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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315599

ABSTRACT

Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcomes remain unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19. Methods: : This retrospective multi-center study evaluated 28-day mortality and time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Propensity score matching was used to control confounding factors. Logistic regression and competing risk analyses were performed. Results: : The study included 850 patients (421 patients received IVIG). No significant differences in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were observed ( p =0.357 and p =0.123, respectively). High-dose of IVIG treatment (>10 g/day) (n=27) was associated with decreased 28-day mortality (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.77;p =0.011). The IVIG group had prolonged median hospitalization, less shock, and higher incidences of acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury. Furthermore, IVIG-treated patients were more likely to require non-invasive mechanical ventilation and less likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: : IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19 patients was not associated with significant improvements in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. However, some improvements in 28-day survival were observed for high-dose IVIG treatment (>10 g/day).

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309717

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a six-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a six-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 5 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a six-month follow-up after discharge. Results: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At six-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95%CI 1.33 - 12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95%CI 1.06 - 10.81, p = 0.039). Conclusions: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a six-month follow-up;intervention strategies are required.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1271, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a 6-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a 6-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 4 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a 6-month follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At 6-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.33-12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.06-10.81, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a 6-month follow-up; intervention strategies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(1): 1-6, 2022 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631843

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic since its outbreak in 2019, presenting serious threats to public health and the health of the people. As one of the main components of the host innate immune system, type-Ⅰ interferon (IFN) plays a critical role in the defense against viral infections. The battle between the virus and the host innate immune system determines the disease progression. It has been reported that SARS-CoV-2 inhibits IFN production and suppresses the activation of IFN signaling pathway through its interactions with the host innate immune system. Then, the weakened or delayed response of type-Ⅰ interferon causes the disturbance of host immune responses, which is one of the important reasons why SARS-CoV-2 causes such high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reviewed and discussed the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins and the host innate immune system, especially the interaction with type-Ⅰ IFN pathway, to provide new insights into the mechanisms of viral evasion of host immune response and new perspectives and strategies for treating COVID-19 with IFN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365541

ABSTRACT

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Thymalfasin/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Thymalfasin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1240457

ABSTRACT

Background Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic with high mortality. Although several studies have reported different risk factors for mortality in patients based on traditional analytics, few studies have used artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. This study investigated prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients using AI methods. Methods COVID-19 patients who were admitted in Wuhan Infectious Diseases Hospital from December 29, 2019 to March 2, 2020 were included. The whole cohort was randomly divided into training and testing sets at a 6:4 ratio. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed to identify predictors of mortality using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and LASSO-based artificial neural network (ANN) models. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results A total of 1145 patients (610 men, 53.3%) were included in the study. Of the 1145 patients, 704 were assigned to the training set and 441 were assigned to the testing set. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range: 47–66 years). Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were identified as independent prognostic factors for mortality. Incorporating these nine factors into the LASSO regression model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.98, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.980 and 0.990 in the training and testing cohorts, respectively. Incorporating the same factors into the LASSO-based ANN model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.990, with an AUC of 0.980 in both the training and testing cohorts. Conclusions Both the LASSO regression and LASSO-based ANN model accurately predicted the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, CRP, total bilirubin, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were identified as prognostic factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(7): 9265-9276, 2021 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dysregulated immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are thought to underlie the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We sought to further characterize host antiviral and cytokine gene expression in COVID-19 patients based on illness severity. METHODS: In this case-control study, we retrospectively analyzed 46 recovered COVID-19 patients and 24 healthy subjects (no history of COVID-19) recruited from the Second People's Hospital of Fuyang City. Blood samples were collected from each study participant for RNA extraction and PCR. We assessed changes in antiviral gene expression between healthy controls and patients with mild/moderate (MM) and severe/critical (SC) disease. RESULTS: We found that type I interferon signaling (IFNA2, TLR8, IFNA1, IFNAR1, TLR9, IRF7, ISG15, APOBEC3G, and MX1) and genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines (IL12B, IL15, IL6, IL12A and IL1B) and chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL11 and CXCL10) were upregulated in patients with MM and SC disease. Moreover, we found that IFNA1, apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G (APOBEC3G), and Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) in the SC group compared to the MM group. We also observed that microRNA (miR)-155 and miR-130a levels were markedly higher in the MM group compared to the SC group. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is associated with the activation of host antiviral genes. Induction of the IFN system appears to be particularly important in controlling SARS-CoV-2 infection, as decreased expression of IFNA1, APOBEC3G and FADD genes in SC patients, relative to MM patients, may be associated with disease progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , APOBEC-3G Deaminase/genetics , APOBEC-3G Deaminase/immunology , Adult , Aged , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome , Up-Regulation
10.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
12.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 241, 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at high risk of poor outcome from COVID-19. However, how the burden (number) of vascular risk factors influences the risk of severe COVID-19 disease remains unresolved. Our aim was to investigate the association of severe COVID-19 illness with vascular risk factor burden. METHODS: We included 164 (61.8 ± 13.6 years) patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study. We compared the difference in clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 illness. We evaluated the association between the number of vascular risk factors and the development of severe COVID-19 disease, using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: Sixteen (9.8%) patients had no vascular risk factors; 38 (23.2%) had 1; 58 (35.4%) had 2; 34 (20.7%) had 3; and 18 (10.9%) had ≥4 risk factors. Twenty-nine patients (17.7%) experienced severe COVID-19 disease with a median (14 [7-27] days) duration between onset to developing severe COVID-19 disease, an event rate of 4.47 per 1000-patient days (95%CI 3.10-6.43). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a gradual increase in the risk of severe COVID-19 illness (log-rank P < 0.001) stratified by the number of vascular risk factors. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities as potential confounders, vascular risk factor burden remained associated with an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with increasing vascular risk factor burden have an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and this population might benefit from specific COVID-19 prevention (e.g., self-isolation) and early hospital treatment measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis
13.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 413-417, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737930

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and outcomes of patients who had re-activation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge remain poorly understood. We included 126 consecutively confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 2-month follow-up data after discharge in this retrospective study. The upper respiratory specimen using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test of three patients (71 years [60-76]) were positive within 11-20 days after their discharge, with an event rate of 19.8 (95%CI 2.60-42.1) per 1,000,000 patient-days. Moreover, all re-positive patients were asymptomatic. Our findings suggest that few recovered patients may still be virus carriers even after reaching the discharge criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 99, 2020 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, an outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) initially emerged in Wuhan, China, and has spread worldwide now. Clinical features of patients with COVID-19 have been described. However, risk factors leading to in-hospital deterioration and poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients with severe disease have not been well identified. METHODS: In this retrospective, single-center cohort study, 1190 adult inpatients (≥ 18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and determined outcomes (discharged or died) were included from Wuhan Infectious Disease Hospital from December 29, 2019 to February 28, 2020. The final follow-up date was March 2, 2020. Clinical data including characteristics, laboratory and imaging information as well as treatments were extracted from electronic medical records and compared. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to explore the potential predictors associated with in-hospital deterioration and death. RESULTS: 1190 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Their median age was 57 years (interquartile range 47-67 years). Two hundred and sixty-one patients (22%) developed a severe illness after admission. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that higher SOFA score (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22-1.43, per score increase, p < 0.001 for deterioration and OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53, per score increase, p = 0.001 for death), lymphocytopenia (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.13-2.89 p = 0.013 for deterioration; OR 4.44, 95% CI 1.26-15.87, p = 0.021 for death) on admission were independent risk factors for in-hospital deterioration from not severe to severe disease and for death in severe patients. On admission D-dimer greater than 1 µg/L (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.19-9.04, p = 0.021), leukocytopenia (OR 5.10, 95% CI 1.25-20.78), thrombocytopenia (OR 8.37, 95% CI 2.04-34.44) and history of diabetes (OR 11.16, 95% CI 1.87-66.57, p = 0.008) were also associated with higher risks of in-hospital death in severe COVID-19 patients. Shorter time interval from illness onset to non-invasive mechanical ventilation in the survivors with severe disease was observed compared with non-survivors (10.5 days, IQR 9.25-11.0 vs. 16.0 days, IQR 11.0-19.0 days, p = 0.030). Treatment with glucocorticoids increased the risk of progression from not severe to severe disease (OR 3.79, 95% CI 2.39-6.01, p < 0.001). Administration of antiviral drugs especially oseltamivir or ganciclovir is associated with a decreased risk of death in severe patients (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05-0.64, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: High SOFA score and lymphocytopenia on admission could predict that not severe patients would develop severe disease in-hospital. On admission elevated D-dimer, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and diabetes were independent risk factors of in-hospital death in severe patients with COVID-19. Administration of oseltamivir or ganciclovir might be beneficial for reducing mortality in severe patients.

15.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e924171, 2020 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Throughout China, during the recent epidemic in Hubei province, frontline medical staff have been responsible for tracing contacts of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). This study aimed to investigate the psychological impact and coping strategies of frontline medical staff in Hunan province, adjacent to Hubei province, during the COVID­19 outbreak between January and March 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study included doctors, nurses, and other hospital staff throughout Hunan province between January and March 2020. The study questionnaire included five sections and 67 questions (scores, 0-3). The chi-squared χ² test was used to compare the responses between professional groups, age-groups, and gender. RESULTS Study questionnaires were completed by 534 frontline medical staff. The responses showed that they believed they had a social and professional obligation to continue working long hours. Medical staff were anxious regarding their safety and the safety of their families and reported psychological effects from reports of mortality from COVID­19 infection. The availability of strict infection control guidelines, specialized equipment, recognition of their efforts by hospital management and the government, and reduction in reported cases of COVID­19 provided psychological benefit. CONCLUSIONS The COVID­19 outbreak in Hubei resulted in increased stress for medical staff in adjacent Hunan province. Continued acknowledgment of the medical staff by hospital management and the government, provision of infection control guidelines, specialized equipment and facilities for the management of COVID­19 infection should be recognized as factors that may encourage medical staff to work during future epidemics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Personnel, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motivation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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