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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 936925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic in March 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As of July 2, 2022, COVID-19 has caused more than 545 million infections and 6.3 million deaths worldwide, posing a significant threat to human health. Currently, there is still a lack of effective prevention and control strategies for the variation and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has a unique theoretical system, has treated various conditions for thousands of years. Importantly, recent studies have revealed that TCM contributed significantly to COVID-19. SanHanHuaShi (SHHS) granules, a Chinese herbal medicine, which has been included in Protocol for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (6th to 9th editions) issued by the National Health Commission of China and used to prevent and treat COVID-19 disease. A previous retrospective cohort study showed that SHHS could significantly reduce the severity of mild and moderate COVID-19. However, there is an absence of high-quality randomized controlled clinical studies to confirm the clinical effectiveness of SHHS. Therefore, a clinical study protocol and a statistical analysis plan were designed to investigate the efficacy and safety of SHHS for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. This study will increase the integrity and data transparency of the clinical research process, which is of great significance for improving the practical application of SHHS granules in the future. Methods and analysis: The study was designed as a 7-day, randomized, parallel controlled, open-label, noninferiority clinical trial of positive drugs. A total of 240 patients with mild and moderate COVID-19 will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive SanHanHuaShi granules or LianHuaQingWen granules treatment in a 1:1 ratio. Disease classification, vital signs, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing, symptoms, medications, adverse events, and safety evaluations will be recorded at each visit. The primary outcome will be the clinical symptom recovery rate. Secondary outcomes will include the recovery time of clinical symptoms, negative conversion time of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test negative conversion rate, hospitalization time, antipyretic time, rate of conversion to severe patients, and time and rate of single symptom recovery. Adverse incidents and safety assessments will be documented. All data will be analyzed using a predetermined statistical analysis plan, including our method for imputation of missing data, primary and secondary outcome analyses, and safety outcomes. Discussion: The results of this study will provide robust evidence to confirm the effectiveness and safety of SHHS in the treatment of COVID-19. Clinical Trial Registration: http://www.chictr.org.cn. Trial number: ChiCTR2200058080. Registered on 29 March 2022.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 446, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Open online forums like Reddit provide an opportunity to quantitatively examine COVID-19 vaccine perceptions early in the vaccine timeline. We examine COVID-19 misinformation on Reddit following vaccine scientific announcements, in the initial phases of the vaccine timeline. METHODS: We collected all posts on Reddit (reddit.com) from January 1 2020 - December 14 2020 (n=266,840) that contained both COVID-19 and vaccine-related keywords. We used topic modeling to understand changes in word prevalence within topics after the release of vaccine trial data. Social network analysis was also conducted to determine the relationship between Reddit communities (subreddits) that shared COVID-19 vaccine posts, and the movement of posts between subreddits. RESULTS: There was an association between a Pfizer press release reporting 90% efficacy and increased discussion on vaccine misinformation. We observed an association between Johnson and Johnson temporarily halting its vaccine trials and reduced misinformation. We found that information skeptical of vaccination was first posted in a subreddit (r/Coronavirus) which favored accurate information and then reposted in subreddits associated with antivaccine beliefs and conspiracy theories (e.g. conspiracy, NoNewNormal). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can inform the development of interventions where individuals determine the accuracy of vaccine information, and communications campaigns to improve COVID-19 vaccine perceptions, early in the vaccine timeline. Such efforts can increase individual- and population-level awareness of accurate and scientifically sound information regarding vaccines and thereby improve attitudes about vaccines, especially in the early phases of vaccine roll-out. Further research is needed to understand how social media can contribute to COVID-19 vaccination services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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