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1.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1075-1084, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Wuhan was the epicentre of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence and kinetics of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at population level in Wuhan to inform the development of vaccination strategies. METHODS: In this longitudinal cross-sectional study, we used a multistage, population-stratified, cluster random sampling method to systematically select 100 communities from the 13 districts of Wuhan. Households were systematically selected from each community and all family members were invited to community health-care centres to participate. Eligible individuals were those who had lived in Wuhan for at least 14 days since Dec 1, 2019. All eligible participants who consented to participate completed a standardised electronic questionnaire of demographic and clinical questions and self-reported any symptoms associated with COVID-19 or previous diagnosis of COVID-19. A venous blood sample was taken for immunological testing on April 14-15, 2020. Blood samples were tested for the presence of pan-immunoglobulins, IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and neutralising antibodies were assessed. We did two successive follow-ups between June 11 and June 13, and between Oct 9 and Dec 5, 2020, at which blood samples were taken. FINDINGS: Of 4600 households randomly selected, 3599 families (78·2%) with 9702 individuals attended the baseline visit. 9542 individuals from 3556 families had sufficient samples for analyses. 532 (5·6%) of 9542 participants were positive for pan-immunoglobulins against SARS-CoV-2, with a baseline adjusted seroprevalence of 6·92% (95% CI 6·41-7·43) in the population. 437 (82·1%) of 532 participants who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins were asymptomatic. 69 (13·0%) of 532 individuals were positive for IgM antibodies, 84 (15·8%) were positive for IgA antibodies, 532 (100%) were positive for IgG antibodies, and 212 (39·8%) were positive for neutralising antibodies at baseline. The proportion of individuals who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins who had neutralising antibodies in April remained stable for the two follow-up visits (162 [44·6%] of 363 in June, 2020, and 187 [41·2%] of 454 in October-December, 2020). On the basis of data from 335 individuals who attended all three follow-up visits and who were positive for pan-immunoglobulins, neutralising antibody levels did not significantly decrease over the study period (median 1/5·6 [IQR 1/2·0 to 1/14·0] at baseline vs 1/5·6 [1/4·0 to 1/11·2] at first follow-up [p=1·0] and 1/6·3 [1/2·0 to 1/12·6] at second follow-up [p=0·29]). However, neutralising antibody titres were lower in asymptomatic individuals than in confirmed cases and symptomatic individuals. Although titres of IgG decreased over time, the proportion of individuals who had IgG antibodies did not decrease substantially (from 30 [100%] of 30 at baseline to 26 [89·7%] of 29 at second follow-up among confirmed cases, 65 [100%] of 65 at baseline to 58 [92·1%] of 63 at second follow-up among symptomatic individuals, and 437 [100%] of 437 at baseline to 329 [90·9%] of 362 at second follow-up among asymptomatic individuals). INTERPRETATION: 6·92% of a cross-sectional sample of the population of Wuhan developed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, with 39·8% of this population seroconverting to have neutralising antibodies. Our durability data on humoral responses indicate that mass vaccination is needed to effect herd protection to prevent the resurgence of the epidemic. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, National Natural Science Foundation, and Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Herd/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mass Vaccination/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
2.
Journal of Third Military Medical University ; 42(15):1483-1488, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-890799

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate and analyze the incidence rate, clinical features and risk factors of lower extremity thrombosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

3.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1670-1675, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the fraction of asymptomatic health-care workers (HCWs) in two designated hospitals for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment in Wuhan and explore the factors associated with asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: All HCWs in Wuhan Union Hospital and Wuhan Red Cross Hospital with either positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or positive antibody test before 18 April 2020 were included. Exposure, epidemiological and demographic information were retrospectively collected by a structured questionnaire. Medical records were also reviewed for clinical characteristics and CT images of HCWs. RESULTS: As of 18 April 2020, a total of 424 HCWs were identified. Among them, 276 (65.1%) were symptomatic and 148 (34.9%) were asymptomatic. Fifty-five (19.9%) families of the symptomatic HCWs and 16 (10.8%) families of the asymptomatic HCWs were infected with SARS-CoV-2. HCWs with infected family members tended to be symptomatic (OR 2.053, 95% CI 1.130-3.730; p 0.018). Multivariable logistic regression analysis exhibited that performing tracheal intubation or extubation (OR 4.057, 95% CI 1.183-13.909; p 0.026) was associated with an increased likelihood of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas consistent use of N95 respirators (OR 0.369, 95% CI 0.201-0.680; p 0.001) and eye protection (OR 0.217, 95% CI 0.116-0.404; p < 0.001) were associated with an increased likelihood of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs comprised a considerable proportion of HCW infections during the pandemic of COVID-19. Those who performed tracheal intubation or extubation were most likely to develop related symptoms, whereas those taking aggressive measures, including consistent use of N95 masks and eye protection, tended to be asymptomatic cases.

4.
The Innovation ; : 100022-100022, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-692819

ABSTRACT

Background An increasing number of patients are being killed by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);however, risk factors for the case fatality of COVID-19 have not yet been well studied Methods A total of 21,392 COVID-19 cases were recruited in the Hubei Province of China between December 2019 and February 2020, and followed up until March 18, 2020 We adopted Cox regression models to investigate the risk factors for the case fatality and predicted the death probability under specific combinations of key predictors Results Among the 21,392 patients, 1,020 (4 77%) died of COVID-19 Multivariable analyses showed that factors including age [≥ 60 years versus 39°C versus 10 ×109/L versus (4-10) ×109/L, HR: 1 69;95% CI: 1 35, 2 13), and lymphocyte counts (<0 8 ×109/L versus (0 8-4) ×109/L, HR: 1 26;95% CI: 1 06, 1 50) were significantly associated with case fatality of COVID-19 patients Individuals of an older age, who were male, with comorbidities, and had a critical illness had the highest death probability, with 21%, 36%, 46%, and 54% within 1-4 weeks after the symptom onset Interpretation Risk factors, including demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory factors were confirmed to be important determinants of fatality of COVID-19 Our predictive model can provide scientific evidence for a more rational, evidence-driven allocation of scarce medical resources to reduce the fatality of COVID-19

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-676369

ABSTRACT

76 days after the COVID-19 epidemic was contained in Wuhan, the Chinese government carried out a citywide SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing for all the residents from May 14th to June 1st, 2020. Our hospital tested 107,662 residents around Huanan Seafood Market, uncovering a positivity rate of 0.006%.

6.
Biosaf Health ; 2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-664504

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV), named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid detection of viral nucleic acids is critical for the early identification of infected cases. We have developed two TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays to detect SARS-CoV-2. The designed primers target the nucleocapsid (N) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b gene regions, where the probes discriminate SARS-CoV-2 from other human and animal CoVs. The sensitivities are one genomic copy per reaction for the N gene assay and ten copies for the ORF 1b gene assay. The overall linear detection ranges are 1-106 and 10-106 copies per reaction for the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively. Surveillance of 23 suspected COVID-19 patients demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected from 100% (23/23) and 62.5% (16/23) of clinical specimens by the N gene assay and the ORF 1b gene assay, respectively. All of the samples not detected by the ORF 1b gene assay were throat swabs, indicating a lower viral load in the upper respiratory tract and the relatively lower sensitivity of the ORF 1b gene assay. The assays developed in the present study offer alternative diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

8.
Nature ; 583(7818): 830-833, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-220333

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a public health emergency of international concern1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2. Here we infected transgenic mice that express human ACE2 (hereafter, hACE2 mice) with SARS-CoV-2 and studied the pathogenicity of the virus. We observed weight loss as well as virus replication in the lungs of hACE2 mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. The typical histopathology was interstitial pneumonia with infiltration of considerable numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes into the alveolar interstitium, and the accumulation of macrophages in alveolar cavities. We observed viral antigens in bronchial epithelial cells, macrophages and alveolar epithelia. These phenomena were not found in wild-type mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Notably, we have confirmed the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in hACE2 mice. This mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be valuable for evaluating antiviral therapeutic agents and vaccines, as well as understanding the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lung/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Transgenes , Animals , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Bronchi/pathology , Bronchi/virology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/immunology , Macrophages, Alveolar/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Complement 3d/genetics , Receptors, Complement 3d/metabolism , Virus Replication , Weight Loss
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
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