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1.
Front Psychol ; 12: 694785, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515542

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, which is characterized by uncertainty, makes the employment anxiety of college graduates in the period of career change more and more intense. How to deal with this challenge is particularly important. The present study took career planning as a moderating variable to explore the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and employment anxiety, as well as the role of career planning. In this quantitative study, the data of 563 college graduates from different schools were collected by using the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-12, Vocational Selection Anxiety Questionnaire of University Graduate, and Career Planning Scale. The final effective sample size was 550 (the overall recovery rate was 97.7%). The results of correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between IU and employment anxiety, while there was a significant negative correlation between career planning and IU, as well as the relationship between career planning and employment anxiety. The results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that IU significantly positively predicted the employment anxiety of graduates, and career planning moderated the relationship between IU and employment anxiety. These findings suggested that maintaining a sense of career planning can help college graduates get through smoothly in the face of uncertainty of COVID-19.

2.
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society) ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1511387
3.
Current Opinion in Virology ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1509709

ABSTRACT

With more than 200 million people affected and 4.5 million deaths so far, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become one of the greatest disasters in human history. Secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) are a known complication of viral respiratory infections, and are significantly associated with poorer outcomes in COVID-19 patients despite antibiotic treatments. The increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and the decreasing options available in our antimicrobial armory worsen this crisis and call for alternative treatment options. As natural killers of bacteria, phages are recognized as promising alternatives to antibiotics in treating pulmonary bacterial infections, however, little is known about their use for treating SBIs during virus pandemics such as COVID-19. This review highlights the situation of SBIs in COVID-19 patients, and the distinct strengths and limitations of phage therapy for their containment.

4.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(26): 7959-7962, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464057

ABSTRACT

Hepatic impairment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may derive from cholangiocyte damage in the beginning, but not from direct infection of hepatocytes. Chronic liver disease patients co-infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibited overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors and overwhelming cytokine storm. Consensus has been reached that we should encourage as many people as possible to be vaccinated in order to achieve herd immunity. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can prevent or alleviate severe infection and cytokine storm. It is recommended that all adult patients with chronic liver diseases and liver transplant recipients should receive COVID-19 vaccines using the standard dose and schedule. Data is not yet sufficient to compare the efficacy of different types of vaccines used in chronic liver disease patients.

5.
JAMA ; 323(16): 1582-1589, 2020 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453469

ABSTRACT

Importance: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic with no specific therapeutic agents and substantial mortality. It is critical to find new treatments. Objective: To determine whether convalescent plasma transfusion may be beneficial in the treatment of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series of 5 critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who met the following criteria: severe pneumonia with rapid progression and continuously high viral load despite antiviral treatment; Pao2/Fio2 <300; and mechanical ventilation. All 5 were treated with convalescent plasma transfusion. The study was conducted at the infectious disease department, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital in Shenzhen, China, from January 20, 2020, to March 25, 2020; final date of follow-up was March 25, 2020. Clinical outcomes were compared before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Exposures: Patients received transfusion with convalescent plasma with a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody (IgG) binding titer greater than 1:1000 (end point dilution titer, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and a neutralization titer greater than 40 (end point dilution titer) that had been obtained from 5 patients who recovered from COVID-19. Convalescent plasma was administered between 10 and 22 days after admission. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes of body temperature, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (range 0-24, with higher scores indicating more severe illness), Pao2/Fio2, viral load, serum antibody titer, routine blood biochemical index, ARDS, and ventilatory and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) supports before and after convalescent plasma transfusion. Results: All 5 patients (age range, 36-65 years; 2 women) were receiving mechanical ventilation at the time of treatment and all had received antiviral agents and methylprednisolone. Following plasma transfusion, body temperature normalized within 3 days in 4 of 5 patients, the SOFA score decreased, and Pao2/Fio2 increased within 12 days (range, 172-276 before and 284-366 after). Viral loads also decreased and became negative within 12 days after the transfusion, and SARS-CoV-2-specific ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers increased following the transfusion (range, 40-60 before and 80-320 on day 7). ARDS resolved in 4 patients at 12 days after transfusion, and 3 patients were weaned from mechanical ventilation within 2 weeks of treatment. Of the 5 patients, 3 have been discharged from the hospital (length of stay: 53, 51, and 55 days), and 2 are in stable condition at 37 days after transfusion. Conclusions and Relevance: In this preliminary uncontrolled case series of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 and ARDS, administration of convalescent plasma containing neutralizing antibody was followed by improvement in their clinical status. The limited sample size and study design preclude a definitive statement about the potential effectiveness of this treatment, and these observations require evaluation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Processes ; 9(10):1749, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1444300

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a type of Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) coronavirus and it has infected and killed many people around the world. It is reported that the receptor binding domain of the spike protein (S_RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is responsible for attachment to human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Many researchers are attempting to search potential inhibitors for fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection using theoretical or experimental methods. In terms of experimental and theoretical research, Cefuroxime, Erythromycin, Lincomycin and Ofloxacin are the potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. However, the interactive mechanism of the protein SARS-CoV-2 and the inhibitors are still elusive. Here, we investigated the interactions between S_RBD and the inhibitors using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Interestingly, we found that there are two binding sites of S_RBD for the four small molecules. In addition, our analysis also illustrated that hydrophobic and π-π stacking interactions play crucial roles in the interactions between S_RBD and the small molecules. In our work, we also found that small molecules with glycosyl group have more effect on the conformation of S_RBD than other inhibitors, and they are also potential inhibitors for the genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides in silico-derived mechanistic insights into the interactions of S_RBD and inhibitors, which may provide new clues for fighting SARS-CoV-2 infection.

7.
Am J Addict ; 30(6): 585-592, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of problematic Internet use (PIU) in the post-COVID-19 pandemic era is not known. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of PIU among baccalaureate nursing students (hereafter: nursing students) in the post-COVID-19 era. METHODS: A total of 1070 nursing students were consecutively invited to participate in this study from the nursing schools of five universities. PIU and quality of life (QOL) were assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), respectively. t Tests, χ2 , tests, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare basic demographic and clinical characteristics between participants with and without PIU. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine independent correlates. RESULTS: The prevalence of PIU was 23.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7%-25.8%). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that second- (p = .024) and third-year (p = .012) students were more likely to suffer from PIU compared with first year students. Students with more severe depressive (p = .014) and anxiety symptoms (p = .011) were independently and significantly associated with more severe PIU. After controlling for covariates, nursing students with PIU had a lower overall QOL score (p = .002). CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Problematic Internet use (PIU) was common among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. Considering the negative impact of PIU on QOL and academic performance, regular screening should be conducted and effective interventions implemented for nursing students with PIU. This was the first study on the prevalence of PIU among nursing students in the post-COVID-19 era. The findings of this study could help health professionals and education authorities to understand the patterns of PIU and its influence on QOL among nursing students and to allocate health resources and develop effective measures to reduce the risk of PIU in this population.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(17): 20896-20905, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to explore the significance of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), D-dimer, and CT score in evaluating the severity and prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively enrolled. The baseline data, laboratory findings, chest computed tomography (CT) results evaluated by CT score on admission, and clinical outcomes were collected and compared. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between the baseline level of the four indicators (NLR, LDH, D-dimer, and CT score) and the severity of COVID-19. RESULTS: Among the 432 patients, 125 (28.94%) and 307 (71.06%) were placed in the severe and non-severe groups, respectively. As per the multivariate logistic regression, high levels of NLR and LDH were independent predictors of severe COVID-19 (OR=2.163; 95% CI=1.162-4.026; p=0.015 for NLR>3.82; OR=2.298; 95% CI=1.327-3.979; p=0.003 for LDH>246 U/L). Combined NLR>3.82 and LDH>246 U/L increased the sensitivity of diagnosis in patients with severe disease (NLR>3.82 [50.40%] vs. combined diagnosis [72.80%]; p=0.0007; LDH>246 [59.2%] vs. combined diagnosis [72.80%]; p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: High levels of serum NLR and LDH have potential value in the early identification of patients with severe COVID-19. Moreover, the combination of LDH and NLR can improve the sensitivity of diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Lymphocytes/pathology , Neutrophils/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prognosis , ROC Curve
9.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 710515, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399179

ABSTRACT

Long-term home isolation has had a certain impact on adolescents' enthusiasm for interpersonal communication and desire for self-disclosure during COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between adolescents' self-disclosure and loneliness during COVID-19, and to analyze the mediating role of peer relationship in it. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 830 Chinese adolescents (males: 47.5%, Mage14.25 years; females: 52.05%, Mage 14.19 years; Age range 12-15). Participants completed a self-reported survey that included sociodemographic, Jourard Self-Disclosure Scale, UCLA, and Peer Relationship Scale. The results showed that in the period of COVID-19, adolescents' self-disclosure affects loneliness through peer relationship, that is, the level of self-disclosure can significantly predict loneliness through peer relationship, and peer relationship plays a complete mediating role.

10.
China City Planning Review ; 29(3):34-43, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1391224

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented worldwide shutdown, and made urban planning reflect on and discuss how to respond to public health crises. Japan's medical system has been repeatedly rated as the world's number one by the World Health Organization. This paper analyzes Japan's diversified medical facility system, its prevention and control mechanism regarding public health emergencies, and the cultivation of social public awareness, and points out that the Japanese public health crisis response mechanism is characterized by an equal emphasis on the construction of the medical system and the cultivation of public awareness. It is proposed that an effective way to respond to daily medical needs and irregular public health security crises is to improve the community medical quality and grant administrative power to the director of public health centers, promote the "urbanization of people" with public awareness, and improve the resilience of the medical and health system.

12.
Life (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376885

ABSTRACT

Cancer cells circulating in blood vessels activate platelets, forming a cancer cell encircling platelet cloak which facilitates cancer metastasis. Heparin (H) is frequently used as an anticoagulant in cancer patients but up to 5% of patients have a side effect, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) that can be life-threatening. HIT is developed due to a complex interaction among multiple components including heparin, platelet factor 4 (PF4), HIT antibodies, and platelets. However, available information regarding the effect of HIT components on cancers is limited. Here, we investigated the effect of these materials on the mechanical property of breast cancer cells using atomic force microscopy (AFM) while cell spreading was quantified by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and cell proliferation rate was determined. Over time, we found a clear effect of each component on cell elasticity and cell spreading. In the absence of platelets, HIT antibodies inhibited cell proliferation but they promoted cell proliferation in the presence of platelets. Our results indicate that HIT complexes influenced the development of breast cancer cells.

13.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
14.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374258

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether phycoerythrin (PE), a pigment sourced from marine algae, could act as an immunomodulatory agent in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). To this end, PE was extracted and purified from a PE-rich macroalgae, Colaconema sp. Our in vitro analysis demonstrated that PE enhanced prophenoloxidase and phagocytosis activity but inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species in hemocytes. Additionally, the PE signal could be detected using an in vivo imaging system after its injection into the ventral sinus of the cephalothorax of whiteleg shrimp. The expression profiles of fourteen immune-related genes were monitored in hemocytes from whiteleg shrimp injected with 0.30 µg of PE per gram of body weight, and crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin 4, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor showed up-regulated post-stimulation. The induction of immune genes and enhancement of innate immune parameters by PE may explain the higher survival rates for shrimp that received different doses of PE prior to being challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or white spot syndrome virus compared to controls. Combined, these results show that PE from Colaconema sp. can differentially stimulate the immune response of whiteleg shrimp in vitro and in vivo and could potentially be used as an immunomodulator in shrimp culture.

15.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 21(10): 920-927, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known as Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), has caused the sixth world's public health emergency. Healthcare staff, as the frontline population fighting the pandemic, are exposed to a high risk of infection. Therefore, developing a protective intervention for medical staff is of significant importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human interferon alpha (rhIFN-α) nasal drops for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) through administering it to medical staff. METHODS: This was a prospective open-label clinical trial with parallel intervention assignment conducted on 2944 medical staff including both doctors and nurses from Taihe Hospital, Shiyan City, Hubei Province, China from January 21, 2020 to July 30, 2020. The participants were bifurcated into two groups of low risk and high risk groups according to the level of direct exposure to COVID-19 patients. The individuals of the low-risk group received rhIFN-α nasal drops for one month in addition to first level protection, and the high-risk group received a combination of rhIFN-α nasal drops coupled with thymosin-α1 with either second or third-level protection protocol. Moreover, the new-outset of COVID-19 pneumonia diagnosed by chest computed tomography (CT), after thirty days, was the primary outcome. The adverse reactions were recorded in all participants. RESULTS: 2415 of 2944 individuals belonged to the low-risk group, while 529 to the high-risk group. There was no COVID-19 pneumonia in either of the group after thirty days. The pulmonary CT scans were negative for COVID-19 pneumonia in both the groups with no new clinical symptoms. No serious adverse event was observed during the course of the intervention. CONCLUSION: The rhIFN-α nasal drops along with augmented safeguards based on standard physical isolation could effectively protect medical staff against COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Interferon-alpha/pharmacology , Administration, Intranasal , Adult , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/administration & dosage , Interferon-alpha/adverse effects , Male , Personnel, Hospital , Prospective Studies , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Proteins/adverse effects , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
16.
Chemical Engineering Journal ; : 131626, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1363113

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a lipophilic antioxidant generally dissolved in organic solvent before delivery. However, the presence of organics may severely depress the functional effects of melatonin. By rendering deionized water (DIW) flow through gold nano-particles under localized surface plasmon resonant illumination, we developed plasmon-activated water (PAW) which successfully increases the solubility of melatonin to 150.325%. Melatonin dissolved in PAW also exhibits stronger anti-viral and anti-oxidative activities than that dissolved in DIW in which the percentage of dengue virus infected human hepatocellular carcinoma cells is remarkably decreased (14.7% vs. 20.6%) whilst the clearance rate of hydroxyl radical is significantly enhanced (11.9% vs. 6.69%), respectively. Moreover, in vivo approaches further show that following chronic sleep deprivation, the level of oxidative stress, hepatic bioenergetics, anti-oxidative enzyme activity, and metabolic function are all significantly improved in rats received melatonin prepared in PAW than that in DIW. As the bio-activity of melatonin depends largely on its solubility, utilizing PAW as a non-organic solvent will not only enhance the anti-viral and anti-oxidative function of melatonin, but also offer great potential for clinical use of melatonin as a therapeutic strategy to depress virus infection and counteract oxidative damage in a more natural, more economic and more efficient way.

17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; : 102005, 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363898

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tobacco cessation treatment for cancer patients is essential to providing comprehensive oncologic care. We have implemented a point of care tobacco treatment care model enabled by electronic health record (EHR) modifications in a comprehensive cancer center. Data are needed on the sustainability of both reach of treatment and effectiveness over time, including the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using EHR data from the pre-implementation (P: 5 months) and post-implementation periods (6 month-blocks, T1-T5 for a total of 30 months), we compared two primary outcomes: 1) reach of treatment among those smoking and 2) effectiveness assessed by smoking cessation among those smoking in the subsequent 6 month period. We analyzed the data using generalized estimation equation regression models. RESULTS: With the point of care tobacco treatment care model, reach of treatment increased from pre to post T5 (3.2 % vs. 48.4 %, RR 15.50, 95 % CI 10.56-22.74, p < 0.0001). Reach of treatment in all post periods (T1-T5 including the COVID-19 pandemic time) remained significantly higher than the pre period. Effectiveness, defined by smoking cessation among those smoking, increased from pre to post T2 before the pandemic (12.4 % vs. 21.4 %, RR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.31-1.87, p < 0.0001). However, effectiveness, while higher in later post periods (T3, T4), was no longer significantly increased compared with the pre period. CONCLUSION: A point of care EHR-enabled tobacco treatment care model demonstrates sustained reach up to 30 months following implementation, even during the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in healthcare prioritization. Effectiveness was sustained for 12 months, but did not sustain through the subsequent 12 months.

18.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(4):606-612, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1352919

ABSTRACT

Since the initial cases of the Coronavirus Disease in 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in Wuhan in December 2019, more and more cases have been found and confirmed, not only in central China but also in other countries. Given there are still no effective drugs many approved "old drugs" are in clinical test for treating COVID-19 at present. Artemisinin, a first-line antimalarial drug recommended by WHO, has been validated to possess a variety of pharmacological effects, including, without limitation, antiinflammatory, immune regulation, anti-pulmonary fibrosis, antibacterial, antiviral and cardiovascular effects, and the like. In this paper, various pharmacological effects of Artemisinin and its derivatives have been summarized, with the emphasis on the mechanism of action, so as to explore its potential medicinal value, especially for treating COVID-19.

19.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4887, 2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349665

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that is spreading rapidly, which seriously impacts global public health and economy. Thus, developing effective drugs remains urgent. We identify two potent antibodies, nCoVmab1 and nCoVmab2, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) with high affinities from a naïve human phage-displayed Fab library. nCoVmab1 and nCoVmab2 neutralize authentic SARS-CoV-2 with picomolar and nanomolar IC50 values, respectively. No detectable defects of nCoVmab1 and nCoVmab2 are found during the preliminary druggability evaluation. nCoVmab1 could reduce viral titer and lung injury when administered prophylactically and therapeutically in human angiotensin-converting enzyme II (hACE2)-transgenic mice. Therefore, phage display platform could be efficiently used for rapid development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmabs) with clinical potential against emerging infectious diseases. In addition, we determinate epitopes in RBD of these antibodies to elucidate the neutralizing mechanism. We also convert nCoVmab1 and nCoVmab2 to their germline formats for further analysis, which reveals the contribution of somatic hypermutation (SHM) during nCoVmab1 and nCoVmab2 maturation. Our findings not only provide two highly potent nmabs against SARS-CoV-2 as prophylactic and therapeutic candidates, but also give some clues for development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents (e.g., drugs and vaccines) targeting the RBD.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vero Cells
20.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 60: 200-207, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347566

ABSTRACT

Lonicerae japonicae flos (LJF), known as Jin Yin Hua in Chinese, is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese herbs and nutraceuticals. Nowadays, LJF is broadly applied in an array of afflictions, such as fever, sore throat, flu infection, cough, and arthritis, with the action mechanism to be elucidated. Here, we strove to summarize the main phytochemical components of LJF and review its updated pharmacological effects, including inhibition of inflammation, pyrexia, viruses, and bacteria, immunoregulation, and protection of the liver, nervous system, and heart, with a focus on the potential efficacy of LJF on coronavirus disease-2019 based on network pharmacology so as to fully underpin the utilization of LJF as a medicinal herb and a favorable nutraceutical in daily life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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