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1.
Nat Cell Biol ; 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.

2.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296304

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the US incidence of thrombotic events and related rare diagnoses. Design Claims-based retrospective cohort study of incidence. Setting US commercial health insurance administrative claims database. Participants Adults 25-65 years of age between 2015 and 2019 with a minimum of 12 consecutive thrombosis-free months of continuous enrollment beginning 2014 were selected. Main Outcomes Age (10-year intervals) and sex stratum specific incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were determined for: venous thromboembolism (VTE), cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), and other major venous thrombotic events, and events of special interest, including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Results Of 13,249,229 enrollees (half female/male), incidence of venous thromboembolic events (DVT, PE, CVT, or other major venous thrombotic conditions) was 247.89 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI: 245.96, 249.84). Incidence of VTE was 213.79 with ICD codes alone (95% CI: 211.99, 215.59) and 127.18 (95% CI: 125.80, 128.58) when also requiring a filled anticoagulation prescription. Incidence was 6.37 for CVT (95% CI: 6.07, 6.69), 26.06 for ITP (95% CI: 25.44, 26.78), 0.94 for HUS (95% CI: 0.82, 1.06), and 4.82 for HIT (95% CI: 4.56, 5.10). The co-occurrence of CVT with either ITP or HIT (diagnoses within 14 days of one another) was 0.090 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.13). Incidence tended to increase with age and was higher for women under 55. Incidence for CVT, HUS, and CVT with ITP or HIT was higher for women in all age groups. Incidence of PE and CVT increased significantly over the five-year period, while DVT rates decreased. Conclusions These results are the first US estimates for incidence of thrombotic and rare events of interest in a large, commercially-insured US population. Findings provide a critically important reference for determining excess morbidity associated with COVID-19 and more generally for vaccine pharmacovigilance. BOX POINTS What is already known on this topic? Incidence of venous thromboembolic diagnoses vary by country and date. There have been improvements in the past decade in thromboprophylaxis (e.g., for deep vein thrombosis) and detection (e.g., for cerebral venous thrombosis), but there are no recent comprehensive estimates for the United States. What this study adds Our results document the US incidence of thrombotic and related rare diagnoses for the most recent five-year pre-pandemic period (2015-2019) in an insured population.

3.
Brief Bioinform ; 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550534

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), rapidly became a global health challenge, leading to unprecedented social and economic consequences. The mechanisms behind the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 are both unique and complex. Omics-scale studies are emerging rapidly and offer a tremendous potential to unravel the puzzle of SARS-CoV-2 pathobiology, as well as moving forward with diagnostics, potential drug targets, risk stratification, therapeutic responses, vaccine development and therapeutic innovation. This review summarizes various aspects of understanding multiomics integration-based molecular characterizations of COVID-19, which to date include the integration of transcriptomics, proteomics, genomics, lipidomics, immunomics and metabolomics to explore virus targets and developing suitable therapeutic solutions through systems biology tools. Furthermore, this review also covers an abridgment of omics investigations related to disease pathogenesis and virulence, the role of host genetic variation and a broad array of immune and inflammatory phenotypes contributing to understanding COVID-19 traits. Insights into this review, which combines existing strategies and multiomics integration profiling, may help further advance our knowledge of COVID-19.

4.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750466

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is undoubtedly the most impactful viral disease of the current century, afflicting millions worldwide. As yet, there is not an approved vaccine, as well as limited options from existing drugs for treating this disease. We hypothesized that combining drugs with independent mechanisms of action could result in synergy against SARS-CoV-2. Using in silico approaches, we prioritized 73 combinations of 32 drugs with potential activity against SARS-CoV-2 and then tested them in vitro . Overall, we identified 16 synergistic and 8 antagonistic combinations, 4 of which were both synergistic and antagonistic in a dose-dependent manner. Among the 16 synergistic cases, combinations of nitazoxanide with three other compounds (remdesivir, amodiaquine and umifenovir) were the most notable, all exhibiting significant synergy against SARS-CoV-2. The combination of nitazoxanide, an FDA-approved drug, and remdesivir, FDA emergency use authorization for the treatment of COVID-19, demonstrate a strong synergistic interaction. Notably, the combination of remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine demonstrated strong antagonism. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of both drug repurposing and preclinical testing of drug combinations for potential therapeutic use against SARS-CoV-2 infections.

6.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 730567, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505033

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD), a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, was designed and successfully applied for COVID-19 disease treatment in China, while the mechanism is still not clear. Methods: To evaluate the protective effect of XFBD on immunosuppression in cyclophosphamide (CY)-treated mice, XFBD was orally administrated, the body weight was measured, and the immune organ index was calculated. HE staining was performed to analyze the pathological structures of the liver, spleen, and thymus. The levels of cytokines and immunoglobulin in the serum and spleen were evaluated by ELISA and RT-PCR. Splenic lymphocytes were isolated, and LPS-stimulated cell proliferation and the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were evaluated. Results: XFBD significantly suppressed body weight loss and increased the indices of spleen and thymus. The pathological alteration was much improved after XFBD administration. The reductions of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgG, and IgM levels in serum and IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 expressions in the spleen were all significantly alleviated by XFBD. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation in response to LPS was further enhanced after treatment with XFBD. The reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in CY-treated mice was also highly increased in XFBD groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that XFBD played a crucial role in protection against immunosuppression in CY-treated mice and could be a potential candidate for immune modification and therapy.

7.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(5): E906-E908, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502125

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory disease that threatens global health. During the pandemic period of COVID-19, the task for prevention in the general ward of cardiovascular surgery is fairly arduous. The present study intends to summarize our experience with infection control, including ward setting, admission procedures, personnel management, health education, and so on, to provide references for clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/standards , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Guidelines as Topic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patients' Rooms/standards , Tertiary Care Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/surgery , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2131012, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482078

ABSTRACT

Importance: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and associated mitigation measures have disrupted access to psychiatric medications, particularly for women. Objective: To assess the sex differences in trends in the prescribing of benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics and serotonergic (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] and serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]), which are commonly prescribed for anxiety, insomnia, and depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from Clinformatics Data Mart, one of the largest commercial health insurance databases in the US. Enrollees 18 years or older were required to have complete enrollment in a given month during our study period, January 1, 2018, to March 31, 2021, to be included for that month. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prescription of a benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI. For each month, the percentage of patients with benzodiazepine, Z-hypnotic, or SSRI or SNRI prescriptions by sex was calculated. Results: The records of 17 255 033 adults (mean [SD] age, 51.7 [19.5] years; 51.3% female) were examined in 2018, 17 340 731 adults (mean [SD] age, 52.5 [19.7] years; 51.6% female) in 2019, 16 916 910 adults (mean [SD] age, 53.7 [19.8] years; 51.9% female) in 2020, and 15 135 998 adults (mean [SD] age, 56.2 [19.8] years; 52.5% female) in 2021. Compared with men, women had a higher rate of prescriptions for all 3 drugs classes and had larger changes in prescription rates over time. Benzodiazepine prescribing decreased from January 2018 (women: 5.61%; 95% CI, 5.60%-5.63%; men: 3.03%; 95% CI, 3.02%-3.04%) to March 2021 (women: 4.91%; 95% CI, 4.90%-4.93%; men: 2.66%; 95% CI, 2.65%-2.67%), except for a slight increase in April 2020 among women. Z-hypnotic prescribing increased from January 2020 for women (1.39%; 95% CI, 1.38%-1.40%) and February 2020 for men (0.97%; 95% CI, 0.96%-0.98%) to October 2020 (women: 1.46%; 95% CI, 1.46%-1.47%; men: 1.00%; 95% CI, 0.99%-1.01%). Prescribing of SSRIs and SNRIs increased from January 2018 (women: 12.77%; 95% CI; 12.75%-12.80%; men: 5.56%; 95% CI, 5.44%-5.58%) to April 2020 for men (6.73%; 95% CI, 6.71%-6.75%) and October 2020 for women (15.18%; 95% CI, 15.16%-15.21%). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, coinciding with the COVID-19 pandemic onset was an increase in Z-hypnotic as well as SSRI and SNRI prescriptions in both men and women along with an increase in benzodiazepine prescriptions in women, findings that suggest a substantial mental health impact of COVID-19-associated mitigation measures.


Subject(s)
Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/psychology , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution
9.
Theriogenology ; 177: 1-10, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458733

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) could function as a lysosomotropic agent to inhibit the endolysosomal trafficking in the autophagy pathway, and is widely used on malarial, tumor and recently COVID-19. However, the effect of CQ treatment on porcine immature Sertoli cells (iSCs) remains unclear. Here we showed that CQ could reduce iSC viability in a dose-dependent manner. CQ treatment (20 µM) on iSCs for 36h could elevate oxidative stress, damage mitochondrial function and promote apoptosis, which could be partially rescued by melatonin (MT) (10 nM). Transcriptome profiling identified 1611 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (776 up- and 835 down-regulated) (20 µM CQ vs. DMSO), mainly involved in MAPK cascade, cell proliferation/apoptosis, HIF-1, PI3K-Akt and lysosome signaling pathways. In contrast, only 467 (224 up- and 243 down-regulated) DEGs (CQ + MT vs. DMSO) could be found after MT (10 nM) addition, enriched in cell cycle, regulation of apoptotic process, lysosome and reproduction pathways. Therefore, the partial rescue effects of MT on CQ treatment were confirmed by multiple assays (cell viability, ROS level, mitochondrial function, apoptosis, and mRNA levels of selected genes). Collectively, CQ treatment could impair porcine iSC viability by deranging the signaling pathways related to apoptosis and autophagy, which could be partially rescued by MT supplementation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Swine Diseases , Animals , Apoptosis , Autophagy , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/veterinary , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Male , Melatonin/pharmacology , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertoli Cells , Swine
10.
Financ Res Lett ; : 102481, 2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450110

ABSTRACT

Although the nation was experiencing an economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, we nonetheless observed an increase in household equity share value relative to both domestic market capitalization and retail investors' trading volume. In this paper, we aim to interpret the reasons underlying this seemingly unexpected phenomenon. We investigate portfolio choices with stocks, bonds, and life annuities under an inverse S-shaped probability distortion function. The results indicate that people invest more heavily in risky assets and buy more annuities when reducing their savings in risk-free accounts, which is indeed consistent with the reality.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430879

ABSTRACT

Taiwan was successful in containing the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in 2020. One major factor in this success was the compilation and provision of comprehensive information about the pandemic. The present study proposes a pandemic intelligence system that provides data on the number of epidemic prevention professionals in each county and city, as well as daily confirmed cases, the demographics of the confirmed cases, and available resources (negative-pressure room beds and artificial ventilation apparatuses) in hospitals. Furthermore, the system provides the location of pharmacies selling masks and their current inventories, as well as the distribution of crowds at popular tourist destinations and social-distance monitoring. The most frequently used map layer in the thematic map of the pandemic is that of crowd distribution during the study period from March 2020 until the end of the same year. The case study used in this investigation for applying the system is represented by the 4-day weekend for Tomb-Sweeping Day of 2020. Through the real-time analysis of dynamic data and the integration of intelligence, the system offers a clear insight into changes in relevant information and, thus, enables the preemptive deployment of control measures by the county/city governments regarding pandemic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Intelligence , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
12.
BMC Nurs ; 20(1): 167, 2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health emergencies are serious social problems, threatening people's lives, causing considerable economic losses, and related to all mankind life and health and safety. Nurses are essential in the fight against the public health emergency, corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). clinic nursing students are considered as backup health care providers for licensed nurses, the coping abilities and crisis management of nursing students at present deserve attention all around the world. METHODS: 2035 clinic nursing students were invited to participate in mobile phone app-based survey from Feb 6 to 20, 2020. The demographic items, psychological and behavioral responses, and the coping abilities were conducted. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the independent factors to clinic nursing students' coping abilities under COVID-19. RESULTS: 1992 submitted were valid. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Confidence to overcome difficulties, Optimism, Active coping, Help seeking and Practice hospital as designated treatment unit were independently associated with the positive coping of clinic nursing students. Fear of COVID-19, Optimism, Avoidance, Help seeking and Severity of epidemic around were independently associated with the negative coping of clinic nursing students. CONCLUSION: Under COVID-19, nursing students' coping level is superior to the Chinese norm, which is also affected by many factors. As the most direct backup resources of professional nurses, the way clinic nursing students respond to public health emergencies and its influencing factors deserve attention.

13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 652842, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389255

ABSTRACT

Background: The viral shedding time (VST) of SARS-CoV-2 mainly determines its transmission and duration of infectiousness. However, it was heterogeneous in the existing studies. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively summarize the VST of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, MedRxiv, BioRxiv, CNKI, CSTJ, and Wanfang up to October 25, 2020, for studies that reported VSTs of SARS-CoV-2. Pooled estimates and 95% CIs for the VSTs were calculated using log-transformed data. The VSTs in SARS-CoV-2 infections based on different demographic and clinical characteristics, treatments and specimens were stratified by subgroup analysis. Results: A total of 35 studies involving 3,385 participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled mean VST was 16.8 days (95% CI: 14.8-19.4, I 2 = 99.56%) in SARS-CoV-2 infections. The VST was significantly longer in symptomatic infections (19.7 days, 95% CI: 17.2-22.7, I 2 = 99.34%) than in asymptomatic infections (10.9 days, 95% CI: 8.3-14.3, I 2 = 98.89%) (P < 0.05). The VST was 23.2 days (95% CI: 19.0-28.4, I 2 = 99.24%) in adults, which was significantly longer than that in children (9.9 days, 95% CI: 8.1-12.2, I 2 = 85.74%) (P < 0.05). The VST was significantly longer in persons with chronic diseases (24.2 days, 95% CI: 19.2-30.2, I 2 = 84.07%) than in those without chronic diseases (11.5 days, 95% CI: 5.3-25.0, I 2 = 82.11%) (P < 0.05). Persons receiving corticosteroid treatment (28.3 days, 95% CI: 25.6-31.2, I 2 = 0.00%) had a longer VST than those without corticosteroid treatment (16.2 days, 95% CI: 11.5-22.5, I 2 = 92.27%) (P = 0.06). The VST was significantly longer in stool specimens (30.3 days, 95% CI: 23.1-39.2, I 2 = 92.09%) than in respiratory tract specimens (17.5 days, 95% CI: 14.9-20.6, I 2 = 99.67%) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: A longer VST was found in symptomatic infections, infected adults, persons with chronic diseases, and stool specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections , Child , Comorbidity , Feces/virology , Humans
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 637747, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346406

ABSTRACT

Background: Different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) strategies are available for subjects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to evaluate three conventional PEEP strategies on their effects on respiratory mechanics, gas exchanges, and hemodynamics. Methods: This is a prospective, physiologic, multicenter study conducted in China. We recruited 20 intubated subjects with ARDS and confirmed COVID-19. We first set PEEP by the ARDSnet low PEEP-fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) table. After a recruitment maneuver, PEEP was set at 15, 10, and 5 cm H2O for 10 min, respectively. Among these three PEEP levels, best-compliance PEEP was the one providing the highest respiratory system compliance; best-oxygenation PEEP was the one providing the highest PaO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen)/FIO2. Results: At each PEEP level, we assessed respiratory mechanics, arterial blood gas, and hemodynamics. Among three PEEP levels, plateau pressure, driving pressure, mechanical power, and blood pressure improved with lower PEEP. The ARDSnet low PEEP-FIO2 table and the best-oxygenation strategies provided higher PEEP than the best-compliance strategy (11 ± 6 cm H2O vs. 11 ± 3 cm H2O vs. 6 ± 2 cm H2O, p = 0.001), leading to higher plateau pressure, driving pressure, and mechanical power. The three PEEP strategies were not significantly different in gas exchange. The subgroup analysis showed that three PEEP strategies generated different effects in subjects with moderate or severe ARDS (n = 12) but not in subjects with mild ARDS (n = 8). Conclusions: In our cohort with COVID-19-induced ARDS, the ARDSnet low PEEP/FIO2 table and the best-oxygenation strategies led to higher PEEP and potentially higher risk of ventilator-induced lung injury than the best-compliance strategy. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04359251.

15.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 289, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333903

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women are generally more susceptible to viral infection. Although the impact of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy remains to be determined, evidence indicates that the risk factors for severe COVID-19 are similar in pregnancy to the general population. Here we systemically analyzed the clinical characteristics of pregnant and non-pregnant female COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized during the same period and found that pregnant patients developed marked lymphopenia and higher inflammation evident by higher C-reactive protein and IL-6. To elucidate the pathways that might contribute to immunopathology or protective immunity against COVID-19 during pregnancy, we applied single-cell mRNA sequencing to profile peripheral blood mononuclear cells from four pregnant and six non-pregnant female patients after recovery along with four pregnant and three non-pregnant healthy donors. We found normal clonal expansion of T cells in the pregnant patients, heightened activation and chemotaxis in NK, NKT, and MAIT cells, and differential interferon responses in the monocyte compartment. Our data present a unique feature in both innate and adaptive immune responses in pregnant patients recovered from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Female , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis
16.
European Journal of Soil Biology ; 105:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1300754

ABSTRACT

The combined application of organic materials and chemical fertilizers is an effective approach for improving crop productivity and soil quality. Purple soil is characterized by low N, P, and organic C contents that influence crop productivity. However, the optimal organic materials that can be used to improve purple soil quality and crop yields remain to be clarified. Here, we conducted a 13-year field experiment (from 2007 to 2019) in Sichuan Province, China, intending to assess the long-term influence of various combinations of organic materials and chemical fertilizers on soil enzymatic activities, microbial communities, and crop yields. Treatments included chemical fertilizer alone (NPK), NPK plus returned straw (NPKS), NPK plus pig manure (NPKM), NPK plus fungal residue (NPKF), and NPK plus green manure (Vicia villosa Rothvar.) (NPKG). Results showed that NPKM and NPKF treatments significantly increased the average yields of maize (7.9 and 6.4%, respectively) and wheat (15.7 and 12.9%, respectively) relative to NPK treatment. The highest sustainable yield index value of maize and wheat was observed in NPKF treatment. The long-term application of fungal residue (NPKF) significantly increased soil organic C and available P contents, relative to NPK、NPKS and NPKG treatments, and soil organic C content increased from 6.95 to 9.12 ± 1.06 g kg−1 and available P content from 6.87 to 12.26 ± 2.23 mg kg−1. Relative to NPK treatment, NPKF treatment significantly enhanced soil microbial biomasses (C, N, and P) and soil C-, N- and P-cycling enzyme activities but significantly decreased soil pH. The soil enzyme index following NPKF treatment was significantly higher relative to other treatments and was 208.6% higher than NPK treatment. Additionally, relative to NPK treatment, NPKF treatment altered soil microbial community structure, and significantly increased the rate of G+/G− and cy19/18:1ω7c. Soil microbial biomasses N, Nitrate N, and available P were the main factors regulating the change of microbial community in purple soil. We, therefore, conclude that NPKF treatment is an effective fertilization strategy for improving purple soil quality and crop yields. • NPKM and NPKF treatments significantly increased average yields of wheat and maize. • NPKF treatment significantly increased soil organic C and available P contents. • NPKF treatment significantly enhanced soil C-, N- and P-cycling enzyme activities and microbial biomasses. • NPKF treatment altered soil microbial community, and significantly increased the rate of G+/G− and cy19/18:1ω7c. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of European Journal of Soil Biology is the property of Elsevier B.V. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

17.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15604, 2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271055

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with various cardiovascular manifestations, including myocarditis, myocardial infarction, and arrhythmias. A prothrombotic state is the primary underlying pathogenic mechanism. While cardiac arrhythmias manifest more commonly amongst critically ill COVID-19 populations, ventricular arrhythmias have been reported only in few cases. This report describes a case of a 95-year-old African American man with COVID-19, who developed sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which progressed to an electrical storm. The case highlights the importance of high clinical suspicion, early recognition of electrical abnormalities in patients with active COVID-19 infection, and its ability to precipitate fatal ventricular arrhythmia. Also, we provide a literature review on the electrical storm in COVID-19 patients, highlighting the pathophysiologic mechanisms and the management of this deadly arrhythmia.

18.
J Integr Med ; 19(5): 460-466, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260803

ABSTRACT

There is currently no drug or therapy that can cure the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is highly contagious and can be life-threatening in severe cases. Therefore, seeking potential effective therapies is an urgent task. An older female at the Leishenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, with a severe case of COVID-19 with significant shortness of breath and decrease in peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), was treated using manual acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine granule formula Fuzheng Rescue Lung with Xuebijing Injection in addition to standard care. The patient's breath rate, SpO2, heart rate, ratio of neutrophil/lymphocyte (NLR), ratio of monocyte/lymphocyte (MLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and chest computed tomography were monitored. Acupuncture significantly improved the patient's breathing function, increased SpO2, and decreased her heart rate. Chinese herbal medicine might make the effect of acupuncture more stable; the use of herbal medicine also seemed to accelerate the absorption of lung infection lesions when its dosage was increased. The combination of acupuncture and herbs decreased NLR from 14.14 to 5.83, MLR from 1.15 to 0.33 and CRP from 15.25 to 6.01 mg/L. These results indicate that acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine, as adjuvants to standard care, might achieve better results in treating severe cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Treatment Outcome
19.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(5): 603-604, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247528
20.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(10): 13393-13404, 2021 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the dynamic changes of coagulation parameters and evaluate the relationship between longitudinal coagulation parameters abnormalities and prognosis of COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1131 COVID-19 patients. Longitudinal coagulation parameters and clinical outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Abnormal coagulation parameters were observed in patients with COVID-19, both at hospital admission (INR 2.3%, PT 7.9%, APTT 15.4%, TT 0.9%, FDP 2.3%, D-dimer 19.7%) and peak hospitalization (INR 4.8%, PT 13.4%, APTT 25.6%, TT 2.7%, FDP 10.4%, D-dimer 31.5%). Compared with non-severe patients with COVID-19, severe patients had a slightly higher INR, PT, APTT, whereas remarkably higher FDP and D-dimer (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, age > 60 years, male, obesity, comorbidity, abnormal D-dimer on hospital admission, and abnormal peak hospitalization PT, APTT, FDP and D-dimer were associated with COVID-19 severity. The extreme coagulation parameters abnormalities (PT > 16s, FDP > 50 ug/ml, and D-dimer > 5 ug/ml) were associated with a significantly higher mortality. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal coagulation parameters abnormalities are common in patients with COVID-19, and associated with disease severity and mortality. Monitoring coagulation parameters is advisable to improve the management of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/etiology
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