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2.
Virol J ; 20(1): 106, 2023 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenicity and virulence of the Omicron strain have weakened significantly pathogenesis of Omicron variants. Accumulating data indicated accessory proteins play crucial roles in host immune evasion and virus pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, the impact of simultaneous deletion of accessory protein ORF7a, ORF7b and ORF8 on the clinical characteristics and specific immunity in Omicron breakthrough infected patients (BIPs) need to be verified. METHODS: Herein, plasma cytokines were identified using a commercial Multi-cytokine detection kit. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and pseudovirus neutralization assays were utilized to determine the titers of SARS-CoV-2 specific binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. In addition, an enzyme-linked immunospot assay was used to quantify SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells and memory B cells. RESULTS: A local COVID-19 outbreak was caused by the Omicron BA.2 variant, which featured a deletion of 871 base pairs (∆871 BA.2), resulting in the removal of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8. We found that hospitalized patients with ∆871 BA.2 had significantly shorter hospital stays than those with wild-type (WT) BA.2. Plasma cytokine levels in both ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 patients were within the normal range of reference, and there was no notable difference in the titers of SARS-CoV-2 ancestor or Omicron-specific binding IgG antibodies, neutralizing antibody titers, effector T cells, and memory B cells frequencies between ∆871 BA.2 and WT BA.2 infected adult patients. However, antibody titers in ∆871 BA.2 infected adolescents were higher than in adults. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous deletion of ORF7a, ORF7b, and ORF8 facilitates the rapid clearance of the BA.2 variant, without impacting cytokine levels or affecting SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity in Omicron-infected individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay
3.
researchsquare; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3078284.v1

ABSTRACT

Background  Kidney transplant (KT) recipients, who are chronically immunocompromised, face increased risks due to COVID-19 and lower vaccination rates. Limited knowledge exists regarding the clinical characteristics of unvaccinated KT patients with COVID-19. This study aimed to examine the clinical features and outcomes of unvaccinated KT patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 omicron subvariant BA.5.2.  Methods  The study enrolled 36 unvaccinated KT patients with COVID-19 and compared them to 20 infected control cases without underlying medical conditions. Clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, treatment regimens, and outcomes were analyzed. RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.5.2 subvariant infection.  Results  The KT patients experienced severe disease, with 66.7% classified as severe/critical illness. Dyspnea on admission, lower blood leukocyte and lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin levels, and serum albumin levels were more prevalent in the KT group compared to the control group. Severe/critical illness was associated with factors such as age, diabetes mellitus, lung infection CT score, and elevated levels of D-dimer, IL-6, CRP, Procalcitonin, and ferritin. Blood lymphocyte counts and serum albumin levels were significantly lower in the severe/critical illness group in KT patients. Treatment included discontinuation of anti-metabolic drugs, reduction, or discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitor drugs, antiviral therapy, and early patient-tailored nutritional support. Acute kidney injury was observed in 19.4% of cases, and four patients died during the observation period.  Conclusions  Early diagnosis, personalized treatment regimens, and diligent monitoring are crucial for unvaccinated KT patients with COVID-19. These findings contribute to understanding the clinical characteristics and management of COVID-19 in the KT population.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Diseases , COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Dyspnea
4.
Clin Chim Acta ; 547: 117415, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Great concerns have been raised on SARS-CoV-2 impact on men's andrological well-being, and many studies have attempted to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 is present in the semen and till now the data are unclear and somehow ambiguous. However, these studies used quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR, which is not sufficiently sensitive to detect nucleic acids in clinical samples with a low viral load. METHODS: The clinical performance of various nucleic acid detection methods (qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR, cd-PCR, and CBPH) was assessed for SARS-CoV-2 using 236 clinical samples from laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Then, the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the semen of 12 recovering patients was investigated using qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR, cd-PCR, and CBPH in parallel using 24 paired semen, blood, throat swab, and urine samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity along with AUC of CBPH was markedly higher than the other 3methods. Although qRT-PCR, OSN-qRT-PCR and cdPCR detected no SARS-CoV-2 RNA in throat swab, blood, urine, and semen samples of the 12 patients, CBPH detected the presence of SARS-CoV-2 genome fragments in semen samples, but not in paired urine samples, of 3 of 12 patients. The existing SARS-CoV-2 genome fragments were metabolized over time. CONCLUSIONS: Both OSN-qRT-PCR and cdPCR had better performance than qRT-PCR, and CBPH had the highest diagnostic performance in detecting SARS-CoV-2, which contributed the most improvement to the determination of the critical value in gray area samples with low vrial load, which then provides a rational screening strategy for studying the clearance of coronavirus in the semen over time in patients recovering from COVID-19. Although the presence of SARS-CoV-2 fragments in the semen was demonstrated by CBPH, COVID-19 is unlikely to be sexually transmitted from male partners for at least 3 months after hospital discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , Semen/chemistry , COVID-19 Testing , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics
5.
Chem Eng J ; 468: 143616, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327405

ABSTRACT

Förster or fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) enables to probe biomolecular interactions, thus playing a vital role in bioassays. However, conventional FRET platforms suffer from limited sensitivity due to the low FRET efficiency and poor anti-interference of existing FRET pairs. Here we report a NIR-II (1000-1700 nm) FRET platform with extremely high FRET efficiency and exceptional anti-interference capability. This NIR-II FRET platform is established based on a pair of lanthanides downshifting nanoparticles (DSNPs) by employing Nd3+ doped DSNPs as an energy donor and Yb3+ doped DSNPs as an energy acceptor. The maximum FRET efficiency of this well-engineered NIR-II FRET platform reaches up to 92.2%, which is much higher than most commonly used ones. Owing to the all-NIR advantage (λex = 808 nm, λem = 1064 nm), this highly efficient NIR-II FRET platform exhibits extraordinary anti-interference in whole blood, and thus enabling background-free homogeneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in clinical whole blood sample with high sensitivity (limit of detection = 0.5 µg/mL) and specificity. This work opens up new opportunities for realizing highly sensitive detection of various biomarkers in biological samples with severe background interference.

6.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285722, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326977

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading worldwide. Moreover, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, such as Delta and Omicron, has seriously challenged the application of current therapeutics including vaccination and drugs. Relying on interaction of spike protein with receptor angiotensin-converting enzymes 2 (ACE2), SARS-CoV-2 successfully invades to the host cells, which indicates a strategy that identification of small-molecular compounds to block the entry is of great significance for COVID-19 prevention. Our study evaluated the potential efficacy of natural compound oxalic acid (OA) as an inhibitory agent against SARS-CoV-2 invasion, particular on the interaction of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Delta and Omicron variants to ACE2. By employing a competitive binding assay in vitro, OA significantly blocked the binding of RBDs from Delta B.1.617.2 and Omicron B.1.1.529 to ACE2, but has no effect on the wide-type SARS-CoV-2 strain. Furthermore, OA inhibited the entries of Delta and Omicron pseudovirus into ACE2 high expressing-HEK293T cells. By surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, the direct bindings of OA to RBD and ACE2 were analyzed and OA had both affinities with RBDs of B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.529 and with ACE2. Molecular docking predicted the binding sites on the RBD-ACE2 complex and it showed similar binding abilities to both complex of variant Delta or Omicron RBD and ACE2. In conclusion, we provided a promising novel small-molecule compound OA as an antiviral candidate by blocking the cellular entries of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oxalic Acid , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , HEK293 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensins , Protein Binding
7.
Phytother Res ; 2023 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320927

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory illness that poses a serious threat to global public health. In an essential step during infection, SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein to engage with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in host cells. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components exhibit antiviral activity, with luteolin being a flavonoid that can significantly inhibit SARS-CoV infection. However, whether it can block the interaction between the S-protein RBD of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2 has not yet been elucidated. Here, we investigated the effects of luteolin on the binding of the S-protein RBD to ACE2. By employing a competitive binding assay in vitro, we found that luteolin significantly blocked the binding of S-protein RBD to ACE2 with IC50 values of 0.61 mM, which was confirmed by the neutralized infection with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in vivo. A surface plasmon resonance-based competition assay revealed that luteolin significantly affects the binding of the S-protein RBD to the ACE2 receptor. Molecular docking was performed to predict the binding sites of luteolin to the S-protein RBD-ACE2 complex. The active binding sites were defined based on published literature, and we found that luteolin might interfere with the mixture at residues including LYS353, ASP30, and TYR83 in the cellular ACE2 receptor and GLY496, GLN498, TYR505, LEU455, GLN493, and GLU484 in the S-protein RBD. These residues may together form attractive charges and destroy the stable interaction of S-protein RBD-ACE2. Luteolin also inhibits SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced platelet spreading, thereby inhibiting the binding of the spike protein to ACE2. Our results are the first to provide evidence that luteolin is an anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent associated with interference between viral S-protein RBD-ACE2 interactions.

8.
Sustainability ; 15(9):7408, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2319903

ABSTRACT

The integration of digital technology into healthcare is critical for health communication. This study analyzed a group of nursing students who applied multimedia health education e-books to different groups of varying sizes to explore the efficiency of implementing health communication and nursing information literacy in the nursing industry. If medical personnel can make appropriate use of technology, combine medical operations with information systems, and disseminate the purpose of health to groups of different sizes properly, the quality of patient care will improve. Thirty-two junior nursing students at the college level were divided into three groups, each subject to a 3-week internship. After the internship, a questionnaire survey was conducted. Additionally, nine nursing students were interviewed in a 45-min semistructured format. Regarding the effectiveness of nursing students using multimedia e-books to implement health communication and the development of nursing information literacy, the statistical analysis results demonstrated no significant differences between large groups and small groups. However, their 5-point Likert scale average values were all greater than 4, indicating that regardless of group size, their feedback on using e-books was positive. This means multimedia e-books can effectively help nursing students practice health communication application effectiveness and develop nursing information literacy.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 138: 106592, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311750

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is the end-stage change of a large class of lung diseases characterized by the proliferation of fibroblasts and the accumulation of a large amount of extracellular matrix, accompanied by inflammatory damage and tissue structure destruction, which also shows the normal alveolar tissue is damaged and then abnormally repaired resulting in structural abnormalities (scarring). Pulmonary fibrosis has a serious impact on the respiratory function of the human body, and the clinical manifestation is progressive dyspnea. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis-related diseases is increasing year by year, and no curative drugs have appeared so far. Nevertheless, research on pulmonary fibrosis have also increased in recent years, but there are no breakthrough results. Pathological changes of pulmonary fibrosis appear in the lungs of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that have not yet ended, and whether to improve the condition of patients with COVID-19 by means of the anti-fibrosis therapy, which are the questions we need to address now. This review systematically sheds light on the current state of research on fibrosis from multiple perspectives, hoping to provide some references for design and optimization of subsequent drugs and the selection of anti-fibrosis treatment plans and strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Lung , Fibrosis , Fibroblasts
10.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 10: 1155898, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302504
11.
Disease Surveillance ; 38(2):237-241, 2023.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2306410

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of an epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by occupational exposure in Xining, Qinghai province, from October 17 to November 2, 2021 and provide evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: In accordance with the requirements of the COVID-19 prevention and control protocol (eighth edition), epidemiological survey and field response were conducted and throat swabs were collected from the confirmed cases and close contacts. Real time-PCR(RT-PCR) was used to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid. Gene sequencing was performed for the throat swabs of partial confirmed cases by high throughput sequencing. Results: A total of 11 COVID-19 cases were reported in this epidemic, including 3 cases in a family and 8 cases in medical staff. Nine cases were women, 2 cases were men. The cases in epidemic had 3 generations. The average incubation period was 3.18 day. The infection was mainly occurred in working place. The risk factors included sharing telephone, computer and other office equipment. The initial symptoms were cough (10 cases, 90.97%). Unstandardized taking off protective suit in field epidemiological survey and inappropriate design of waterproof boot cover were the main risk factors for the occupational exposure. The SARS-CoV-2 detected belonged to VOC/Delta variant. Conclusion: This epidemic was caused by occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the field supervision and guide of the wearing of protective suits, improve the design of waterproof boot cover and reduce the contacts of field workers with others.

12.
Biosensors & bioelectronics ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2304026

ABSTRACT

Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are promising points-of-care tests, playing a vital role in diseases screening, diagnosis and surveillance. However, development of portable, cheap, and smart LFAs platform for sensitive and accurate quantification of disease biomarkers in complex media is challenging. Here, a cheap handheld device was developed to realize on-site detection of disease biomarkers by Nd3+/Yb3+ co-doped near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR downconversion nanoparticles (DCNPs) based LFA. Its sensitivity is at least 8-fold higher for detecting NIR light signal from Nd3+/Yb3+ co-doped nanoparticles than conventional expensive InGaAs camera based detection platform. Additionally, we enhance NIR quantum yield of Nd3+/Yb3+ co-doped nanoparticles up to 35.5% via simultaneous high dopant of sensitizer ions Nd3+ and emitter ions Yb3+. Combination of NIR-to-NIR handheld detection device and ultra-bright NIR emitting NaNbF4:Yb60%@NaLuF4 nanoparticle probe allows the detection sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain and Omicron variants specific neutralizing antibodies LFA up to the level of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Furthermore, by this robust method, enhanced neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain and Omicron variants are observed in healthy participants with Ad5-nCoV booster on top of two doses of inactivated vaccine. This NIR-to-NIR handheld platform provides a promising strategy for on-site evaluating protective humoral immunity after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection.

13.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 140, 2023 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299121

ABSTRACT

Prone positioning is an evidence-based treatment for patients with moderate-to-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lung recruitment has been proposed as one of the mechanisms by which prone positioning reduces mortality in this group of patients. Recruitment-to-inflation ratio (R/I) is a method to measure potential for lung recruitment induced by a change in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the ventilator. The association between R/I and potential for lung recruitment in supine and prone position has not been studied with computed tomography (CT) scan imaging. In this secondary analysis, we sought to investigate the correlation between R/I measured in supine and prone position with CT and the potential for lung recruitment as measured by CT scan. Among 23 patients, the median R/I did not significantly change from supine (1.9 IQR 1.6-2.6) to prone position (1.7 IQR 1.3-2.8) (paired t test p = 0.051) but the individual changes correlated with the different response to PEEP. In supine and in prone position, R/I significantly correlated with the proportion of lung tissue recruitment induced by the change of PEEP. Lung tissue recruitment induced by a change of PEEP from 5 to 15 cmH2O was 16% (IQR 11-24%) in supine and 14.3% (IQR 8.4-22.6%) in prone position, as measured by CT scan analysis (paired t test p = 0.56). In this analysis, PEEP-induced recruitability as measured by R/I correlated with PEEP-induced lung recruitment as measured by CT scan, and could help to readjust PEEP in prone position.


Subject(s)
Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Prone Position/physiology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 208(1): 25-38, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297287

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Defining lung recruitability is needed for safe positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) selection in mechanically ventilated patients. However, there is no simple bedside method including both assessment of recruitability and risks of overdistension as well as personalized PEEP titration. Objectives: To describe the range of recruitability using electrical impedance tomography (EIT), effects of PEEP on recruitability, respiratory mechanics and gas exchange, and a method to select optimal EIT-based PEEP. Methods: This is the analysis of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from an ongoing multicenter prospective physiological study including patients with moderate-severe acute respiratory distress syndrome of different causes. EIT, ventilator data, hemodynamics, and arterial blood gases were obtained during PEEP titration maneuvers. EIT-based optimal PEEP was defined as the crossing point of the overdistension and collapse curves during a decremental PEEP trial. Recruitability was defined as the amount of modifiable collapse when increasing PEEP from 6 to 24 cm H2O (ΔCollapse24-6). Patients were classified as low, medium, or high recruiters on the basis of tertiles of ΔCollapse24-6. Measurements and Main Results: In 108 patients with COVID-19, recruitability varied from 0.3% to 66.9% and was unrelated to acute respiratory distress syndrome severity. Median EIT-based PEEP differed between groups: 10 versus 13.5 versus 15.5 cm H2O for low versus medium versus high recruitability (P < 0.05). This approach assigned a different PEEP level from the highest compliance approach in 81% of patients. The protocol was well tolerated; in four patients, the PEEP level did not reach 24 cm H2O because of hemodynamic instability. Conclusions: Recruitability varies widely among patients with COVID-19. EIT allows personalizing PEEP setting as a compromise between recruitability and overdistension. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04460859).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Electric Impedance , Prospective Studies , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography/methods
15.
Biomedicines ; 11(3)2023 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare the clinical characteristics and chest CT findings of patients infected with Omicron and Delta variants and the original strain of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 503 patients infected with the original strain (245 cases), Delta variant (90 cases), and Omicron variant (168 cases) were retrospectively analyzed. The differences in clinical severity and chest CT findings were analyzed. We also compared the infection severity of patients with different vaccination statuses and quantified pneumonia by a deep-learning approach. RESULTS: The rate of severe disease decreased significantly from the original strain to the Delta variant and Omicron variant (27% vs. 10% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001). In the Omicron group, 44% (73/168) of CT scans were categorized as abnormal compared with 81% (73/90) in the Delta group and 96% (235/245, p < 0.05) in the original group. Trends of a gradual decrease in total CT score, lesion volume, and lesion CT value of AI evaluation were observed across the groups (p < 0.001 for all). Omicron patients who received the booster vaccine had less clinical severity (p = 0.015) and lower lung involvement rate than those without the booster vaccine (36% vs. 57%, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the original strain and Delta variant, the Omicron variant had less clinical severity and less lung injury on CT scans.

16.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 15: 1034376, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270097

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: The Movement Disorder Society's Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (MDS-UPDRS III) is mostly common used for assessing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). In remote circumstances, vision-based techniques have many strengths over wearable sensors. However, rigidity (item 3.3) and postural stability (item 3.12) in the MDS-UPDRS III cannot be assessed remotely since participants need to be touched by a trained examiner during testing. We developed the four scoring models of rigidity of the neck, rigidity of the lower extremities, rigidity of the upper extremities, and postural stability based on features extracted from other available and touchless motions. Methods: The red, green, and blue (RGB) computer vision algorithm and machine learning were combined with other available motions from the MDS-UPDRS III evaluation. A total of 104 patients with PD were split into a train set (89 individuals) and a test set (15 individuals). The light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) multiclassification model was trained. Weighted kappa (k), absolute accuracy (ACC ± 0), and Spearman's correlation coefficient (rho) were used to evaluate the performance of model. Results: For model of rigidity of the upper extremities, k = 0.58 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.64 (moderate). For model of rigidity of the lower extremities, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.70, and rho = 0.76 (strong). For model of rigidity of the neck, k = 0.60 (moderate), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.60 (moderate). For model of postural stability, k = 0.66 (substantial), ACC ± 0 = 0.73, and rho = 0.68 (moderate). Conclusion: Our study can be meaningful for remote assessments, especially when people have to maintain social distance, e.g., in situations such as the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

17.
Radiology ; 307(2): e222888, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241300

ABSTRACT

Background Information on pulmonary sequelae and pulmonary function 2 years after recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection is lacking. Purpose To longitudinally assess changes in chest CT abnormalities and pulmonary function in individuals after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Materials and Methods In this prospective study, participants discharged from the hospital after SARS-CoV-2 infection from January 20 to March 10, 2020, were considered for enrollment. Participants without chest CT scans at admission or with complete resolution of lung abnormalities at discharge were excluded. Serial chest CT scans and pulmonary function test results were obtained 6 months (June 20 to August 31, 2020), 12 months (December 20, 2020, to February 3, 2021), and 2 years (November 16, 2021, to January 10, 2022) after symptom onset. The term interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) and two subcategories, fibrotic ILAs and nonfibrotic ILAs, were used to describe residual CT abnormalities on follow-up CT scans. Differences between groups were compared with the χ2 test, Fisher exact test, or independent samples t test. Results Overall, 144 participants (median age, 60 years [range, 27-80 years]; 79 men) were included. On 2-year follow-up CT scans, 39% of participants (56 of 144) had ILAs, including 23% (33 of 144) with fibrotic ILAs and 16% (23 of 144) with nonfibrotic ILAs. The remaining 88 of 144 participants (61%) showed complete radiologic resolution. Over 2 years, the incidence of ILAs gradually decreased (54%, 42%, and 39% of participants at 6 months, 12 months, and 2 years, respectively; P < .001). Respiratory symptoms (34% vs 15%, P = .007) and abnormal diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (43% vs 20%, P = .004) occurred more frequently in participants with ILAs than in those with complete radiologic resolution. Conclusion More than one-third of participants had persistent interstitial lung abnormalities 2 years after COVID-19 infection, which were associated with respiratory symptoms and decreased diffusion pulmonary function. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry no. ChiCTR2000038609 © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by van Beek in this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232630

ABSTRACT

Acute pancreatitis is a common gastrointestinal disease with increasing incidence worldwide. COVID-19 is a potentially life-threatening contagious disease spread throughout the world, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. More severe forms of both diseases exhibit commonalities with dysregulated immune responses resulting in amplified inflammation and susceptibility to infection. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, expressed on antigen-presenting cells, acts as an indicator of immune function. Research advances have highlighted the predictive values of monocytic HLA-DR (mHLA-DR) expression for disease severity and infectious complications in both acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 patients. While the regulatory mechanism of altered mHLA-DR expression remains unclear, HLA-DR-/low monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells are potent drivers of immunosuppression and poor outcomes in these diseases. Future studies with mHLA-DR-guided enrollment or targeted immunotherapy are warranted in more severe cases of patients with acute pancreatitis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatitis , Humans , Acute Disease , HLA-DR Antigens , Monocytes , Immunity
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 231: 123282, 2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237653

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic coronavirus, has catastrophic impacts on the global pig industry. However, there are still no anti-PEDV drugs with accurate targets. G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical secondary structures formed within guanine-rich regions of DNA or RNA, and have attracted great attention as potential targets for antiviral strategy. In this study, we reported two putative G4-forming sequences (PQS) in S and Nsp5 genes of PEDV genome based on bioinformatic analysis, and identified that S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS were enabled to fold into G4 structure by using circular dichroism spectroscopy and fluorescence turn-on assay. Furthermore, we verified that both S-PQS and Nsp5-PQS PQS could form G4 structure in live cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, G4-specific compounds, such as TMPyP4 and PDS, could significantly inhibit transcription, translation and proliferation of PEDV in vitro. Importantly, these compounds exert antiviral activity at the post-entry step of PEDV infection cycle, by inhibiting viral genome replication and protein expression. Lastly, we demonstrated that TMPyP4 can inhibit reporter gene expression by targeting G4 structure in Nsp5. Taken together, these findings not only reinforce the presence of viral G-quadruplex sequences in PEDV genome but also provide new insights into developing novel antiviral drugs targeting PEDV RNA G-quadruplexes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , G-Quadruplexes , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Animals , Swine , Antiviral Agents , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1042784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2237497

ABSTRACT

Background: A third mRNA vaccine booster is recommended to improve immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). However, the immunity against SARS-CoV-2 Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron variants elicited by the third dose of inactivated booster vaccine in KTRs remains unknown. Methods: The blood parameters related to blood cells count, hepatic function, kidney function, heart injury and immunity were explored clinically from laboratory examinations. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody IgG titer was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular immunity was analyzed using interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. Results: The results showed that there were no severe adverse effects and apparent changes of clinical laboratory biomarkers in KTRs and healthy volunteers (HVs) after homologous inactivated vaccine booster. A third dose of inactivated vaccine booster significantly increased anti-Ancestral-spike-trimer-IgG and anti-Ancestral-receptor binding domain (RBD)-IgG titers in KTRs and HVs compared with the second vaccination. However, the anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG titers were significantly lower than anti-Ancestral-RBD-IgG titer in KTRs and HVs after the third dose. Notably, only 25.6% (10/39) and 10.3% (4/39) of KTRs had seropositivity for anti-Delta-RBD-IgG and anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG after booster, which were significantly lower than HVs (anti-Delta-RBD-IgG: 100%, anti-Omicron-RBD-IgG: 77.8%). Ancestral strain nucleocapsid protein and spike specific T cell frequency after booster was not significantly increased in KTRs compared with the second dose, significantly lower than that in HVs. Moreover, 33.3% (12/36), 14.3% (3/21) and 14.3% (3/21) of KTRs were positive for the Ancestral strain and Delta and Omicron spike-specific T cells, which were significantly lower than HVs (Ancestral: 80.8%, Delta: 53.8%, and Omicron: 57.7%). Conclusions: A third dose of inactivated booster vaccine may significantly increase humoral immunity against the Ancestral strain in KTRs, while humoral and cellular immunity against the Delta and Omicron variants were still poor in KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunization, Secondary , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology
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