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2.
Antiviral Res ; 215: 105636, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323688

ABSTRACT

Although the clinical manifestation of COVID-19 is mainly respiratory symptoms, approximately 20% of patients suffer from cardiac complications. COVID-19 patients with cardiovascular disease have higher severity of myocardial injury and poor outcomes. The underlying mechanism of myocardial injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. Using a non-transgenic mouse model infected with Beta variant (B.1.351), we found that the viral RNA could be detected in lungs and hearts of infected mice. Pathological analysis showed thinner ventricular wall, disorganized and ruptured myocardial fiber, mild inflammatory infiltration, and mild epicardia or interstitial fibrosis in hearts of infected mice. We also found that SARS-CoV-2 could infect cardiomyocytes and produce infectious progeny viruses in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte-like cells (hPSC-CMs). SARS-CoV-2 infection caused apoptosis, reduction of mitochondrial integrity and quantity, and cessation of beating in hPSC-CMs. In order to dissect the mechanism of myocardial injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, we employed transcriptome sequencing of hPSC-CMs at different time points after viral infection. Transcriptome analysis showed robust induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, up-regulation of MHC class I molecules, activation of apoptosis signaling and cell cycle arresting. These may cause aggravate inflammation, immune cell infiltration, and cell death. Furthermore, we found that Captopril (hypotensive drugs targeting ACE) treatment could alleviate SARS-CoV-2 induced inflammatory response and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via inactivating TNF signaling pathways, suggesting Captopril may be beneficial for reducing COVID-19 associated cardiomyopathy. These findings preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of pathological cardiac injury caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, providing new perspectives for the discovery of antiviral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , Captopril/pharmacology , Captopril/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Apoptosis
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7263, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320843

ABSTRACT

The immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is poor in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). The factors related to poor immunogenicity to vaccination in KTRs are not well defined. Here, observational study demonstrated no severe adverse effects were observed in KTRs and healthy participants (HPs) after first or second dose of SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine. Different from HPs with excellent immunity against SARS-CoV-2, IgG antibodies against S1 subunit of spike protein, receptor-binding domain, and nucleocapsid protein were not effectively induced in a majority of KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. Specific T cell immunity response was detectable in 40% KTRs after the second dose of inactivated vaccine. KTRs who developed specific T cell immunity were more likely to be female, and have lower levels of total bilirubin, unconjugated bilirubin, and blood tacrolimus concentrations. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that blood unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration were significantly negatively associated with SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response in KTRs. Altogether, these data suggest compared to humoral immunity, SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity response are more likely to be induced in KTRs after administration of inactivated vaccine. Reduction of unconjugated bilirubin and tacrolimus concentration might benefit specific cellular immunity response in KTRs following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Female , Humans , Male , Tacrolimus , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunity, Cellular , Bilirubin , Immunity, Humoral , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2300673, 2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320621

ABSTRACT

The viral spike (S) protein on the surface of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors on the host cells, facilitating its entry and infection. Here, functionalized nanofibers targeting the S protein with peptide sequences of IRQFFKK, WVHFYHK and NSGGSVH, which are screened from a high-throughput one-bead one-compound screening strategy, are designed and prepared. The flexible nanofibers support multiple binding sites and efficiently entangle SARS-CoV-2, forming a nanofibrous network that blocks the interaction between the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 and the ACE2 on host cells, and efficiently reduce the invasiveness of SARS-CoV-2. In summary, nanofibers entangling represents a smart nanomedicine for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 167, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305501

ABSTRACT

The highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants severely attenuated the effectiveness of currently licensed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on ancestral strains administered via intramuscular injection. In this study, we generated a recombinant, replication-incompetent human adenovirus type 5, Ad5-S-Omicron, that expresses Omicron BA.1 spike. Intranasal, but not intramuscular vaccination, elicited spike-specific respiratory mucosal IgA and residential T cell immune responses, in addition to systemic neutralizing antibodies and T cell immune responses against most Omicron subvariants. We tested intranasal Ad5-S-Omicron as a heterologous booster in mice that previously received intramuscular injection of inactivated ancestral vaccine. In addition to inducing serum broadly neutralizing antibodies, there was a significant induction of respiratory mucosal IgA and neutralizing activities against Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.2, BA.5, BA.2.75, BF.7 as well as pre-Omicron strains Wildtype, Beta, and Delta. Serum and mucosal neutralizing activities against recently emerged XBB, BQ.1, and BQ.1.1 could also be detected but were much lower. Nasal lavage fluids from intranasal vaccination contained multimeric IgA that can bind to at least 10 spike proteins, including Omicron subvariants and pre-Omicron strains, and possessed broadly neutralizing activities. Intranasal vaccination using Ad5-S-Omicron or instillation of intranasal vaccinee's nasal lavage fluids in mouse nostrils protected mice against Omicron challenge. Taken together, intranasal Ad5-S-Omicron booster on the basis of ancestral vaccines can establish effective mucosal and systemic immunity against Omicron subvariants and multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. This candidate vaccine warrants further development as a safe, effective, and user-friendly infection and transmission-blocking vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin A
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-51, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268776

ABSTRACT

Prolonged infection and possible evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in patients living with uncontrolled HIV-1 infection highlight the importance of an effective vaccination regimen, yet the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines and predictive immune biomarkers have not been well investigated. Herein, we report that the magnitude and persistence of antibody and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) elicited by an Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine are impaired in SIV-infected macaques with high viral loads (> 105 genome copies per ml plasma, SIVhi) but not in macaques with low viral loads (< 105, SIVlow). After a second vaccination, the immune responses are robustly enhanced in all uninfected and SIVlow macaques. These responses also show a moderate increase in 70% SIVhi macaques but decline sharply soon after. Further analysis reveals that decreased antibody and CMI responses are associated with reduced circulating follicular helper T cell (TFH) counts and aberrant CD4/CD8 ratios, respectively, indicating that dysregulation of CD4+ T cells by SIV infection impairs the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity. Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccine shows no impact on SIV loads or SIV-specific CMI responses. Our study underscores the necessity of frequent booster vaccinations in HIV-infected patients and provides indicative biomarkers for predicting vaccination effectiveness in these patients.

7.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; : e1714, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257292

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial and ethnic minority groups experience a disproportionate burden of SARS-CoV-2 illness and studies suggest that cancer patients are at a particular risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. AIMS: The objective of this study was examine the association between neighborhood characteristics and SARS-CoV-2 infection among patients with cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional study of New York City residents receiving treatment for cancer at a tertiary cancer center. Patients were linked by their address to data from the US Census Bureau's American Community Survey and to real estate tax data from New York's Department of City Planning. Models were used to both to estimate odds ratios (ORs) per unit increase and to predict probabilities (and 95% CI) of SARS-CoV2 infection. We identified 2350 New York City residents with cancer receiving treatment. Overall, 214 (9.1%) were infected with SARS-CoV-2. In adjusted models, the percentage of Hispanic/Latino population (aOR = 1.01; 95% CI, 1.005-1.02), unemployment rate (aOR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.05-1.16), poverty rates (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.0002-1.03), rate of >1 person per room (aOR = 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), average household size (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.59) and population density (aOR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.27-2.72) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSION: Among cancer patients in New York City receiving anti-cancer therapy, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with neighborhood- and building-level markers of larger household membership, household crowding, and low socioeconomic status. NOVELTY AND IMPACT: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of residents of New York City receiving treatment for cancer in which we linked subjects to census and real estate date. This linkage is a novel way to examine the neighborhood characteristics that influence SARS-COV-2 infection. We found that among patients receiving anti-cancer therapy, SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with building and neighborhood-level markers of household crowding, larger household membership, and low socioeconomic status. With ongoing surges of SARS-CoV-2 infections, these data may help in the development of interventions to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 among cancer patients.

8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1058, 2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288034

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants feature highly mutated spike proteins with extraordinary abilities in evading antibodies isolated earlier in the pandemic. Investigation of memory B cells from patients primarily with breakthrough infections with the Delta variant enables isolation of a number of neutralizing antibodies cross-reactive to heterologous variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron variants (BA.1-BA.4). Structural studies identify altered complementarity determining region (CDR) amino acids and highly unusual heavy chain CDR2 insertions respectively in two representative cross-neutralizing antibodies-YB9-258 and YB13-292. These features are putatively introduced by somatic hypermutation and they are heavily involved in epitope recognition to broaden neutralization breadth. Previously, insertions/deletions were rarely reported for antiviral antibodies except for those induced by HIV-1 chronic infections. These data provide molecular mechanisms for cross-neutralization of heterologous SARS-CoV-2 variants by antibodies isolated from Delta variant infected patients with implications for future vaccination strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
J Diabetes Sci Technol ; : 19322968221103610, 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stay-at-home orders associated with the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic were particularly important for older adults with type 2 diabetes, at risk for severe COVID-19 complications. In response, research shifted to remote telehealth methodology. Study participant interests, equipment needs, and ability to adapt methods to the remote/telehealth environment were unknown. Study purposes to assess (1) resource needs (internet/devices accessibility), (2) future telehealth interests, and (3) ability to adapt common research and clinical measures of glycemic control, physical function, activity measures, and quality of life outcomes to a telehealth setting. METHOD: Twenty-one participants with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy were recruited from a longitudinal study (11 female; age: 66.3 ± 8.3 years; DM: 15.1 ± 8.7 years). Technology needs and future telehealth interests were assessed. A glycemic measure (HbA1c), a five-times chair rise, a one-week activity monitor, and surveys (self-efficacy, depression, and balance) were collected. All aspects of the study were completed remotely over email and video/phone call. RESULTS: Twelve participants used computers; nine used phones for study completion. Participants had the following resource needs: connectivity (n = 3), devices (n = 6), and technical support (n = 12). Twenty people expressed interest in participating in future telehealth studies related to balance, exercise, and diabetes management. Methodological considerations were primarily the need for assistance for participants to complete the home HbA1c test, five-time chair rise, wearable activity monitoring, and surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with type 2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy would need technological and personal assistance (connection, device, guidance) to complete a long-term telehealth intervention. Despite technology needs, participants were interested in telehealth interventions. CLINICAL TRIAL: Parent study, "Metatarsal Phalangeal Joint Deformity Progression-R01 (NCT02616263) is registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/.

10.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237577

ABSTRACT

Genetic analyses showed nearly 30 amino acid mutations occurred in the spike protein of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. However, how these mutations occurred and changed during the generation and development of Omicron remains unclear. In this study, 6.7 million (all publicly available data from 2020/04/01 to 2022/04/01) SARS-CoV-2 genomes were analyzed to track the origin and evolution of Omicron variants and to reveal the genetic pathways of the generation of core mutations in Omicron. The haplotype network visualized the pre-Omicron, intact-Omicron, and post-Omicron variants and revealed their evolutionary direction. The correlation analysis showed the correlation feature of the core mutations in Omicron. Moreover, we found some core mutations, such as 142D, 417N, 440K, and 764K, reversed to ancestral residues (142G, 417K, 440N, and 764N) in the post-Omicron variant, suggesting the reverse mutations provided sources for the emergence of new variants. In summary, our analysis probed the origin and further evolution of Omicron sub-variants, which may add to our understanding of new variants and facilitate the control of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Amino Acids , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular
11.
J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28568, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229129

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 disease, has resulted in the death of millions worldwide since the beginning of the pandemic in December 2019. While much progress has been made to understand acute manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, less is known about post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC). We investigated the levels of both Spike protein (Spike) and viral RNA circulating in patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and in patients with and without PASC. We found that Spike and viral RNA were more likely to be present in patients with PASC. Among these patients, 30% were positive for both Spike and viral RNA; whereas, none of the individuals without PASC were positive for both. The levels of Spike and/or viral RNA in the PASC+ve patients were found to be increased or remained the same as in the acute phase; whereas, in the PASC-ve group, these viral components decreased or were totally absent. Additionally, this is the first report to show that part of the circulating Spike is linked to extracellular vesicles without any presence of viral RNA in these vesicles. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Spike and/or viral RNA fragments persist in the recovered COVID-19 patients with PASC up to 1 year or longer after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Disease Progression , RNA, Viral
12.
Foods ; 12(2)2023 Jan 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215751

ABSTRACT

In recent years, research on the interaction between flavonoids and intestinal microbes have prompted a rash of food science, nutriology and biomedicine, complying with future research trends. The gut microbiota plays an essential role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and human health, but once the intestinal flora dysregulation occurs, it may contribute to various diseases. Flavonoids have shown a variety of physiological activities, and are metabolized or biotransformed by gut microbiota, thereby producing new metabolites that promote human health by modulating the composition and structure of intestinal flora. Herein, this review demonstrates the key notion of flavonoids as well as intestinal microbiota and dysbiosis, aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding about how flavonoids regulate the diseases by gut microbiota. Emphasis is placed on the microbiota-flavonoid bidirectional interaction that affects the metabolic fate of flavonoids and their metabolites, thereby influencing their metabolic mechanism, biotransformation, bioavailability and bioactivity. Potentially by focusing on the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota as well as their metabolites such as bile acids, we discuss the influence mechanism of flavonoids on intestinal microbiota by protecting the intestinal barrier function and immune system. Additionally, the microbiota-flavonoid bidirectional interaction plays a crucial role in regulating various diseases. We explain the underlying regulation mechanism of several typical diseases including gastrointestinal diseases, obesity, diabetes and cancer, aiming to provide a theoretical basis and guideline for the promotion of gastrointestinal health as well as the treatment of diseases.

13.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1076735, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199242

ABSTRACT

Daily driving is a multi-faceted, real-world, behavioral measure of cognitive functioning requiring multiple cognitive domains working synergistically to complete this instrumental activity of daily living. As the global population of older adult continues to grow, motor vehicle crashes become more frequent among this demographic. Cognitive reserve (CR) is the brain's adaptability or functional robustness despite damage, while brain reserve (BR) refers the structural, neuroanatomical resources. This study examined whether CR and BR predicted changes in adverse driving behaviors in cognitively normal older adults. Cognitively normal older adults (Clinical Dementia Rating 0) were enrolled from longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University. Participants (n = 186) were ≥65 years of age, required to have Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data, neuropsychological testing data, and at least one full year of naturalistic driving data prior to the beginning of COVID-19 lockdown in the United States (March 2020) as measured by Driving Real World In-vehicle Evaluation System (DRIVES). Findings suggest numerous changes in driving behaviors over time were predicted by increased hippocampal and whole brain atrophy, as well as lower CR scores as proxied by the Wide Range Achievement Test 4. These changes indicate that those with lower BR and CR are more likely to reduce their driving exposure and limit trips as they age and may be more likely to avoid highways where speeding and aggressive maneuvers frequently occur.

14.
J Virus Erad ; 8(4): 100308, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181183

ABSTRACT

Background: A community COVID-19 outbreak caused by the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant occurred in Taiwan in May 2021. High-risk populations such as people living with HIV (PLWH) were recommended to receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. While SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated promising results in general population, real-world information on the serological responses remains limited among PLWH. Methods: PLWH receiving the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from 2020 to 2021 were enrolled. Determinations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers were performed every one to three months, the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All serum samples were tested for anti-nucleocapsid antibody and those tested positive were excluded from analysis. Results: A total of 1189 PLWH were enrolled: 829 (69.7%) receiving two doses of the AZD1222 vaccine, 232 (19.5%) of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 128 (10.8%) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. At all time-points, PLWH receiving two doses of mRNA vaccines had consistently higher antibody levels than those receiving the AZD1222 vaccine (p <0.001 for all time-point comparisons). Factors associated with failure to achieve an anti-spike IgG titer >141 BAU/mL within 12 weeks, included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-4), a CD4 T cell count <200 cells/mm3 upon receipt of the first dose of vaccination (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.31-9) and two homologous AZD1222 vaccinations (aOR, 16.85; 95%CI, 10.13-28). For those receiving two doses of mRNA vaccines, factors associated with failure to achieve an anti-spike IgG titer >899 BAU/mL within 12 weeks were a CD4 T cell count <200 cells/mm3 on first-dose vaccination (aOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.08-14.42) and dual BNT162b2 vaccination (aOR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.57-6.89). Conclusions: Two doses of homologous mRNA vaccination achieved significantly higher serological responses than vaccination with AZD1222 among PLWH. Those with CD4 T cell counts <200 cells/mm3 and DM had consistently lower serological responses.

15.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 62: 152076, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2176203

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if peri-pregnancy timing of a PCR+ test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA affects pregnancy outcomes and placental pathology. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary center. Pregnancy outcomes and placental pathology were compiled for women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a nasopharyngeal swab assessed by RT-PCR. The population comprised four groups that were PCR+ preconception (T0) or in the 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), or 3rd (T3) trimester of pregnancy. A fifth, control group (TC) tested PCR- for SARS-CoV-2 before delivery. RESULTS: Seventy-one pregnancies were studied. The T0 group exhibited lower gestational ages at delivery, had infants with the lowest birth weights, the highest rate of pregnancy loss before 20 weeks. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion and accelerated villous maturation were prominent findings in the histopathology of placentas from women PCR+ for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, especially in the T0 and the T1 groups. CONCLUSION: Women at highest risk for pregnancy complications are those who test PCR+ for viral RNA preconception or during first trimester of pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Placenta , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1564, 2022 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-2019 pandemic in China aroused increasing interest in telemedicine-supported glycaemic control. We hypothesize that age might influence usage and efficacy of telemedicine-supported glycaemic control. This study aims to measure the effects of a doctor-nurse-patient Mobile Health Management System (MHMS) for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Four hundred sixty four patients with T2DM were recruited. A one-hour diabetes education provided to each patient and subsequent follow-ups arranged in the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th week after enrollment were recorded in MHMS. The effectiveness of MHMS was defined as the proportion of patients achieving FPG target (below 126 mg/dL or 7.0mml/L). RESULTS: Among the enrolled 464 patients (age: 55.0 ± 13.7 years) who were divided into three groups: young (18-40 years), middle-aged (41-65 years) and elderly (> 65 years), 424 ones completed all follow-ups of 12 weeks. FPG decreased from 178.38 ± 95.04 to 117.90 ± 14.22 mg/dL in the young group, from 180.00 ± 91.08 to 122.94 ± 37.95 mg/dL in the middle-aged group, and from 174.24 ± 80.64 to 128.88 ± 23.4 mg/dL in the elderly group. The proportion of FPG-target-achieved patients increased from 46.2 to 90.4% in the young group, from 32.6 to 82.8% in the middle-aged group, and from 29.5 to 73.3% in the elderly group. The proportion of FPG-target-achieved patients between three age groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). And the changes of proportion of FPG-target-achieved patients at different follow-up times were statistically significant (P = 0.037). Compared with the young group, the elderly group achieved poorer FPG level (P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: MHMS can help patients with T2DM lower FPG and improve proportion of FPG-target-achieved patients. Younger patients may achieve better glycaemic control than older patients. MHMS may serve multitudinous patients with T2DM to achieve adequate FPG self-management.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Blood Glucose , Prospective Studies , East Asian People , China , Fasting
17.
Annals of diagnostic pathology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147320

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate if peri-pregnancy timing of a PCR+ test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA affects pregnancy outcomes and placental pathology. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary center. Pregnancy outcomes and placental pathology were compiled for women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA from a nasopharyngeal swab assessed by RT-PCR. The population comprised four groups that were PCR+ preconception (T0) or in the 1st (T1), 2nd (T2), or 3rd (T3) trimester of pregnancy. A fifth, control group (TC) tested PCR- for SARS-CoV-2 before delivery. Results Seventy-one pregnancies were studied. The T0 group exhibited lower gestational ages at delivery, had infants with the lowest birth weights, the highest rate of pregnancy loss before 20 weeks. Features of maternal vascular malperfusion and accelerated villous maturation were prominent findings in the histopathology of placentas from women PCR+ for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, especially in the T0 and the T1 groups. Conclusion Women at highest risk for pregnancy complications are those who test PCR+ for viral RNA preconception or during first trimester of pregnancy.

18.
Entropy (Basel) ; 24(11)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109982

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a method to minimize the spread of negative influence on social networks by contact blocking. First, based on the infection-spreading process of COVID-19, the traditional susceptible, infectious, and recovered (SIR) propagation model is extended to the susceptible, non-symptomatic, infectious, and recovered (SNIR) model. Based on this model, we present a method to estimate the number of individuals infected by a virus at any given time. By calculating the reduction in the number of infected individuals after blocking contacts, the method selects the set of contacts to be blocked that can maximally reduce the affected range. The selection of contacts to be blocked is repeated until the number of isolated contacts that need to be blocked is reached or all infection sources are blocked. The experimental results on three real datasets and three synthetic datasets show that the algorithm obtains contact blockings that can achieve a larger reduction in the range of infection than other similar algorithms. This shows that the presented SNIR propagation model can more precisely reflect the diffusion and infection process of viruses in social networks, and can efficiently block virus infections.

19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 2749-2761, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087656

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge facing established herd immunity. L452R, previously featured in the Delta variant, quickly emerged in Omicron subvariants, including BA.4/BA.5, implying a continued selection pressure on this residue. The underlying links between spike mutations and their selective pressures remain incompletely understood. Here, by analyzing 221 structurally characterized antibodies, we found that IGHV1-69-encoded antibodies preferentially contact L452 using germline-encoded hydrophobic residues at the tip of HCDR2 loop. Whereas somatic hypermutations or VDJ rearrangements are required to acquire L452-contacting hydrophobic residues for non-IGHV1-69 encoded antibodies. Antibody repertoire analysis revealed that IGHV1-69 L452-contacting antibody lineages are commonly induced among COVID-19 convalescents but non-IGHV1-69 encoded antibodies exhibit limited prevalence. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated that L452R renders most published IGHV1-69 antibodies ineffective. Furthermore, we found that IGHV1-69 L452-contacting antibodies are enriched in convalescents experienced Omicron BA.1 (without L452R) breakthrough infections but rarely found in Delta (with L452R) breakthrough infections. Taken together, these findings support that IGHV1-69 population antibodies contribute to selection pressure for L452 substitution. This study thus provides a better understanding of SARS-CoV-2 variant genesis and immune evasion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17955, 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087312

ABSTRACT

Progress has been made in COVID-19 vaccine development, with encouraging safety and efficacy data. The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD). Patients with AIIRD (n = 101) were included in this study. All patients received 2 doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. Serum anti-S1/RBD protein IgG was detected 2-16 weeks after the second vaccination. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥ 1.00 bound antibody unit S/CO. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was assessed by seropositivity rate and the levels of serum IgG antibody against anti-S1/RBD protein, compared with the general population (n = 46). There was no difference by statistical significance in the seropositivity rate between patients with AIIRD (82.2%) and SLE (86.1%) and the control group (93.5%), p > 0.05. The level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies in patients with AIIRD (median [IQR], 8.8 [2.2-17.3]) and SLE (median [IQR], 9.6 [2.4-20.4]) was comparable to that in the control group (median [IQR], 7.2 [3.1-14.2]), p > 0.05. Patients treated with glucocorticoids(GCs) (median dose, [IQR]: 2.5 mg/day [IQR 2.5-5.0]) or hydroxychloroquine(HCQ) or GCs + HCQ without other immunomodulatory medications, had an appropriate immunogenic response(88.1%) with high levels of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG(median [IQR], 12.1 [6.5-20.4]). Neither of patients treated with rituximab had positive serum antibodies, which was statistically significant, compared with the control group (p < 0.01). Compared with the control group, methotrexate(MTX) and iguratimod(IGU) was significantly reduced the level of anti-S1/RBD protein IgG antibodies. Inactivated COVID-19 vaccine had appropriate immunogenicity in patients with AIIRD. Immunogenicity of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine was severely impaired by rituximab, and also suppressed by MTX and IGU, while low doses of GC and HCQ had negligible effect.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Rheumatic Diseases , Rheumatic Fever , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
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