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1.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 181-188, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the effect of corticosteroids and heparin, respectively, on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients' CD8+ T cells and D-dimer. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study involving 866 participants diagnosed with COVID-19, patients were grouped by severity. Generalized additive models were established to explore the time-course association of representative parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity. Segmented regression was performed to examine the influence of corticosteroids and heparin upon CD8+ T cell and D-dimer, respectively. RESULTS: There were 541 moderate, 169 severe and 156 critically ill patients involved in the study. Synchronous changes of levels of NLR, D-dimer and CD8+ T cell in critically ill patients were observed. Administration of methylprednisolone before 14 DFS compared with those after 14 DFS (ß = 0.154%, 95% CI=(0, 0.302), p=.048) or a dose lower than 40 mg per day compared with those equals to 40 mg per day (ß = 0.163%, 95% CI=(0.027, 0.295), p=.020) significantly increased the rising rate of CD8+ T cell in 14-56 DFS. CONCLUSIONS: The parameters of coagulation, inflammation and immunity were longitudinally correlated, and an early low-dose corticosteroid treatment accelerated the regaining of CD8+ T cell to help battle against SARS-Cov-2 in critical cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Inflammation/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/immunology , Heparin/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Linear Models , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Young Adult
2.
EXCLI J ; 20: 894-906, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261489

ABSTRACT

Sleep is believed to benefit the host defense against pathogens. We aimed to investigate the association of sleep quality with clinical outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We conducted a prospective cohort study in 205 adult hospitalized patients with diagnosed moderate COVID-19, with follow-up until hospital discharge or death. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) assessed sleep quality before and after infection. The primary outcome was the incidence of severe or critical pneumonia, and the secondary outcomes were duration of hospital stay and laboratory measurements during the follow up. Among the 205 included hospitalized patients, 185 (90.2 %) experienced poorer sleep quality after infection than before according to the PSQI score, and 25 (12.2 %) developed severe or critical pneumonia during follow-up. In Cox regression models, the adjusted hazard ratio of developing severe or critical pneumonia associated with each 1 score increment in the PSQI score before and after infection was 1.23 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.39) and 1.35 (95 % CI: 1.08, 1.67), respectively. Poorer sleep quality was also significantly associated with a prolonged hospital stay and more serious dysregulations in immune system indicated by several laboratory markers. Poorer sleep quality, either in the daily time or after infection with SARS-CoV-2, was associated with worse clinical outcomes. These findings highlight the importance of good sleep in confronting the emerging pandemic of COVID-19.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1092-1098, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a lifesaving strategy for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to report the case series of critical patients receiving IMV in Wuhan and to discuss the timing of IMV in these patients. METHODS: Data of 657 patients admitted to emergency intensive care unit of Zhongnan Hospital and isolated isolation wards of Wuhan Union Hospital from January 1 to March 10, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. All medical records of 40 COVID-19 patients who required IMV were collected at different time points, including baseline (at admission), before receiving IMV, and before death or hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 40 COVID-19 patients with IMV, 31 died, and 9 survived and was discharged. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62-76 years), and nonsurvivors were older than survivors. The median period from the noninvasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) to intubation was 7 hours (IQR, 2-42 hours) in IMV survivors and 54 hours (IQR, 28-143 hours) in IMV nonsurvivors. We observed that, when the time interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation was less than 50 hours (about 2 calendar days), together with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of less than 10 or pneumonia severity index (PSI) score of less than 100, mortality can be reduced to 60% or less. Prolonged interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation and high levels of APACHE II and PSI before intubation were associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients. Multiple organ damage was common among these nonsurvivors in the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: Early initial intubation after NIV/HFNC might have a beneficial effect in reducing mortality for critically ill patients meeting IMV indication. Considering APACHE II and PSI scores might help physicians in decision making about timing of intubation for curbing subsequent mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level V.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , APACHE , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1813, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147224

ABSTRACT

Long-term antibody responses and neutralizing activities in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection are not yet clear. Here we quantify immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) or the nucleocapsid (N) protein, and neutralizing antibodies during a period of 6 months from COVID-19 disease onset in 349 symptomatic COVID-19 patients who were among the first be infected world-wide. The positivity rate and magnitude of IgM-S and IgG-N responses increase rapidly. High levels of IgM-S/N and IgG-S/N at 2-3 weeks after disease onset are associated with virus control and IgG-S titers correlate closely with the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. Although specific IgM-S/N become undetectable 12 weeks after disease onset in most patients, IgG-S/N titers have an intermediate contraction phase, but stabilize at relatively high levels over the 6 month observation period. At late time points, the positivity rates for binding and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are still >70%. These data indicate sustained humoral immunity in recovered patients who had symptomatic COVID-19, suggesting prolonged immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Diabetes Care ; 44(4): 865-873, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041481

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of in-hospital early-phase glycemic control with adverse outcomes among inpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The study is a large case series, and data were obtained regarding consecutive patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Central Hospital of Wuhan between 2 January and 15 February 2020. All patients with definite outcomes (death or discharge) were included. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory information were extracted from electronic medical records. We collected daily fasting glucose data from standard morning fasting blood biochemistry to determine glycemic status and fluctuation (calculated as the square root of the variance of daily fasting glucose levels) during the 1st week of hospitalization. RESULTS: A total of 548 patients were included in the study (median age 57 years; 298 [54%] were women, and n = 99 had diabetes [18%]), 215 suffered acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), 489 survived, and 59 died. Patients who had higher mean levels of glucose during their 1st week of hospitalization were older and more likely to have a comorbidity and abnormal laboratory markers, prolonged hospital stays, increased expenses, and greater risks of severe pneumonia, ARDS, and death. Compared with patients with the lowest quartile of glycemic fluctuation, those who had the highest quartile of fluctuation magnitude had an increased risk of ARDS (risk ratio 1.97 [95% CI 1.01, 4.04]) and mortality (hazard ratio 2.73 [95% CI 1.06, 7.73]). CONCLUSIONS: These results may have implications for optimizing glycemic control strategies in COVID-19 patients during the early phase of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Clin Nutr ; 40(5): 3462-3469, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-967936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Iron is an essential trace element to almost all organism, and the delicate balance between host defend system and viral proliferation plays an important role in infective conditions. While the association of the iron metabolism with the prognosis of COVID-19 remains poorly understood. We aimed to estimate the associations of systemic iron metabolism parameters with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included 158 confirmed COVID-19 patients in Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China (27 January to 5 April, 2020). Demographic data, comorbidities, laboratory examinations, treatments, and clinical outcomes were all collected. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the association of iron parameter levels with the severity and risks of adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: We identified 60 (38%) severe cases in 158 COVID-19 patients. The median age was 63 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 54-73) and the median length of hospital stay was 28 days (IQR: 17-40). After adjusting for age, sex, IL-6, and pre-existing comorbidities, all iron parameters were associated with the severity of COVID-19 with adjusted risk ratio of 0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.83], 4.38 [95% CI: 1.86-10.33], 0.19 [95% CI: 0.08-0.48], and 0.25 [95% CI: 0.10-0.58] for serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, and total iron-binding capacity, respectively. These iron indices were also related to the risk of ARDS, coagulopathy, acute cardiac injury, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury in COVID-19 patients and high cytokine concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low serum iron status likely suffered from severe condition and multiple-organ injury in COVID-19. The iron metabolism parameters might be risk factors and clinical biomarkers for COVID-19 prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Ferritins/metabolism , Iron/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Transferrin/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Transferrin/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17365, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872730

ABSTRACT

To analyze the clinical characteristics of re-positive discharged COVID-19 patients and find distinguishing markers. The demographic features, clinical symptoms, laboratory results, comorbidities, co-infections, treatments, illness severities and chest CT scan results of 267 patients were collected from 1st January to 15th February 2020. COVID-19 was diagnosed by RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms and nucleic acid test results were collected during the 14 days post-hospitalization quarantine. 30 out of 267 COVID-19 patients were detected re-positive during the post-hospitalization quarantine. Re-positive patients could not be distinguished by demographic features, clinical symptoms, laboratory results, comorbidities, co-infections, treatments, chest CT scan results or subsequent clinical symptoms. However, re-positive rate was found to be correlated to illness severity, according the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) severity-of-disease classification system, and the confusion, urea, respiratory rate and blood pressure (CURB-65) score. Common clinical characteristics were not able to distinguish re-positive patients. However, severe and critical cases classified high according APACHE II and CURB-65 scores, were more likely to become re-positive after discharge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 3764515, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852759

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at determining the relationship between baseline cystatin C levels and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and investigating the potential prognostic value of serum cystatin C in adult patients with COVID-19. 481 patients with COVID-19 were consecutively included in this study from January 2, 2020, and followed up to April 15, 2020. All clinical and laboratory data of COVID-19 patients with definite outcomes were reviewed. For every measure, COVID-19 patients were grouped into quartiles according to the baseline levels of serum cystatin C. The highest cystatin C level was significantly related to more severe inflammatory conditions, worse organ dysfunction, and worse outcomes among patients with COVID-19 (P values < 0.05). In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, the highest cystatin C level and ln-transformed cystatin C levels were independently associated with the risks of developing critically ill COVID-19 and all-cause death either in overall patients or in patients without chronic kidney disease (P values < 0.05). As a potential inflammatory marker, increasing baseline levels of serum cystatin C might independently predict adverse outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Serum cystatin C could be routinely monitored during hospitalization, which showed clinical importance in prognosticating for adult patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Cystatin C/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Nonlinear Dynamics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-648

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has an average

10.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-613

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest CT image guided handling of pneumonia patients with negative RT-PCR detection of SARS-CoV-2 in high endemic areas is still controversial. b

11.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2674-2682, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: No studies have reported the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic on patients with preexisting stroke. We aim to study the clinical course of COVID-19 patients with preexisting stroke and to investigate death-related risk factors. METHODS: We consecutively included 651 adult inpatients with COVID-19 from the Central Hospital of Wuhan between January 2 and February 15, 2020. Data on the demography, comorbidities, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, treatments, complications, and outcomes (ie, discharged or death) of the participants were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between patients with and without preexisting stroke. The association between risk factors and mortality was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards regression model for stroke patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. RESULTS: Of the 651 patients with COVID-19, 49 with preexisting stroke tended to be elderly, male, had more underlying comorbidities and greater severity of illness, prolonged length of hospital stay, and greater hospitalization expenses than those without preexisting stroke. Cox regression analysis indicated that the patients with stroke had a higher risk of developing critical pneumonia (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.27-3.16]) and subsequent mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.00-2.98]) than the patients without stroke. Among the 49 stroke patients, older age and higher score of Glasgow Coma Scale or Sequential Organ Failure Assessment were independent risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Preexisting stroke patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were readily predisposed to death, providing an important message to individuals and health care workers that preventive measures must be implemented to protect and reduce transmission in stroke patients in this COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Stroke/complications , Stroke/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Electronic Health Records , Female , Glasgow Coma Scale , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/epidemiology , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
12.
Platelets ; 31(4): 490-496, 2020 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombocytopenia has been implicated in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, while the association of platelet count and changes with subsequent mortality remains unclear. METHODS: The clinical and laboratory data of 383 patients with the definite outcome by March 1, 2020 in the Central Hospital of Wuhan were reviewed. The association between platelet parameters and mortality risk was estimated by utilizing Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: Among the 383 patients, 334 (87.2%) were discharged and survived, and 49 (12.8%) died. Thrombocytopenia at admission was associated with mortality of almost three times as high as that for those without thrombocytopenia (P < 0.05). Cox regression analyses revealed that platelet count was an independent risk factor associated with in-hospital mortality in a dose-dependent manner. An increment of per 50 × 109/L in platelets was associated with a 40% decrease in mortality (hazard ratio: 0.60, 95%CI: 0.43, 0.84). Dynamic changes of platelets were also closely related to death during hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline platelet levels and changes were associated with subsequent mortality. Monitoring platelets during hospitalization may be important in the prognosis of patients with coronavirus disease in 2019.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Thrombocytopenia , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/mortality
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