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1.
Viral Immunol ; 35(3): 236-243, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815959

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristic of domestic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients after vaccination campaign conducted in China. According to vaccination status and months from first vaccine dose to infection detection, patients were divided into unvaccinated, <3 months, 3-6 months, and >6 months groups. The information of demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and IgM, IgG antibodies was retrospectively collected. Therapeutic approaches, temperature-normalizing and viral shedding times, outcomes were also summarized. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were further analyzed based on the other following variables: time from second vaccine dose to infection, vaccine dose, the interval from the first to the second dose, and vaccine brand. Among 208 COVID-19 patients, 13 (6.28%) were unvaccinated. No significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT findings, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid loads were detected between groups (all p > 0.05). In comparison with the unvaccinated group, the median SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were noticeably increased in those vaccinated groups (0.603 in unvaccinated, 15.925 in <3 months, 14.04 in 3-6 months, and 4.94 in >6 months, respectively, p < 0.05). However, SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were not altered between groups divided based on the other variables. Vaccination does not affect the clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with vaccination have high SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Underscore the necessity of rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns can be speculated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2029257, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692309

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to explore the association between health behaviors and the COVID-19 vaccination based on the risk compensation concept among health-care workers in Taizhou, China. We conducted a self-administered online survey to estimate the health behaviors among the staff in a tertiary hospital in Taizhou, China, from May 18 to 21 May 2021. A total of 592 out of 660 subjects (89.7%) responded to the questionnaire after receiving an e-poster on WeChat. Subjects who had been inoculated with the COVID-19 vaccine were asked to mention the differences in their health behaviors before and after the vaccination. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in health behaviors between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, except in terms of the type of gloves they used (62.8% in the vaccinated group and 49.2% in the unvaccinated group, p = .048). Subjects who received earlier COVID-19 vaccinations exhibited better health behaviors (22.40% increased for duration of wearing masks (P = .007), 25.40% increased for times of washing hands (P = .01), and 20.90% increased for times of wearing gloves (P = .01)). Subjects also revealed better health behaviors (washing hands, wearing gloves, and wearing masks) after vaccination compared to that before. In conclusion, concept of risk compensation was not applied in our findings. The health behaviors did not reduce after the COVID-19 vaccination, which even may improve health behaviors among health-care workers in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous study suggested that Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) Formula Huashibaidu granule might shorten disease course of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Our research aims to investigate the early treatment effect of Huashibaidu granule in mild COVID-19 patients under well clinical management.METHODS: An unblended cluster-randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Dongxihu FangCang hospital. 2 cabins were randomly allocated to CHM or control group, with 204 randomly sampled mild COVID-19 patients in each cabin. All participants received a 7-day conventional treatment, and CHM group cabin used additional Huashibaidu granule 10g twice daily. Participants were followed up until they met clinical endpoint. The primary outcome was patient become worsening before clinical endpoint occurred. The secondary outcomes was discharge with cure before clinical endpoint occurred and relief of composite symptoms after 7 days treatment.FINDINGS: All 408 participants were followed up to meet clinical endpoint and included in statistical analysis. The baseline characteristics were comparable between 2 groups. The number of worsening patients in the CHM group was 5 (2.5%), and that in the control group was 16 (7.8%). There was a significant difference between groups (P=0.014). 8 foreseeable mild adverse events occurred without statistical difference between groups.INTERPRETATION: 7-day early treatment with Huashibaidu granule reduced worsening conversion of mild COVID-19 patients. Our study supports Huashibaidu Granule as an active option for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in similar medical locations with well management.TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000029763.FUNDING: This study was supported by “National Key R&D Program of China” (No.2020YFC0841500).DECLARATION OF INTERESTS: The authors guaranteed that there existed no competing interest in this paper.ETHICS APPROVAL STATEMENT: Ethics Review Committee of Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Approval of Ethical Review Acceptance Number: S2020-001;Approval Number: P20001/PJ01.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325101

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak started in Wuhan, Hubei, China since Dec 2019 and cases of infection have been continuously reported in various countries. It is now clear that the COVID-19 coronavirus is transmissible from human to human. Nucleic acid detection is considered as the gold standard for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In this case report, we describe our experience in detection of COVID-19 from a confirmed patient using nucleic acid test of bronchoalveolar-lavage fluid (BALF) samples but not nasopharyngeal swabs. Case presentation We present a case of severely ill COVID-19 infected 46-year-old man with fever, coughing and chest tightness. We performed viral detection using his BALF samples and imaging method (CT) for confirmation. The patient received combination of interferonalfa-1b and ribavirin, lopinavir and ritonavir for antiviral treatment at different stages. Other medication was also given to him in combination for anti-inflammation, intestinal microbial regulation, phlegm elimination, liver protection and pulmonary fibrosis prevention purposes. We provided oxygen supply to him using BIPAP ventilator and high-flow humidification oxygen therapy instrument to facilitate respiration. The patient was cured and discharged. Conclusion: This case report described an effective supportive medication scheme to treat COVID-19 infected patient and emphasized the necessity of detection of the viral genome using BALF samples and its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.

5.
China City Planning Review ; 29(3):34-43, 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1391224

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented worldwide shutdown, and made urban planning reflect on and discuss how to respond to public health crises. Japan's medical system has been repeatedly rated as the world's number one by the World Health Organization. This paper analyzes Japan's diversified medical facility system, its prevention and control mechanism regarding public health emergencies, and the cultivation of social public awareness, and points out that the Japanese public health crisis response mechanism is characterized by an equal emphasis on the construction of the medical system and the cultivation of public awareness. It is proposed that an effective way to respond to daily medical needs and irregular public health security crises is to improve the community medical quality and grant administrative power to the director of public health centers, promote the "urbanization of people" with public awareness, and improve the resilience of the medical and health system.

6.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374258

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether phycoerythrin (PE), a pigment sourced from marine algae, could act as an immunomodulatory agent in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). To this end, PE was extracted and purified from a PE-rich macroalgae, Colaconema sp. Our in vitro analysis demonstrated that PE enhanced prophenoloxidase and phagocytosis activity but inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species in hemocytes. Additionally, the PE signal could be detected using an in vivo imaging system after its injection into the ventral sinus of the cephalothorax of whiteleg shrimp. The expression profiles of fourteen immune-related genes were monitored in hemocytes from whiteleg shrimp injected with 0.30 µg of PE per gram of body weight, and crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin 4, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor showed up-regulated post-stimulation. The induction of immune genes and enhancement of innate immune parameters by PE may explain the higher survival rates for shrimp that received different doses of PE prior to being challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or white spot syndrome virus compared to controls. Combined, these results show that PE from Colaconema sp. can differentially stimulate the immune response of whiteleg shrimp in vitro and in vivo and could potentially be used as an immunomodulator in shrimp culture.

7.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104909, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203052

ABSTRACT

3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a virally encoded main proteinase that is pivotal for the viral replication across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors from herbal constituents, as well as to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of the newly identified efficacious SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. Following screening of the inhibitory potentials of eighty herbal products against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) was found with the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity (IC50 = 6.68 µg/mL). Inhibition assays demonstrated that the ginkgolic acids (GAs) and the bioflavones isolated from GBLE displayed relatively strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities (IC50 < 10 µM). Among all tested constituents, GA C15:0, GA C17:1 and sciadopitysin displayed potent 3CLpro inhibition activities, with IC50 values of less than 2 µM. Further inhibition kinetic studies and docking simulations clearly demonstrated that two GAs and sciadopitysin strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a reversible and mixed inhibition manner. Collectively, this study found that both GBLE and the major constituents in this herbal product exhibit strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities, which offer several promising leading compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 medications via targeting on 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginkgo biloba/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavones/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Salicylates/therapeutic use
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