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1.
Annals of Translational Medicine ; 10(5), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1781650

ABSTRACT

Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a continuous threat to human health since 2014. Although neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are prescribed in most patients infected with the H5N6 virus, the fatality remains high, indicating the need for an improved treatment regimen. Sirolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), has been reported to reduce viral replication and improve clinical outcomes in severe H1N1 infections when combined with oseltamivir. Here, we report the first case of severe H5N6 pneumonia successfully treated by sirolimus and NAIs. Case Description A 22-year-old man developed high fever and chills on September 24, 2018 (Day-0) and was hospitalized on Day-3. Influenza A (H5N6) was identified on Day-6 from a throat swab specimen. Despite the administration of NAIs and other supportive measures, the patient’s clinical conditions and lung images showed continued deterioration, accompanied by persistently high viral titers. Consequently, sirolimus administration (rapamycin;2 mg per day for 14 days) was started on Day-12. His PaO2/FiO2 values and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score gradually improved, and imaging outcomes revealed the resolution of bilateral lung infiltrations. The viral titer gradually decreased and turned negative on Day-25. Sirolimus and NAIs were stopped on the same day. The patient was discharged on Day-65. Based on observations from a 2-year follow-up, the patient was found to be in a good condition without complications. Conclusions In conclusion, sirolimus might be a novel and practical therapeutic approach to severe H5N6-associated pneumonia in humans.

2.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 25(3): 147-155, 2022 Mar 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At present, the research progress of targeted therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma is very rapid, which brings new hope for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients. However, the specific imaging and pathological features of EGFR and ALK gene mutations in adenocarcinoma are still controversial. This study will further explore the correlation between EGFR, ALK gene mutations and imaging and pathological features in invasive lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 525 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery in our center from January 2018 to December 2019 were included. According to the results of postoperative gene detection, the patients were divided into EGFR gene mutation group, ALK gene mutation group and wild group, and the EGFR gene mutation group was divided into exon 19 and exon 21 subtypes. The pathological features of the mutation group and wild group, such as histological subtype, lymph node metastasis, visceral pleural invasion (VPI) and imaging features such as tumor diameter, consolidation tumor ratio (CTR), lobulation sign, spiculation sign, pleural retraction sign, air bronchus sign and vacuole sign were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis to explore whether the gene mutation group had specific manifestations. RESULTS: EGFR gene mutation group was common in women (OR=2.041, P=0.001), with more pleural traction sign (OR=1.506, P=0.042), and had little correlation with lymph node metastasis and VPI (P>0.05). Among them, exon 21 subtype was more common in older (OR=1.022, P=0.036), women (OR=2.010, P=0.007), and was associated with larger tumor diameter (OR=1.360, P=0.039) and pleural traction sign (OR=1.754, P=0.029). Exon 19 subtype was common in women (OR=2.230, P=0.009), with a high proportion of solid components (OR=1.589, P=0.047) and more lobulation sign (OR=2.762, P=0.026). ALK gene mutations were likely to occur in younger patients (OR=2.950, P=0.045), with somking history (OR=1.070, P=0.002), and there were more micropapillary components (OR=4.184, P=0.019) and VPI (OR=2.986, P=0.034) in pathology. CONCLUSIONS: The EGFR and ALK genes mutated adenocarcinomas have specific imaging and clinicopathological features, and the mutations in exon 19 or exon 21 subtype have different imaging features, which is of great significance in guiding the clinical diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary nodules.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/genetics , Aged , Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase/genetics , ErbB Receptors/genetics , Female , Genes, erbB-1 , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Lung Neoplasms/pathology , Mutation , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486403

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein is the major target of host neutralizing antibodies and the most changing viral protein in the continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as a result of frequent viral evasion from host antibody responses. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 encodes multiple accessory proteins that modulate host antiviral immunity by different mechanisms. Among all SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins, ORF8 is rapidly evolving and a deletion in this protein has been linked to milder disease. Here, we studied the effect of ORF8 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Specifically, we found that ORF8 can bind monocytes as well as NK cells. Strikingly, ORF8 binds CD16a (Fc{gamma}RIIIA) with nanomolar affinity and decreases the overall level of CD16 at the surface of monocytes and, to a lesser extent, NK cells. Strikingly, this decrease significantly reduces the capacity of PBMCs and particularly monocytes to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Overall, our data identifies a new immune-evasion activity used by SARS-CoV-2 to escape humoral responses.

4.
Clinics in geriatric medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749553

ABSTRACT

Synopsis The COVID-19 pandemic has strong adverse impacts on vulnerable populations, such as frail older adults. The success of COVID-19 vaccine development, together with extensive global public health efforts (face masks, hand hygiene, lockdowns and many others), brought a glimmer of hope to the control of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, challenges in COVID-19 vaccine development and vaccination strategies among older people remain still. In this article, some previous examples regarding vaccination in older adults, including influenza, herpes zoster, and pneumococcal pneumonia, have been reviewed for comparisons. This article further conducts comparisons between different COVID-19 vaccine platforms based on their technology, production requirement, immune response, advantages and disadvantages. Efficacy and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in frail older people in long-term care settings have been reviewed. Challenges of COVID-19 vaccine development and policy-making for vaccination strategies in older adults have been addressed.

5.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 2022 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750384

ABSTRACT

General muscle health declines with age, and in particular, sarcopenia-defined as progressive loss of muscle mass and strength/physical performance-is a growing issue in Asia with a rising population of community-dwelling older adults. Several guidelines have addressed early identification of sarcopenia and management, and although nutrition is central to treatment of sarcopenia, there are currently few guidelines that have examined this specifically in the Asian population. Therefore, the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia established a special interest group (SIG) comprising seven experts across Asia and one from Australia, to develop an evidence-based expert consensus. A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE on the topic of muscle health, from 2016 (inclusive) to July 2021, in Asia or with relevance to healthy, Asian community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years old). Several key topics were identified: (1) nutritional status: malnutrition and screening; (2) diet and dietary factors; (3) nutritional supplementation; (4) lifestyle interventions plus nutrition; and (5) outcomes and assessment. Clinical questions were developed around these topics, leading to 14 consensus statements. Consensus was achieved using the modified Delphi method with two rounds of voting. Moreover, the consensus addressed the impacts of COVID-19 on nutrition, muscle health, and sarcopenia in Asia. These statements encompass clinical expertise and knowledge across Asia and are aligned with findings in the current literature, to provide a practical framework for addressing muscle health in the community, with the overall aim to encourage and facilitate broader access to equitable care for this target population.

6.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 100: 104671, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739542
7.
Science ; 376(6590): eabi9591, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731250

ABSTRACT

In this work, we find that CD8+ T cells expressing inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are the human equivalent of Ly49+CD8+ regulatory T cells in mice and are increased in the blood and inflamed tissues of patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, these CD8+ T cells efficiently eliminated pathogenic gliadin-specific CD4+ T cells from the leukocytes of celiac disease patients in vitro. We also find elevated levels of KIR+CD8+ T cells, but not CD4+ regulatory T cells, in COVID-19 patients, correlating with disease severity and vasculitis. Selective ablation of Ly49+CD8+ T cells in virus-infected mice led to autoimmunity after infection. Our results indicate that in both species, these regulatory CD8+ T cells act specifically to suppress pathogenic T cells in autoimmune and infectious diseases.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715359

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) models are often used by researchers in the field of public health to explore people's healthy behaviors. Therefore, this study mainly explored the relationships among participants' sociodemographic status, COVID-19 knowledge, affective attitudes, and preventive behaviors. Method: This study adopted an online survey, involving a total of 136 males and 204 females, and used a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationships between variables including gender, age, COVID-19 knowledge, positive affective attitudes (emotional wellbeing, psychological wellbeing, and social wellbeing), negative affective attitudes (negative self-perception and negative perceptions of life), and preventive behaviors (hygiene habits, reducing public activities, and helping others to prevent the epidemic). Results: The majority of participants in the study were knowledgeable about COVID-19. The mean COVID-19 knowledge score was 12.86 (SD = 1.34, range: 7-15 with a full score of 15), indicating a high level of knowledge. However, the key to decide whether participants adopt COVID-19 preventive behaviors was mainly their affective attitudes, especially positive affective attitudes (ß = 0.18-0.25, p< 0.01), rather than COVID-19 disease knowledge (ß = -0.01-0.08, p > 0.05). In addition, the sociodemographic status of the participants revealed obvious differences in the preventive behaviors; females had better preventive behaviors than males such as cooperating with the epidemic prevention hygiene habits (t = -5.08, p< 0.01), reducing public activities (t = -3.00, p< 0.01), and helping others to prevent the epidemic (t = -1.97, p< 0.05), while the older participants were more inclined to adopt preventive behaviors including epidemic prevention hygiene habits (ß = 0.18, p = 0.001, R2 = 0.03), reducing public activities (ß = 0.35, p< 0.001, R2 = 0.13), and helping others to prevent the epidemic (ß = 0.27, p< 0.001, R2 = 0.07). Conclusions: Having adequate COVID-19 knowledge was not linked to higher involvement in precautionary behaviors. Attitudes toward COVID-19 may play a more critical function in prompting individuals to undertake preventive behaviors, and different positive affective attitudes had different predictive relationships with preventive behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Follow-up study of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors has rarely been reported. We aimed to investigate longitudinal changes in the characteristics of COVID-19 survivors after discharge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 594 COVID-19 survivors discharged from Tongji Hospital in Wuhan from February 10 to April 30, 2020 were included and followed up until May 17, 2021. Laboratory and radiological findings, pulmonary function tests, electrocardiogram, symptoms and signs were analyzed. 257 (51.2%) patients had at least one symptom at 3 months post-discharge, which decreased to 169 (40.0%) and 138 (28.4%) at 6-month and 12-month visit respectively. During follow-up period, insomnia, chest tightness, and fatigue were the most prevalent symptoms. Most laboratory parameters returned to normal, whereas increased incidence of abnormal liver and renal function and cardiovascular injury was evidenced after discharge. Fibrous stripes (213; 42.4%), pleural thickening and adhesions (188; 37.5%) and enlarged lymph nodes (120; 23.9%) were the most common radiographical findings at 3 months post-discharge. The abnormalities of pulmonary function included obstructive, restrictive, and mixed, which were 5.5%, 4.0%, 0.9% at 6 months post, and 1.9%, 4.7%, 0.2% at 12 months. Electrocardiogram abnormalities occurred in 256 (51.0%) patients at 3 months post-discharge, including arrhythmia, ST-T change and conduction block, which increased to 258 (61.1%) cases at 6-month visit and were maintained at high frequency (242;49.8%) at 12-month visit. CONCLUSIONS: Physiological, laboratory, radiological or electrocardiogram abnormalities, particularly those related to renal, cardiovascular, liver functions are common in patients who recovered from COVID-19 up to 12months post-discharge.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322474

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we propose a new real-time differential virus transmission model, which can give more accurate and robust short-term predictions of COVID-19 transmitted infectious disease with benefits of near-term trend projection. Different from the existing Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Removed (SEIR) based virus transmission models, which fits well for pandemic modeling with sufficient historical data, the new model, which is also SEIR based, uses short history data to find the trend of the changing disease dynamics for the infected, the dead and the recovered so that it can naturally accommodate the adaptive real-time changes of disease mitigation, business activity and social behavior of populations. As the parameters of the improved SEIR models are trained by short history window data for accurate trend prediction, our differential epidemic model, essentially are window-based time-varying SEIR model. Since SEIR model still is a physics-based disease transmission model, its near-term (like one month) projection can still be very instrumental for policy makers to guide their decision for disease mitigation and business activity policy change in a real-time. This is especially useful if the pandemic lasts more than one year with different phases across the world like 1918 flu pandemic. Numerical results on the recent COVID-19 data from China, Italy and US, California and New York states have been analyzed.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308214

ABSTRACT

Background: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) have been widely used for the treatment of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), despite limited clinical evidence and controversial early reports. The aim of this report was to provide a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis on the use of HCQ/CQ with respect to safety and clinical efficacy of these medications. Methods: : We performed a systematic search of the medical databases and included studies if they focused on patients with COVID-19 who received HCQ or CQ alone, or in combination with other treatments, and were compared with a control group. We analyzed two important clinical objectives;viral clearance rate by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity and all-cause mortality. Results: : A total of 14 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. The use of HCQ/CQ was associated with higher viral clearance rate compared with control group (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 2.17-4.49 p<0.0001). In the sensitivity analysis, the effect on viral clearance disappeared (OR 1.44, 95% CI: 0.87-2.37, p=0.155). The use of HCQ/CQ was associated with a higher risk of mortality (OR 1.26, 95% CI: 1.05-1.51, p<0.0001). Due to huge heterogeneity between the studies ( I 2 = 86%, p < 0.01), we performed a meta regression analysis. Both treatment within 24 hours (p=0.047) and comorbidities [hypertension (p=0.025), diabetes (p=0.049) and chronic lung disease (p=0.0064)] contributed to the heterogeneity. HCQ/CQ daily dose (p=0.61) and age (p=0.62) had no impact on effect size. Higher rate of comorbidities led to a higher risk of mortality by using HCQ/CQ. Overall, the use of HCQ/CQ resulted in longer QTc intervals. Conclusions: : Our meta-analysis did not reveal a clinical benefit of HCQ/CQ on in-hospital outcomes for patients with COVID-19. The use of HCQ/CQ did not result in rapid viral clearance on RT-PCR. Moreover, our results showed that higher rate of comorbidities led to a higher risk of mortality by using HCQ/CQ.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315786

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since December 2019, a outbreak of Corona Virus Disease-2019(COVID-19) started in Wuhan, China. Now we comprehended much more about the troublesome disease from studies than the beginning. But more details between admission laboratory test and prognosis of COVID-19 were still confusing. So we focused on the admission biochemical test, and tried to verify their influence to the prognosis of COVID-19. Method: 522 patients from 4 hospitals were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We collected demographic information, comorbidities and laboratory biochemical indicators, then compared them between survivors’ and nonsurvivors’ group. Logistic regression methods were used to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC-curve) was applied to assess the efficiency of risk factors and regression model. Results: Age of nonsurvivors’ group(68.9) was older than survivors group(50.0). Diabetes(68.7%) was the most common comorbidity in the nonsurvivors’ group. In univariate regression analysis, most biochemical tests were related to the mortality except lipid metabolic results. Age, fasting blood glucose and blood urea nitrogen(BUN) were with a p-value less than 0.001 in multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Age, BUN and fasting blood glucose were risk factors associated with the prognosis of COVID-19 related pneumonia.Authors Qi Long, Chen-liang Zhou, Ye-ming Wang, Bin Song, Xiao-bin Cheng, Qiu-fen Dong, and Liu-lin Wang contributed equally to this work.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315283

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to develop a simple algorithm helps early identification of SARS-CoV-2 infection patients with severe progression tendency. Methods: 322 SARS-COV-2 infection patients were respectively enrolled. The univariable and multivariable analysis were computed to identify the independent predictors of severe progression, and the prediction model was established based on independent predictors. The areas under the ROC curves (AUROCs) were used to evaluate the diagnostic performances. Results: Of 322 confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection patients, 11 were diagnosed as severe cases on admission, 15 developed to severe cases after admission, and 296 were non-severe cases. The multivariable analysis identified age (OR=1.061, p =0.028), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (OR=1.006, p =0.037), and CD4 count (OR=0.993, p =0.006) as the independent predictors of severe progression. Consequently, the age-LDH-CD4 algorithm was derived as (age×LDH)/CD4. The AUROC of the age-LDH-CD4 model was significantly higher than that of single CD4 count, LDH, or age (0.92, 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively). The age-LDH-CD4 model ≥ 82 has high sensitive (81%) and specific (93%) for the early identification of patients with severe progression tendency following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Conclusions: The age-LDH-CD4 model is a simple algorithm for early identifying cases with severe progression tendency in SARS-CoV-2 infection patients, and warrants further validation.

14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315281

ABSTRACT

Objective: Recently, the CALL score based on comorbidity, age, lymphocyte and lactate dehydrogenase was reported to predict COVID-19 progression in two studies, which had relatively small samples (208 and 210 patients) and come to the opposite conclusion. We aimed to optimize and validate the CALL score in a large sample cohort. Methods: In this retrospective study, 651 patients with COVID-19 were divided into stable group (n=633) and progressive group (n=18) based on whether they progressed to severe cases. D-Dimer, CD4+ T cell count, and CRP was separately added to the CALL score to form the CALL-DD score, CALL-CD4 score, and CALL-CRP score, respectively. Results: For predicting COVID-19 progression, the CALL-DD score yielded a significantly higher AUROC compared with CALL-CD4, CALL-CRP, and CALL score (0.90, 0.84, 0.83, and 0.81, respectively). Using a cutoff of 7 points, the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of the CALL-DD score was 94% and 99%, respectively. Using a cutoff of 11 points, the specificity and NPV was 91% and 99%, respectively. Conclusion: Adding D-Dimer might further improve the performance of CALL score for the prediction of COVID-19 progression. The CALL-DD score had worth of applying in regulating the large flow of patients with COVID-19 between primary health care and tertiary centers.Funding Statement: This study was supported by grant NO.17411969700 from Shanghai Association for Science and Technology and grant NO.19YF1441200 from Shanghai Sailing Plan Program.Declaration of Interests: None.Ethics Approval Statement: The verbal informed consents were obtained from all participants. The ethics committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center approved this study (JY-2020-S097-02). This study was performed in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315280

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to compare the dynamic differences of immunological parameters between severe and non-severe COVID-19 patients. Methods: The cytokine profiles and lymphocyte subsets of 664 patients with COVID-19 (31 severe cases and 633 non-severe cases) were longitudinally analyzed. Results: Compared with non-severe cases, severe cases had higher age (64 vs 40 years, p < 0.001), more common comorbidities (74.2% vs 20.5%, p < 0.001) and lymphopenia (0.7 vs 1.4×109 /L, p < 0.001). Severe cases had markedly higher levels of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 than non-severe cases from baseline to 35 days after admission (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the dynamic levels of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-α, and IFN-γ between the two groups (p > 0.05). The absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and CD45+ T cells were markedly lower in severe COVID-19 patients compared with that in non-severe cases from baseline to 35 days after admission (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the dynamic levels of white cells count, CD19+ B cells count, and NK cells count between the two groups (p > 0.05). The decrease of T lymphocyte subsets reached its peak at day 1 to 3 after admission, and gradually increased during the follow-up period in the non-severe group;however, always sustained at low levels in the severe group. Conclusion: The dynamic changes of cytokine profiles and T lymphocyte subsets are related with COVID-19 progression.Funding Statement: This study was supported by grant NO.17411969700 from Shanghai Association for Science and Technology and grant NO.19YF1441200 from Shanghai Sailing Plan Program.Declaration of Interests: None.Ethics Approval Statement: The verbal informed consents were obtained from all participants. The ethics committee of Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center approved this study. This study was performed in accordance with the declaration of Helsinki.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315277

ABSTRACT

Background: /Objective To date, the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infections were reported mainly based on cases in Wuhan. We aimed to report the clinical features of SARS-CoV-2 infections outside Wuhan. Methods We analyzed 325 SARS-COV-2 infection patients hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. The epidemiological, demographic, and clinical data were compared between severe and non-severe cases. Results Of 325 patients, the median age was 51 years, 167 (51.4%) were men, and 107 (32.9%) had underlying diseases. 159 (48.9%) visited Wuhan or had contacted with people from Wuhan, but 57 (17.5%) had no clear epidemiological history. Compared with non-severe patients (n=299, 92%), severe patients (n=26, 8%) were older, had more common underlying disorder, more common lymphopenia, and higher D-dimer, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, procalcitonin, C-reactive-protein, and troponin I level. The common complications included secondary infection (12.3%), acute cardiac injury (9.2%), ARDS (5.5%), acute kidney injury (5.8%), and shock (4.9%). To Mar 12, 311 (95.7%) patients were discharged, 3 (0.9%) died, and 11 (3.4%) still hospitalized. Conclusions The severity rate and fatality rate were low if the measures (early isolation, early diagnosis and early management) were undertaken at the early time of the outbreak.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 777190, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674390

ABSTRACT

Background/Objective: Mental health problems are common among college students. This study sought to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms and well-being among Chinese college students 9 months after initiation of the outbreak of COVID-19. Method: A cross-sectional study (N = 3,951, mean age = 19.58) was conducted from October to December 2020. An online survey was used to collect socio-demographic data, and the symptoms of depression and anxiety and satisfaction with life using Disorder 7-Item Scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-Item Scale (PHQ-9), and the 5-items Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Results: The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 59.35 and 54.34%, respectively, and the score of satisfaction with life was 20.51 ± 6.42 among Chinese college students during the pandemic. After controlling for covariates, students in urban areas (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.87), with good family economic levels (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.91), and having psychological counseling (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.42-0.73) were positively associated with depression symptoms; meanwhile, higher anxiety symptoms were observed among medical students (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69-0.95). Besides, healthy lifestyle such as regular physical activity and diet was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. Multiple linear models revealed that medical students (ß = 0.479, P = 0.031), those with good family economic level by self-evaluation (ß = 1.283, P < 0.001 for good; ß = 3.013, P < 0.001 for general), good academic performance by self-evaluation (ß = 1.786, P < 0.001 for good; ß = 3.386, P < 0.001 for general), learning burden (ß = 1.607, P < 0.001 for general; ß = 2.117, P < 0.001 for light), regular physical activity (ß = 0.859, P < 0.001), daily routine (ß = 1.289, P < 0.001), diet (ß = 1.714, P < 0.001), and sufficient sleep (ß = 1.408, P < 0.001) had more score of SWLS (all ß > 0, P < 0.05), while senior students (ß = -1.053, P=0.009), students having psychological counseling (ß = -1.753, P < 0.001), and drinking (ß = -0.743, P = 0.012) had lower satisfaction with life. Conclusions: These findings suggest that more attention should be paid to psychological health among college students, especially during and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Policy makers and educators should help college students develop a healthy lifestyle with regular diet and exercise to promote the psychological health of college students.

18.
Aging Health Res ; 2(1): 100059, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648540

ABSTRACT

Background: Lives of older adults have been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A telephone survey was conducted among the older adults aged 60 and above who lived in downtown Shanghai. We compared the lifestyle, mood, and disease management of older adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: One hundred and fifty-six older adults in Shanghai completed the survey. The proportions of older adults with adequate consumption of meat (49.4% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.0339) and eggs (73.7% vs. 77.6%, P = 0.0143) were significantly higher than before. Participants spent significantly more time on housework (median: 2.0, IQR:1.0-3.0 vs. median: 2.0, IQR:1.0-2.0 h/day; P = 0.0361) and leisure activities (median: 7.0, IQR: 5.0-8.6 vs. median: 6.0, IQR: 4.0-8.5 h/day; P<0.0001) during the pandemic than before. More participants developed new hobbies (27.6% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.0470) and learned new skills (5.1% vs. 19.9%, P<0.0001). However, the number of participants routinely self-testing blood glucose and/or blood pressure decreased from 77.6% before to 64.1% during the pandemic (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the lifestyle, mood, and chronic diseases management among community-dwelling older adults. Supportive measures and interventions need to be tailored to older adults living in the community.

19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572477

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 epidemic has been confirmed as the largest scale outbreak of atypical pneumonia since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and it has become a public health emergency of international concern. It exacerbated public confusion and anxiety, and the impact of COVID-19 on people needs to be better understood. Indeed, prior studies that conducted meta-analysis of longitudinal cohort research compared mental health before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic and proved that public health polices (e.g., city lockdowns, quarantines, avoiding gatherings, etc.) and COVID-19-related information that circulates on new media platforms directly affected citizen's mental health and well-being. Hence, this research aims to explore Taiwanese people's health status, anxiety, media sources for obtaining COVID-19 information, subjective well-being, and safety-seeking behavior during the COVID-19 epidemic and how they are associated. Online surveys were conducted through new media platforms, and 342 responses were included in the analysis. The research results indicate that the participants experienced different aspects of COVID-19 anxiety, including COVID-19 worry and perceived COVID-19 risk. Among the given media sources, the more participants searched for COVID-19 information on new media, the greater they worried about COVID-19. Furthermore, COVID-19 worry was positively related to safety-seeking behavior, while perceived COVID-19 risk was negatively related to subjective well-being. This paper concludes by offering some suggestions for future studies and pointing out limitations of the present study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Anxiety/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2102593, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559092

ABSTRACT

Fast and accurate identification of microbial pathogens is critical for the proper treatment of infections. Traditional culture-based diagnosis in clinics is increasingly supplemented by metagenomic next-generation-sequencing (mNGS). Here, RNA/cDNA-targeted sequencing (meta-transcriptomics using NGS (mtNGS)) is established to reduce the host nucleotide percentage in clinic samples and by combining with Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) platforms (meta-transcriptomics using third-generation sequencing, mtTGS) to improve the sequencing time. It shows that mtNGS improves the ratio of microbial reads, facilitates bacterial identification using multiple-strategies, and discovers fungi, viruses, and antibiotic resistance genes, and displaying agreement with clinical findings. Furthermore, longer reads in mtTGS lead to additional improvement in pathogen identification and also accelerate the clinical diagnosis. Additionally, primary tests utilizing direct-RNA sequencing and targeted sequencing of ONT show that ONT displays important potential but must be further developed. This study presents the potential of RNA-targeted pathogen identification in clinical samples, especially when combined with the newest developments in ONT.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Infections/genetics , Metagenomics/methods , RNA/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Aged , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Metagenome/genetics , Middle Aged
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