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1.
Viral Immunol ; 2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758620

ABSTRACT

To investigate the clinical characteristic of domestic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients after vaccination campaign conducted in China. According to vaccination status and months from first vaccine dose to infection detection, patients were divided into unvaccinated, <3 months, 3-6 months, and >6 months groups. The information of demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and thoracic computed tomography (CT) findings, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid and IgM, IgG antibodies was retrospectively collected. Therapeutic approaches, temperature-normalizing and viral shedding times, outcomes were also summarized. SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were further analyzed based on the other following variables: time from second vaccine dose to infection, vaccine dose, the interval from the first to the second dose, and vaccine brand. Among 208 COVID-19 patients, 13 (6.28%) were unvaccinated. No significant differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and CT findings, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid loads were detected between groups (all p > 0.05). In comparison with the unvaccinated group, the median SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were noticeably increased in those vaccinated groups (0.603 in unvaccinated, 15.925 in <3 months, 14.04 in 3-6 months, and 4.94 in >6 months, respectively, p < 0.05). However, SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were not altered between groups divided based on the other variables. Vaccination does not affect the clinical characteristics in COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients with vaccination have high SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels. Underscore the necessity of rapid implementation of vaccination campaigns can be speculated.

2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 180, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed COVID-19 vaccination as an emergent and important method to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Since China started vaccination programs in December 2020, vaccination has spread to provinces and municipalities nationwide. Previous research has focused on people's vaccination willingness and its influencing factors but has not examined vaccination behavior. We examine the effectiveness of psychosocial factors in predicting vaccination behavior. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was performed among Chinese adults on 8 May and 4 June 2021. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate analysis, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis and ordinal multiclassification logistic regression model analysis. RESULTS: Of the 1300 respondents, 761 (58.5%) were vaccinated. Univariate analysis showed that a high education level and good subjective health status were protective factors for vaccination behavior, while suffering from chronic diseases was a risk factor. ROC analysis showed that subjective health status (AUC = 0.625, 95% CI: 0.594-0.656, P < 0.001) was the best predictor of vaccination behavior. Logistic regression analysis with subjective health status as a dependent variable indicated that older age, female sex, depression, neurasthenia, obsession, hypochondriasis and chronic disease were significant risk factors, while positive coping tendencies were a significant protective factor. CONCLUSION: Our study found a simple and effective marker, subjective health status, that can predict vaccination behavior. This finding can guide future epidemic prevention work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Self Evaluation , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prometaphase , Vaccination/psychology
3.
J Affect Disord ; 297: 301-308, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has been a continuous global threat since the first identification of the disease in December 2019. COVID-19 vaccination is a crucial preventive approach that can halt this pandemic. However, many factors affect the willingness of the public to be vaccinated against COVID-19 at the early stage of the vaccination programme. We used network analysis to investigate the interrelation of vaccination willingness and its associated factors. METHODS: A population-representative sample of 539 Chinese adults completed a battery of online self-assessments, including those on vaccination willingness, health status, attitude towards vaccines, COVID-19-related psychological elements and other variables. Network analysis was performed using the R qgraph package. RESULTS: In total, 445 (82.6%) participants scored high on their willingness to vaccinate. Attitude towards vaccines, the influence of people around an individual and health status were directly significantly related to vaccination willingness. The betweenness of age was the highest and, the emotional states had the strongest centrality. LIMITATIONS: Network analysis is not sufficient to determine the causal relationships of the links between nodes. In addition, there are other latent essential elements that were not evaluated. Finally, the sample size was relatively small. CONCLUSION: Network analysis showed that attitude toward vaccines and emotional states are the most critical factors affecting vaccination willingness, which indicates that we should pay attention to the impact of the dissemination of Internet information on vaccination willingness and public emotional states during a pandemic which is very important for promoting vaccination programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2029257, 2022 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692309

ABSTRACT

This study is conducted to explore the association between health behaviors and the COVID-19 vaccination based on the risk compensation concept among health-care workers in Taizhou, China. We conducted a self-administered online survey to estimate the health behaviors among the staff in a tertiary hospital in Taizhou, China, from May 18 to 21 May 2021. A total of 592 out of 660 subjects (89.7%) responded to the questionnaire after receiving an e-poster on WeChat. Subjects who had been inoculated with the COVID-19 vaccine were asked to mention the differences in their health behaviors before and after the vaccination. The results showed that there were no statistical differences in health behaviors between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, except in terms of the type of gloves they used (62.8% in the vaccinated group and 49.2% in the unvaccinated group, p = .048). Subjects who received earlier COVID-19 vaccinations exhibited better health behaviors (22.40% increased for duration of wearing masks (P = .007), 25.40% increased for times of washing hands (P = .01), and 20.90% increased for times of wearing gloves (P = .01)). Subjects also revealed better health behaviors (washing hands, wearing gloves, and wearing masks) after vaccination compared to that before. In conclusion, concept of risk compensation was not applied in our findings. The health behaviors did not reduce after the COVID-19 vaccination, which even may improve health behaviors among health-care workers in the hospital setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315294

ABSTRACT

Background: Online teaching is being widely adopted to achieve medical teaching objectives during the COVID-19 pandemic. To explore the dental virtual clerkship so as to continue the education of final-year dental undergraduate interns, combined mode of courses including small private online course, problem-based learning, online dental practice broadcasting and dental practice based on relatives’ or friends’ oral health management were applied for clerkship education for final-year interns.MethodsCombined courses of virtual clerkship was conducted from March to May, 2020 for final-year interns, while online preclerkship curriculum teaching was conducted for non-final-year students. Using the online students’ engagement scale (OSE), Biggs’ revised two-factor version of the study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), student engagement and study process were evaluated for both. Teaching efficacy were evaluated via teachers' sense of efficacy scale (TSES) as well. ResultsStudents’ engagement was higher in final-year students, especially the emotion and participation categories (P<0.01). In the emotion category, 80.95% identified with putting forth effort on lecture and applying knowledge to life. Study approaches on deep motive and strategy were dominated in final-year interns (P<0.01). Teacher’ sense of efficacy also reflected the positive influence on student virtual clerkship. There was no significant difference among three categories including the sense of student engagement, instructional strategies and classroom management (P>0.05).ConclusionThis combined mode of courses on dental virtual clerkship could be potentially applied during the pandemic or be supplementary for traditional by-chair clerkship after the pandemic.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 799150, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643526

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate and characterize the putative Elizabethkingia anophelis contaminant isolated from throat and anal swab samples of patients from three fever epidemic clusters, which were not COVID-19 related, in Shenzhen, China, during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Bacteria were cultured from throat (n = 28) and anal (n = 3) swab samples from 28 fever adolescent patients. The isolated bacterial strains were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the VITEK2 automated identification system. Nucleic acids were extracted from the patient samples (n = 31), unopened virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as the patient samples (n = 35, blank samples) and from unopened throat swab collection kits of two other manufacturers (n = 22, control samples). Metagenomic sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) detection were performed. Blood serum collected from patients (n = 13) was assessed for the presence of antibodies to E. anophelis. The genomic characteristics, antibiotic susceptibility, and heat resistance of E. anophelis isolates (n = 31) were analyzed. Results: The isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and VITEK2 as Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. DNA sequence analysis confirmed isolates to be E. anophelis. The patients' samples and blank samples were positive for E. anophelis. Control samples were negative for E. anophelis. The sera from a sub-sample of 13 patients were antibody-negative for isolated E. anophelis. Most of the isolates were highly homologous and carried multiple ß-lactamase genes (bla B, bla GOB, and bla CME). The isolates displayed resistance to nitrofurans, penicillins, and most ß-lactam drugs. The bacteria survived heating at 56°C for 30 min. Conclusion: The unopened commercial virus collection kits from the same manufacturer as those used to swab patients were contaminated with E. anophelis. Patients were not infected with E. anophelis and the causative agent for the fevers remains unidentified. The relevant authorities were swiftly notified of this discovery and subsequent collection kits were not contaminated. DNA sequence-based techniques are the definitive method for Elizabethkingia species identification. The E. anophelis isolates were multidrug-resistant, with partial heat resistance, making them difficult to eradicate from contaminated surfaces. Such resistance indicates that more attention should be paid to disinfection protocols, especially in hospitals, to avoid outbreaks of E. anophelis infection.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296282

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed COVID-19 vaccination as an emergent and important method to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Since China started vaccination programs in December 2020, vaccination has spread to provinces and municipalities nationwide. Previous research has focused on people's vaccination willingness and its influencing factors but has not examined vaccination behavior. We examine the effectiveness of psychosocial factors in predicting vaccination behavior. Methods: : A cross-sectional online survey was performed among Chinese adults on 8 May and 4 June 2021. The statistical analysis of the data included univariate analysis, receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis and ordinal multiclassification logistic regression model analysis. Results: : Of the 1300 respondents, 761 (58.5%) were vaccinated. Univariate analysis showed that a high education level and good subjective health status were protective factors for vaccination behavior, while suffering from chronic diseases was a risk factor. ROC analysis showed that subjective health status (AUC = 0.625, 95% CI: 0.594–0.656, P < 0.001) was the best predictor of vaccination behavior. Logistic regression analysis with subjective health status as a dependent variable indicated that older age, female sex, depression, neurasthenia, obsession, hypochondriasis and chronic disease were significant risk factors, while positive coping tendencies were a significant protective factor. Conclusion: Our study found a simple and effective marker, subjective health status, that can predict vaccination behavior. This finding can guide future epidemic prevention work.

8.
Front Chem ; 9: 740702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468326

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 have caused a worldwide public health crisis. Designing small molecule inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction is considered as a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. But to date, only a few compounds have been reported as SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction inhibitors. In this study, we described the virtual screening and experimental validation of two novel inhibitors (DC-RA016 and DC-RA052) against SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction. The NanoBiT assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays demonstrated their capabilities of blocking SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction and directly binding to both S-RBD and ACE2. Moreover, the pseudovirus assay revealed that these two compounds possessed significant antiviral activity (about 50% inhibition rate at maximum non-cytotoxic concentration). These results indicate that the compounds DC-RA016 and DC-RA052 are promising inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction and deserve to be further developed.

9.
Phytother Res ; 35(10): 5847-5860, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384296

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 has infected over 150 million people worldwide and led to over 3 million deaths. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.617, B.1.351, and P.1 were reported to have higher infection rates than that of wild one. These mutations were noticed to happen in the receptor-binding domain of spike protein (S-RBD), especially mutations N501Y, E484Q, E484K, K417N, K417T, and L452R. Currently, there is still no specific medicine against the virus; moreover, cytokine storm is also a dangerous factor for severe infected patients. In this study, potential S-RBD-targeted active monomers from traditional Chinese medicine Ephedra sinica Stapf (ephedra) were discovered by virtual screening. NanoBiT assay was performed to confirm blocking activities of the screened compounds against the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). We further analyzed the blocking effect of the active compounds on the interactions of mutated S-RBD and ACE2 by computational studies. Moreover, antiinflammatory activities were evaluated using qRT-PCR, enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay, and Western blot analysis. As a result, pseudoephedrine (MHJ-17) and its derivative (MHJ-11) were found as efficient inhibitors disrupting the interactions between ACE2 and both wild and mutated S-RBDs. In addition, they also have antiinflammatory activities, which can be potential drug candidates or lead compounds for further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pseudoephedrine , Humans , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
11.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(8)2021 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374258

ABSTRACT

We investigated whether phycoerythrin (PE), a pigment sourced from marine algae, could act as an immunomodulatory agent in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). To this end, PE was extracted and purified from a PE-rich macroalgae, Colaconema sp. Our in vitro analysis demonstrated that PE enhanced prophenoloxidase and phagocytosis activity but inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species in hemocytes. Additionally, the PE signal could be detected using an in vivo imaging system after its injection into the ventral sinus of the cephalothorax of whiteleg shrimp. The expression profiles of fourteen immune-related genes were monitored in hemocytes from whiteleg shrimp injected with 0.30 µg of PE per gram of body weight, and crustin, lysozyme, penaiedin 4, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factor showed up-regulated post-stimulation. The induction of immune genes and enhancement of innate immune parameters by PE may explain the higher survival rates for shrimp that received different doses of PE prior to being challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus or white spot syndrome virus compared to controls. Combined, these results show that PE from Colaconema sp. can differentially stimulate the immune response of whiteleg shrimp in vitro and in vivo and could potentially be used as an immunomodulator in shrimp culture.

12.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 358, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2, which has brought a huge negative impact on the world since the end of 2019, is reported to invade cells using the spike (S) protein to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) receptors on human cells while the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) is the key protease that activates the S protein, which greatly facilitates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into target cells. In our previous study, it was observed that the positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids in saliva was higher in male and the elderly COVID-19 patients, suggesting that the susceptibility of oral tissues to SARS-CoV-2 may be related to gender and age. This research aimed to further investigate the SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility in oral tissues and influencing factors from the perspective of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, which were two proteins closely associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Immunofluorescence was used to find the localization of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in oral mucosal tissues. Transcriptomic sequencing data of several datasets were then collected to analysis the relationship between the expressions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with the age and gender of patients. Furthermore, oral tissues from patients with different ages and genders were collected. Immunohistochemistry staining, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to explore the relationship between expression levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 and patient age as well as gender. RESULTS: The results showed that the two proteins were able to be co-expressed in the epithelial cells of oral tissues, and their expression levels were higher in the relatively elderly group than those in relatively younger group. Male oral epithelial cells exhibited higher level of TMPRSS2. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings comprehensively confirmed the existence of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in oral tissues and clarify the relationship between the expression levels with human age and gender for the first time, providing evidence for possible entry routes of SARS-CoV-2 and the influencing factors of SARS-CoV-2 colonization in oral cavity. Thus, the oral mucosa might be at potential risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2, especially in male or elderly patients. Using saliva to detect the nucleic acids of SARS-CoV-2 may be more accurate for elder male COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Epithelial Cells , Female , Humans , Male , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization
13.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 647483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348562

ABSTRACT

Infertility usually causes mental health problems for patients and unfavorable emotions such as anxiety and depression can have an adverse effect on women's normal pregnancy. We aimed to compare the anxiety level between infertile female patients in quarantined and non-quarantined areas during the second wave of COVID-19 epidemic. A total of 759 infertile women were included in this cross-sectional study conducted through an online survey. Anxiety was measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) tool. Participants were divided into the quarantined group (QG) and non-quarantined group (Non-QG). Independent sample T-test and chi-square test were performed to examine the difference between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the average STAI score of the two groups of infertile women, but responses to the emotional state showed that women in the QG had a higher tendency to be anxious. Participants in QG spent more time paying attention to the dynamics of the epidemic every day, and their sleep (p < 0.01) and mood conditions were worse (p < 0.01) than in the Non-QG. The family relationship of QG is more tense than non-QG. Through the research on the infertility treatment information of the overall research population, it is found the average STAI-State (STAI-S) (p = 0.031) score and STAI-Trait (STAI-T) (p = 0.005) score of women who were infertile for more than 3 years were significantly higher than those of women with <2 years. The STAI-T score of infertile women who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) was higher than that of non-IVF women (p = 0.007), but no significant difference was observed with the STAI-S score. To conclude, although the second wave of quarantine during COVID-19 epidemic did not significantly increase anxiety in infertile women, it did lead to an increase in other negative emotions and worse family relationships. Patients with long-term infertility treatment and those who have had IVF are more anxious subgroups.

14.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 192: 114724, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347499

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has quickly spread around the globe. At present, there is no precise and effective treatment for the patients with COVID-19, so rapid development of drugs is urgently needed in order to contain the highly infectious disease. The virus spike protein (S protein) can recognize the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor on the host cell membrane and undergo a series of conformational changes, protease cleavage and membrane fusion to complete the virus entry, so S protein is an important target for vaccine and drug development. Here we provide a brief overview of molecular mechanisms of virus entry, as well as some potential antiviral agents that act on S/ACE2 protein-protein interaction. Specifically, we focused on experimentally validated and/or computational prediction identified inhibitors that target SARS-CoV-2 S protein, ACE2 and enzymes associated with viral infection. This review offers valuable information for the discovery and development of potential antiviral agents in combating SARS-CoV-2. In addition, with the deepening understanding of the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection, more targeted prevention and treatment drugs will be explored with the aid of the advanced technology in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Glycyrrhetinic Acid/administration & dosage , Humans , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Binding/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
15.
Front Psychol ; 12: 626547, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325556

ABSTRACT

Objective: The COVID-19 epidemic has generated great stress throughout healthcare workers (HCWs). The situation of HCWs should be fully and timely understood. The aim of this meta-analysis is to determine the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers. Method: We searched the original literatures published from 1 Nov 2019 to 20 Sep 2020 in electronic databases of PUBMED, EMBASE and WEB OF SCIENCE. Forty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis with a combined total of 81,277 participants. Results: The pooled prevalence of anxiety is 37% (95% CI 0.31-0.42, I2 = 99.9%) from 44 studies. Depression is estimated in 39 studies, and the pooled prevalence of depression is 36% (95% CI 0.31-0.41, I2 = 99.6%). There are 10 studies reported the prevalence of insomnia, and the overall prevalence of insomnia is 32% (95% CI 0.23-0.42, I2 = 99.5%). The subgroup analysis showed a higher incidence of anxiety and depression among women and the frontline HCWs compared to men and non-frontline HCWs respectively. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused heavy psychological impact among healthcare professionals especially women and frontline workers. Timely psychological counseling and intervention ought to be implemented for HCWs in order to alleviate their anxiety and improve their general mental health.

16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 182-192, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305238

ABSTRACT

After the emergence of the pandemic, repurposed drugs have been considered as a quicker way of finding potential antiviral agents. SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro is essential for processing the viral polyproteins into mature non-structural proteins, making it an attractive target for developing antiviral agents. Here we show that Vitamin K3 screened from the FDA-Approved Drug Library containing an array of 1,018 compounds has potent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro with the IC50 value of 4.78 ± 1.03 µM, rather than Vitamin K1, K2 and K4. Next, the time-dependent inhibitory experiment was carried out to confirm that Vitamin K3 could form the covalent bond with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Then we analyzed the structure-activity relationship of Vitamin K3 analogues and identified 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with 9.8 times higher inhibitory activity than Vitamin K3. Further mass spectrometric analysis and molecular docking study verified the covalent binding between Vitamin K3 or 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Thus, our findings provide valuable information for further optimization and design of novel inhibitors based on Vitamin K3 and its analogues, which may have the potential to fight against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vitamin K 3 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Vitamin K 3/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin K 3/chemistry
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 182-192, 2021 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203068

ABSTRACT

After the emergence of the pandemic, repurposed drugs have been considered as a quicker way of finding potential antiviral agents. SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro is essential for processing the viral polyproteins into mature non-structural proteins, making it an attractive target for developing antiviral agents. Here we show that Vitamin K3 screened from the FDA-Approved Drug Library containing an array of 1,018 compounds has potent inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro with the IC50 value of 4.78 ± 1.03 µM, rather than Vitamin K1, K2 and K4. Next, the time-dependent inhibitory experiment was carried out to confirm that Vitamin K3 could form the covalent bond with SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Then we analyzed the structure-activity relationship of Vitamin K3 analogues and identified 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with 9.8 times higher inhibitory activity than Vitamin K3. Further mass spectrometric analysis and molecular docking study verified the covalent binding between Vitamin K3 or 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone and SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. Thus, our findings provide valuable information for further optimization and design of novel inhibitors based on Vitamin K3 and its analogues, which may have the potential to fight against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Vitamin K 3 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Vitamin K 3/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin K 3/chemistry
18.
Fitoterapia ; 152: 104909, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203052

ABSTRACT

3-Chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) is a virally encoded main proteinase that is pivotal for the viral replication across a broad spectrum of coronaviruses. This study aims to discover the naturally occurring SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors from herbal constituents, as well as to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of the newly identified efficacious SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitors. Following screening of the inhibitory potentials of eighty herbal products against SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro, Ginkgo biloba leaves extract (GBLE) was found with the most potent SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activity (IC50 = 6.68 µg/mL). Inhibition assays demonstrated that the ginkgolic acids (GAs) and the bioflavones isolated from GBLE displayed relatively strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities (IC50 < 10 µM). Among all tested constituents, GA C15:0, GA C17:1 and sciadopitysin displayed potent 3CLpro inhibition activities, with IC50 values of less than 2 µM. Further inhibition kinetic studies and docking simulations clearly demonstrated that two GAs and sciadopitysin strongly inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLprovia a reversible and mixed inhibition manner. Collectively, this study found that both GBLE and the major constituents in this herbal product exhibit strong SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibition activities, which offer several promising leading compounds for developing novel anti-COVID-19 medications via targeting on 3CLpro.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Ginkgo biloba/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Flavones/pharmacology , Flavones/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Structure , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Leaves/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Salicylates/pharmacology , Salicylates/therapeutic use
19.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 56: 102533, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064771

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate and monitor the mental health status of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was used to study the literatures on the psychology of pregnant women in four databases until Sep 27, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included in the final meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of anxiety was 42 % (95 %CI 26 %-57 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 99.6 %). The overall prevalence of depression was 25 % (95 %CI 20 %-31 %) with substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 97.9 %). Age, family economic status, social support, and physical activity seem to correlate with the mental health status of pregnant women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anxiety and depression among pregnant women increased significantly during the COVID-19 epidemic. Pregnant women are more concerned about others than themselves during COVID-19, and younger pregnant women seem to be more prone to anxiety, while social support and physical activity can reduce the likelihood of anxiety and depression. It is necessary to take some psychological intervention measures for pregnant women to help them go through this special period safely and smoothly.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Age Factors , Anxiety/psychology , Depression/psychology , Economic Status , Exercise/psychology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
20.
Geohealth ; : e2020GH000292, 2020 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019739

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 showed various transmission rate (R t ) across different regions. The determination of the factors affecting transmission rate is urgent and crucial to combat COVID-19. Here we explored variation of R t between 277 regions across the globe and the associated potential socioeconomic, demographic and environmental factors. At global scale, the R t started to decrease approximately two weeks after policy interventions initiated. This lag from the date of policy interventions initiation to the date when R t started to decrease ranges from 9 to 19 days, largest in Europe and North America. We find that proportion of elderly people or life expectancy can explain 50% of variation in transmission rate across the 277 regions. The transmission rate at the point of inflection (R I ) increases by 29.4% (25.2-34.0%) for 1% uptick in the proportion of people aged above 65, indicating elderly people face ~2.5 times higher infection risk than younger people. Air temperature is negatively correlated with transmission rate, which is mainly attributed to collinearities between air temperature and demographic factors. Our model predicted that temperature sensitivity of R I is only -2.7% (-5.2 - 0%) per °C after excluding collinearities between air temperature and demographic factors. This low temperature sensitivity of R I suggests that a warm summer is unlikely to impede the spread of COVID-19 naturally.

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