combination therapy. HJSS combination therapy also relieved fever in patients with severe COVID-19. Network pharmacology analysis identified interleukin (IL) 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), catalase (CAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 1, tumor protein p53 (TP53), CC-chemokine ligand (CCL2), MAPK3, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and IL1B as the key targets of HJSS in COVID-19-related ARDS. KEGG analysis suggested that HJSS improved COVID-19-related ARDS by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, NOD-like receptor, TNF, T cell receptor, sphingolipid, PI3K-Akt, toll-like receptor, VEGF, FoxO, and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, HJSS can be used as an adjuvant therapy on severe COVID-19. The therapeutic mechanisms may be involved in inhibiting viral replication, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress and alleviating lung injury. Further studies are required to confirm its clinical efficacies and action mechanisms.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3917, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281717

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 carries the largest single-stranded RNA genome and is the causal pathogen of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. How the SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome is folded in the virion remains unknown. To fill the knowledge gap and facilitate structure-based drug development, we develop a virion RNA in situ conformation sequencing technology, named vRIC-seq, for probing viral RNA genome structure unbiasedly. Using vRIC-seq data, we reconstruct the tertiary structure of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and reveal a surprisingly "unentangled globule" conformation. We uncover many long-range duplexes and higher-order junctions, both of which are under purifying selections and contribute to the sequential package of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Unexpectedly, the D614G and the other two accompanying mutations may remodel duplexes into more stable forms. Lastly, the structure-guided design of potent small interfering RNAs can obliterate the SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Overall, our work provides a framework for studying the genome structure, function, and dynamics of emerging deadly RNA viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Virion/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virion/chemistry , Virion/metabolism
19.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2369-2375, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many people have experienced novel coronavirus pneumonia since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Wuhan, China. The Chinese government has encouraged people to wear face masks in public places; however, due to the large population, there may be a series of problems related to this recommendation, including shortages of masks and lack of an optimal disposal method for used masks. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to understand the current status of mask shortages and used masks in China. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was designed to assess the current status of mask shortages and used masks. The differences among groups were analyzed with chi-square tests. RESULTS: The constituent ratio of those who reuse masks was 61%. Obtaining masks from the drugstore was reported to be very difficult due to high demand and short supply, and approximately 1/3 of the respondents purchased expensive masks. Most people know how to properly handle used masks, and only 7% of them casually discard masks. However, 50% of respondents have seen others throw away used masks at will. A further subgroup analysis showed that respondents in Central China tended to use masks repeatedly, as did medical personnel. Females, people living in the central region, and medical personnel may find it more difficult to purchase masks in drugstores. Non-medical personnel may be more likely to buy expensive masks. Females, people living in the western region, and medical personnel may be more likely to know how to properly handle used masks and not to discard used masks at will. Medical personnel may be more likely to observe others discarding used masks at will. CONCLUSION: In response to COVID-19, the public should be encouraged to use face masks and are advised not to reuse or throw away masks at will due to safety concerns.

20.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(2): 563-567, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237551

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on emergency and cardiovascular disease-related calls in Hangzhou, China. METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective study, collecting data on emergency calls to the Hangzhou Emergency Center (HEC) during the COVID-19 epidemic (January 20, 2020, to March 15, 2020). Data were compared with the same period in 2019. RESULTS: Compared to 2019, the number of emergency calls has dropped by 21.63%, ambulance calls by 29.02%, rescue calls by 22.57%, and cardiovascular disease-related emergency calls by 32.86%. The numbers of emergency, ambulance, and rescue calls in 2020 were significantly lower than in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Hangzhou, the numbers of emergency and cardiovascular disease-related calls have decreased significantly. These results point to a severe social problem that requires the attention of the medical community and the government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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