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1.
Biomed J ; 2022 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821151

ABSTRACT

Despite the rising natural and vaccines mediated immunity, several countries have experienced a resurgence of the Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) due to emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants. From Alpha to Omicron, the variants of concern (VOC) have evolved several spike protein mutations that may have impact on virus characteristics, such as transmissibility and antigenicity. In this review, we describe the evolution of SARS-CoV-2, summarize current knowledge of epidemiological and clinical features of the variants, and discuss the response strategies in terms of vaccines to reduce the burden of COVID-19.

3.
J Card Surg ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784691

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly burdened the global healthcare system since December 2019. Minority populations are found to have a higher incidence of hospitalization and higher mortality when compared to Caucasians. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is reserved for COVID-19 patients who develop respiratory failure refractory to conventional management. To our knowledge, no data has been reported on outcome differences between Minority COVID-19 patients and Caucasian COVID-19 patients managed with ECMO. We aimed to investigate the outcome differences between these two groups. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study had 23 adults (aged 18 and older) diagnosed with COVID-19 by polymerase chain reaction. All patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), refractory to conventional treatment, and were managed on ECMO support. The primary outcome of interest was mortality; the secondary outcome was the rate of ECMO-related complications. RESULTS: The overall mortality rate of our study was higher (70%) than other reports of the COVID-19 population on ECMO. Caucasians in our study had more severe respiratory acidosis with carbon dioxide retention and appeared to have a higher mortality rate of 85.7% compared to Minorities (62.5%). No differences in complication rates between these two groups were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our cohort revealed a high overall mortality rate of COVID-19 patients on ECMO support. The Caucasian group was observed to have higher mortality than the Minority group. The high overall mortality was likely attributed to the Caucasian group, which had more severe respiratory acidosis before ECMO initiation, a known predictor of poor prognosis in ARDS patients. Our cohort's ethnic composition may also partially explain the high mortality rate since COVID-19 Minorities are reported to have worse outcomes than Caucasians. Larger and randomized studies are needed to investigate further the mortality and complication differences between Minority and Caucasian patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and managed by ECMO.

4.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765756

ABSTRACT

Most yeasts causing infections in humans are part of commensal microflora and etiological agents of different infections when hosts become susceptible, usually due to becoming immunocompromised. The colonization of potentially pathogenic microbes in the oral cavity is increased by poor oral hygiene. This follow-up survey was conducted approximately two months after providing information on proper oral care at 10 nursing homes in Taiwan. Among the 117 of 165 residents colonized by yeasts, 67 were colonized by more than one yeast species. A total of 231 isolates comprising eight fungal genera and 25 species were identified. Candida albicans (44.6%) was the dominant species, followed by Candida glabrata (17.7%), Candida parapsilosis (8.7%), Candida tropicalis (7.8%), and Candida pararugosa (7.3%). Residents having a yeast colony-forming unit >10 (OR, 8.897; 95% CI 2.972-26.634; p < 0.001) or using a wheelchair (OR, 4.682; 95% CI 1.599-13.705; p = 0.005) were more likely to be colonized by multiple species. By comparing before and after oral-care education, dry mouth (OR, 3.199; 95% CI 1.448-7.068; p = 0.011) and having heart disease (OR, 2.681; 95% CI 1.068-6.732; p = 0.036) emerged as two independent risk factors for increased density of colonizing yeast.

5.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2348-2348, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751429
6.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (JACC) ; 79(9):2148-2148, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751376
7.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 79(3): 311-314, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730738

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Early during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, concerns were raised regarding potential adverse outcomes in patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). These concerns were based on animal studies showing increased ACE-2 expression in mice treated with ACEI/ARB. This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 289 patients diagnosed with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) hospitalized between March of 2020 and June of 2020. The study was intended to investigate the impact of ACEIs and/or ARBs on in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, postadmission hemodialysis requirement, and the need for mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19. This cohort of 289 patients included 139 of 289 women (48%) with a mean age of 61 ± 19 years. Patients using ACEIs/ARBs were older (69.68 vs. 57.9 years; P < 0.0001), more likely to have a history of hypertension (97% vs. 36%; P < 0.0001), diabetes mellitus (48% vs. 20.9%; P < 0.0001), chronic heart failure (11.39% vs. 4.29%; P < 0.0512), coronary artery disease (20.25% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.0025), stroke/Transient Ischemic Attack (7.59% vs. 2.38%; P < 0.0761), chronic kidney disease (11.39% vs. 3.33%; P < 0.0167), atrial fibrillation/flutter (18.99% vs. 7.14%; P < 0.0080), and dementia (22.7% vs. 11.4%; P < 0.0233) compared with the nonuser group. There was significantly higher in-hospital mortality in patients using ACEIs/ARBs than nonusers, respectively (32.9% vs. 15.2%; P < 0.0015). However, a multivariate logistics regression analysis performed to adjust for common confounders demonstrated no significant difference in all-cause in-patient mortality (P 0.7141). Admission to ICU, postadmission hemodialysis requirement, and mechanical ventilation showed no significant differences between the 2 groups (P = NS). This study suggests that the use of ACEIs and ARBs in patients with COVID-19 was not found to significantly increase all-cause in-hospital mortality, ICU admissions, and hemodialysis and mechanical ventilation requirements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mice , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325034

ABSTRACT

Background: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. Patients and Methods: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27andFebruary 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shanxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected;cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). Results: : Nine (9/13) COVID-19patientsexhibitedmild disease severity, and defined as second-generation, human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P >0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms;however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P >0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P <0.05).Twelve of 13COVID-19patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P <0.05). Conclusion: Most cases of COVID-19infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19varied.Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19diseaselackedtypicalcharacteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.

9.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(11): 1804-1807, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639537

ABSTRACT

We present the finding of a dimeric ACE2 peptide mimetic designed through side chain cross-linking and covalent dimerization. It has a binding affinity of 16 nM for the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD, and effectively inhibits the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in Huh7-hACE2 cells with an IC50 of 190 nM and neutralizes the authentic SARS-CoV-2 in Caco2 cells with an IC50 of 2.4 µM. Our study should provide a new insight for the optimization of peptide-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptide Fragments/pharmacology , Peptidomimetics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , Peptidomimetics/chemical synthesis , Peptidomimetics/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Journal of Extreme Events ; 8(2), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1551076

ABSTRACT

In the absence of preventive therapies or effective treatment for most cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), governments worldwide have sought to minimize person-to-person severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through a variety of lock-down measures and social distancing policies. Extreme events like the COVID-19 pandemic present a tremendous opportunity to make quantitative connections between changes in anthropogenic forcing, social and economic activity, and the related Earth system response. In this paper, we examine the air quality impacts associated with the pandemic response measures in the Northeastern United States.

11.
Aust J Gen Pract ; 502021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498368

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, general practitioners have played the crucial part of health gatekeepers, which should be acknowledged and appreciated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Practitioners , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 731352, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441120

ABSTRACT

Thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism are common complications in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The fact that COVID-19 patients develop both thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism has been observed, and multiple studies have investigated the underlying pathophysiology. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is reserved for COVID-19 patients who develop respiratory failure and not respond to conventional mechanical ventilation. ECMO induces thromboembolism and raises the incidence of developing thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients. Here, we report the hospital courses and outcomes of three COVID-19 patients who were treated with ECMO, then developed both thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism. The coexistence of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism challenges the clinical treatment strategy, including the decision of initiating anticoagulation. Based on current data, anticoagulation is recommended to all hospitalized COVID-19 patients unless there is active bleeding, previous bleeding history within 3 days, or platelet count is lower than 30,000 cells/µl. Further investigation into the mechanisms and implications of thrombocytopenia and thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia will lead to significantly improved outcomes and prognosis for the patients.

13.
Neurology Asia ; 26(3):441-447, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1436625

ABSTRACT

Background & Objectives: COVID-19 may influence the health seeking behavior of acute ischemic stroke patients. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of the patients who visited the emergency room in a centre designated for stroke care in Taiwan. Methods: This was a retrospective database-based study comparing the severity of ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and risk factors of patients seen between 2019 and 2020 in the National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch. Patients with or without thrombolysis therapy were analysed. Results: The median NIHSS of ischemic stroke patients were lower in 2019 than in 2020 (p = 0.015). The difference was seen in non-thrombolysis patients (2019: 3[1-6] vs. 4 [2-7.5], p = 0.012) but not in thrombolysis patients. The frequency of minor stroke was higher in 2019 (45.1%) than in 2020 (37.9%, p = 0.038). The discharge mRS was lower overall (p = 0.004) and in non-thrombolysis patients (0.003), but not in thrombolysis patients in 2019. As for the ICH patients, the severity of ICH score (p = 0.021) and discharge mRS (p = 0.001) were also lower in 2019. The frequencies of risk factors of stroke were higher in 2019 than in 2020, including smoking (24% vs. 18.2%, p = 0.046), alcohol (11.9% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.039), hypertension (72.9% vs. 66.2%, p = 0.039), history of stroke (16.5% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.047), and atrial fibrillation (11.9% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.039). Conclusions: This study in Taiwan revealed a decline in the willingness to seek emergency services under the influence of COVID-19 among patients with lower stroke severity, especially those with more risk factors. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Neurology Asia is the property of Association of South East Asian Nations, Neurological Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

14.
Chest ; 158(4):A1191-A1191, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1385251

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Disorders of the Pleura Posters SESSION TYPE: Original Investigation Posters PRESENTED ON: October 18-21, 2020 PURPOSE: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a relatively common complication in critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Limited data exists regarding pneumothorax in severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients. This study depicts cases of spontaneous pneumothorax in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients and explores the potential underlying mechanisms. METHOD(S): This is a retrospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2 patients with severe ARDS admitted to a tertiary care center between March 9, 2020 to April 5, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 was diagnosed via polymerase chain reaction. Only patients on mechanical ventilation were analyzed. RESULT(S): A total of 22 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on mechanical ventilation were identified and analyzed. Out of these, 7 patients developed a spontaneous pneumothorax. The patients were predominantly male (86%) with an age range between 67 and 82 years old. Cough (100%) and shortness of breath (71%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not present in any of the patients. Pneumothoraxes were diagnosed 6 to 33 days after hospital admission. All 7 patients had subclavian central lines that were placed by 4 different providers with more than 15 years of critical care experience. All 7 patients had right sided pneumothoraxes of varying sizes but only 42% had right-sided lines. Remarkably, the mean peak inspiratory pressure (Ppeak) for these patients was 25 cm H2O and the mean positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 11 cm H2O. Prone positioning was utilized in 57% of patients and 42% of patients received convalescent plasma. The mortality rate was 71% and the 2 patients who survived were discharged to long term acute care hospitals. CONCLUSION(S): Traditionally, ventilator associated pneumothorax is associated with a Ppeak greater than 40 cm H2O, which contrasts with the mean Ppeak of 25 cm H2O observed in this study. While iatrogenic pneumothoraces are common following subclavian central line placement, the majority of the pneumothoraces in this study occurred on the opposite side of the procedure. ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to have a completely different pathophysiology than that of traditional ARDS, which is typically managed with low PEEP and Ppeak. Utilizing the ARDSnet protocol in patients with ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 may be deleterious. Further investigation is needed to evaluate this hypothesis. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: ARDS secondary to SARS-CoV-2 appears to be distinct from ARDS caused by other disease processes and may have a different risk of pneumothorax development. As elderly, critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients with ARDS have been found to have increased risk of death, identifying modifiable risks associated with the development of a spontaneous pneumothorax could help mitigate morbidity and mortality in this population. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Andres Chacon Martinez, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by robert chait, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Kai Chen, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Nakeya Dewaswala, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Katherine Hodgin, source=Web Response no disclosure on file for Jesus Pino;No relevant relationships by Fergie Ramos Tuarez, source=Web Response No relevant relationships by Renuka Reddy, source=Web ResponseCopyright © 2020 American College of Chest Physicians

15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 836, 2021 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365331

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a worldwide pandemic and has a huge impact on public health and socio-economic development. The purpose of this study is to explore the diagnostic value of the quantitative computed tomography (CT) method by using different threshold segmentation techniques to distinguish between patients with or without COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 47 patients with suspected COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed, including nine patients with positive real-time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test (confirmed case group) and 38 patients with negative RT-PCR test (excluded case group). An improved 3D convolutional neural network (VB-Net) was used to automatically extract lung lesions. Eight different threshold segmentation methods were used to define the ground glass opacity (GGO) and consolidation. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of various parameters with different thresholds for diagnosing COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: The volume of GGO (VOGGO) and GGO percentage in the whole lung (GGOPITWL) were the most effective values for diagnosing COVID-19 at a threshold of - 300 HU, with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.769 and 0.769, sensitivity of 66.67 and 66.67%, specificity of 94.74 and 86.84%. Compared with VOGGO or GGOPITWL at a threshold of - 300 Hounsfield units (HU), the consolidation percentage in the whole lung (CPITWL) with thresholds at - 400 HU, - 350 HU, and - 250 HU were statistically different. There were statistical differences in the infection volume and percentage of the whole lung, right lung, and lobes between the two groups. VOGGO, GGOPITWL, and volume of consolidation (VOC) were also statistically different at the threshold of - 300 HU. CONCLUSIONS: Quantitative CT provides an image quantification method for the auxiliary diagnosis of COVID-19 and is expected to assist in confirming patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in suspected cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Artificial Intelligence , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Curr Res Struct Biol ; 3: 179-186, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1336360

ABSTRACT

Chlorotoxin (ClTx) is a 36-residue disulfide-rich peptide isolated from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus. This peptide has been shown to selectively bind to brain tumours (gliomas), however, with conflicting reports regarding its direct cellular target. Recently, the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP1) has emerged as a potential target of the peptide. Here, we sought to characterize the details of the binding of ClTx to the b1-domain of NRP1 (NRP1-b1) using solution state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 3D structure of the isotope labelled peptide was solved using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy to produce a well-resolved structural ensemble. The structure points to three putative protein-protein interaction interfaces, two basic patches (R14/K15/K23 and R25/K27/R36) and a hydrophobic patch (F6/T7/T8/H10). The NRP1-b1 binding interface of ClTx was elucidated using 15N chemical shift mapping and included the R25/K27/R36 region of the peptide. The thermodynamics of binding was determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). In both NMR and ITC measurements, the binding was shown to be competitive with a known NRP1-b1 inhibitor. Finally, combining all of this data we generate a model of the ClTx:NRP1-b1 complex. The data shows that the peptide binds to the same region of NRP1 that is used by the SARS-CoV-2 virus for cell entry, however, via a non-canonical binding mode. Our results provide evidence for a non-standard NRP1 binding motif, while also providing a basis for further engineering of ClTx to generate peptides with improved NRP1 binding for future biomedical applications.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3602, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267997

ABSTRACT

Improved understanding of the effects of meteorological conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease, is needed. Here, we estimate the relationship between air temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation and SARS-CoV-2 transmission in 2669 U.S. counties with abundant reported cases from March 15 to December 31, 2020. Specifically, we quantify the associations of daily mean temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation with daily estimates of the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number (Rt) and calculate the fraction of Rt attributable to these meteorological conditions. Lower air temperature (within the 20-40 °C range), lower specific humidity, and lower ultraviolet radiation were significantly associated with increased Rt. The fraction of Rt attributable to temperature, specific humidity, and ultraviolet radiation were 3.73% (95% empirical confidence interval [eCI]: 3.66-3.76%), 9.35% (95% eCI: 9.27-9.39%), and 4.44% (95% eCI: 4.38-4.47%), respectively. In total, 17.5% of Rt was attributable to meteorological factors. The fractions attributable to meteorological factors generally were higher in northern counties than in southern counties. Our findings indicate that cold and dry weather and low levels of ultraviolet radiation are moderately associated with increased SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility, with humidity playing the largest role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Meteorological Concepts , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geography , Humans , Humidity , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Temperature , Ultraviolet Rays , United States/epidemiology , Weather
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25837, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216698

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are large knowledge gaps regarding how transmission of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) occurred in different settings across the world. This study aims to summarize basic reproduction number (R0) data and provide clues for designing prevention and control measures. METHODS: Several databases and preprint platforms were retrieved for literature reporting R0 values of COVID-19. The analysis was stratified by the prespecified modeling method to make the R0 values comparable, and by country/region to explore whether R0 estimates differed across the world. The average R0 values were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: We identified 185 unique articles, yielding 43 articles for analysis. The selected studies covered 5 countries from Asia, 5 countries from Europe, 12 countries from Africa, and 1 from North America, South America, and Australia each. Exponential growth rate model was most favored by researchers. The pooled global R0 was 4.08 (95% CI, 3.09-5.39). The R0 estimates for new and shifting epicenters were comparable or even higher than that for the original epicenter Wuhan, China. CONCLUSIONS: The high R0 values suggest that an extraordinary combination of control measures is needed for halting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 207, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large-scale global outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) out of Wuhan, from China, occurred in January 2020. To examine the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in infected patients out of Wuhan, from China. METHODS: Thirteen patients were confirmed to be infected with novel coronavirus-2019 (2019-nCoV) between January 27 and February 8, 2020, in Baoji city, Shannxi, northwestern China. Epidemiological and clinical information, and computed to morphology imaging data from all COVID-19 patients were collected; cases were divided into two groups according to the severity of infection (mild or severe). RESULTS: Nine (9/13) COVID-19 patients exhibited mild disease severity, and defined as second-generation human-to-human transmission cases. Most patients (11/13) had a history of travel to or from Wuhan. There were no differences in sex and age between the mild and severe cases (all P > 0.05). A moderate degree of fever (11/13), cough (13/13), and fatigue (8/13) were common symptoms; however, there was no statistical difference between mild and severe cases in this regard (all P > 0.05). Oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygenation index decreased, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were elevated in all patients with COVID-19 infection, with statistically significant differences between those with severe disease and mild infection (all P < 0.05). Twelve of 13 COVID-19 patients exhibited changes in chest CT imaging features, and time course changes were different between mild and severe cases (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Most cases of COVID-19 infection were second-generation human-to-human transmissions from Wuhan and were mild in severity. The clinical characteristics of COVID-19 varied. Oxyhemoglobin saturation, oxygenation index, CRP and SAA levels, and CT features were reliable parameters to evaluate the severity of COVID-19 infection. However, a few patients with mild COVID-19 disease lacked typical characteristics such as fever and changes in CT imaging features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Serum Amyloid A Protein/analysis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
International Journal of Social Science and Education Research ; 4(2):31-36, 2021.
Article in English | Airiti Library | ID: covidwho-1100339

ABSTRACT

This article, which serves to introduce rules in post‐pandemic China, brings different reactions of guidance toward people under COVID‐19. We begin by showing what led us to this project and why we chose hotel, community and school as our observation sites. We went to hotel, community, and schools and did three observations, and then we used an online webstie‐‐‐"Dedoose" to analyze field notes. Our observation enables us to examine how people follow rules during pandemic in China, and we found that less people wear masks in comparison with the beginning of pandemic, security in schools are stricter, and some students break rules in the school. Then, we reviews the different behavior in different fields and we found two factors: behavior influence and class‐based influence. We put observation under the pandemic and aims to call for a rethinking of post‐pandemic regulation.

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