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1.
Br J Haematol ; 198(4): 668-679, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874397

ABSTRACT

Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients remain at high risk of adverse outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and emerging variants. The optimal prophylactic vaccine strategy for this cohort is not defined. T cell-mediated immunity is a critical component of graft-versus-tumour effect and in determining vaccine immunogenicity. Using validated anti-spike (S) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and S-specific interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (IFNγ-ELIspot) assays we analysed response to a two-dose vaccination schedule (either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1) in 33 HSCT recipients at ≤2 years from transplant, alongside vaccine-matched healthy controls (HCs). After two vaccines, infection-naïve HSCT recipients had a significantly lower rate of seroconversion compared to infection-naïve HCs (25/32 HSCT vs. 39/39 HCs no responders) and had lower S-specific T-cell responses. The HSCT recipients who received BNT162b2 had a higher rate of seroconversion compared to ChAdOx1 (89% vs. 74%) and significantly higher anti-S IgG titres (p = 0.022). S-specific T-cell responses were seen after one vaccine in HCs and HSCT recipients. However, two vaccines enhanced S-specific T-cell responses in HCs but not in the majority of HSCT recipients. These data demonstrate limited immunogenicity of two-dose vaccination strategies in HSCT recipients, bolstering evidence of the need for additional boosters and/or alternative prophylactic measures in this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Bone Marrow Transplantation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination
2.
J Intensive Care Med ; 37(8): 1019-1028, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the long-term sequelae of severe COVID-19 remains limited, particularly in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To examine long-term outcomes of patients who required intensive care unit (ICU) admission for severe COVID-19. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: This is a prospective cohort study of patients who had severe COVID-19 requiring an ICU admission in a two-hospital academic health system in Southern California. Patients discharged alive between 3/21/2020 and 12/31/2020 were surveyed approximately 6 months after discharge to assess health-related quality of life using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®)-29 v2.1, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and loneliness scales. A preference-based health utility score (PROPr) was estimated using 7 PROMIS domain scores. Patients were also asked their attitude about receiving aggressive ICU care. KEY RESULTS: Of 275 patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19, 205 (74.5%) were discharged alive and 132 (64%, median age 59, 46% female) completed surveys a median of 182 days post-discharge. Anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep disturbance, ability to participate in social activities, pain interference, and cognitive function were not significantly different from the U.S. general population, but physical function (44.2, SD 11.0) was worse. PROPr mean score of 0.46 (SD 0.30, range -0.02 to 0.96 [<0 is worse than dead and 1 represents perfect health]) was slightly lower than the U.S. general population, with an even distribution across the continuum. Poor PROPr was associated with chronic medical conditions and receipt of life-sustaining treatments, but not demographics or social vulnerability. PTSD was suspected in 20% and loneliness in 29% of patients. Ninety-eight percent of patients were glad they received life-saving treatment. CONCLUSION: Most patients who survive severe COVID-19 achieve positive outcomes, with health scores similar to the general population at 6 months post-discharge. However, there is marked heterogeneity in outcomes with a substantial minority reporting severely compromised health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Aftercare , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prospective Studies
3.
Chest ; 161(6): 1517-1525, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) via tracheostomy is performed commonly for patients who are in long-term acute care hospitals (LTACHs) after respiratory failure. However, the outcome of MV in COVID-19-associated respiratory failure in LTACHs is not known. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the ventilator liberation rate of patients who have received tracheostomy with COVID-19-associated respiratory failure compared with those with respiratory failure unrelated to COVID-19 in LTACHs? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we examined mechanically ventilated patients discharged between June 2020 and March 2021. Of 242 discharges, 165 patients who had undergone tracheostomy arrived and were considered for ventilator liberation. One hundred twenty-eight patients did not have COVID-19 and 37 patients were admitted for COVID-19. RESULTS: The primary outcome of the study was ventilator liberation; secondary outcomes were functional recovery, length of stay (LOS) at the LTACH, and discharge disposition. After controlling for demographics, the number of comorbidities, hemodialysis, vasopressor need, thrombocytopenia, and the LOS at the short-term acute care hospital, our results indicated that patients with COVID-19 showed a higher adjusted ventilator liberation rate of 91.4% vs 56.0% in those without COVID-19. Functional ability was assessed with the change of Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) between admission and discharge. The adjusted mean change in FSS-ICU was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than in the non-COVID-19 group: 9.49 (95% CI, 7.38-11.6) vs 2.08 (95% CI, 1.05-3.11), respectively (P < .001). Patients with COVID-19 experienced a shorter adjusted LOS at the LTACH with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI, 1.0-2.46; P = .05) compared with patients without COVID-19. We did not observe significant differences between the two groups regarding discharge location, but a trend toward need for lower level of care was found in patients with COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that patients with COVID-19 requiring MV and tracheostomy have a higher chance for recovery than those without COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
4.
Semin Hematol ; 59(2): 76-79, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671674

ABSTRACT

This chapter explores the clinical features of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia, also called vaccine-induced immune thrombocytopenia and thrombosis (VITT). Whilst the etiology is distinct from other causes of thrombotic thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS), presentation may be similar and hence the need for strict diagnostic criteria to ensure accurate and prompt diagnosis and early treatment. Studies have identified prognostic markers of the disease, directing therapy and management pathways, and mortality and morbidity from this rare but life-threatening and potentially disabling consequence of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine has declined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Thrombosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
5.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:53-53, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1597764

ABSTRACT

B Introduction: b The long-term mental health impact of severe COVID-19 is unknown. B Methods: b This is a prospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to COVID-19 at two academic medical centers in Los Angeles and discharged between March 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:51-51, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1595096

ABSTRACT

Although a substantive minority (16%) of patients newly required a caregiver, and roughly 40% of those previously employed had not yet returned to work, patients reported outcomes similar to the general public on most domains. B Introduction/Hypothesis: b Long-term functional outcomes, living situation, and return to work following intensive care for severe COVID-19 have not been adequately characterized. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
Eur J Haematol ; 105(4): 476-483, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599960

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterise the outcomes of patients with haematological malignancy and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in hospital in our regional network of 7 hospitals. METHODS: Consecutive hospitalised patients with haematological malignancy and SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from 01/03/2020 to 06/05/2020. Outcomes were categorised as death, resolved or ongoing. The primary outcome was preliminary case fatality rate (pCFR), defined as the number of cases resulting in death as a proportion of all diagnosed cases. Analysis was primarily descriptive. RESULTS: 66 Patients were included, overall pCFR was 51.5%. Patients ≥ 70 years accounted for the majority of hospitalised cases (42, 63%) and fatalities (25, 74%). Mortality was similar between females (52%) and males (51%). Immunosuppressive or cytotoxic treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with a significantly higher pCFR of 70%, compared with 28% in those not on active treatment (P = .0013, 2 proportions z test). CONCLUSIONS: Mortality rates in patients with haematological malignancy and SARS-CoV-2 infection in hospital are high supporting measures to minimise the risk of infection in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytotoxins/adverse effects , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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