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Vaccine ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271533


The preclinical time course of SARS-CoV-2 shedding is not well-described. Understanding this time course will help to inform risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. During an outbreak in a congregate setting, we collected paired mid-turbinate nasal swabs for antigen testing and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) every other day from all consenting infected and exposed persons. Among 12 persons tested prospectively before and during SARS-CoV-2 infection, ten of 12 participants (83%) had completed a primary COVID-19 vaccination series prior to the outbreak. We recovered SARS-CoV-2 in viral culture from 9/12 (75%) of participants. All three persons from whom we did not recover SARS-CoV-2 in viral culture had completed their primary vaccination series. We recovered SARS-CoV-2 from viral culture in 6/9 vaccinated persons and before symptom onset in 3/6 symptomatic persons. These findings underscore the need for both non-pharmaceutical interventions and vaccination to mitigate transmission.

Vaccine ; 38(51): 8185-8193, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997580


BACKGROUND: While administration of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR-II®) vaccine has been effective at preventing rubella infection in the United States, the durability of humoral immunity to the rubella component of MMR vaccine has not been widely studied among older adolescents and adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we sought to assess the durability of rubella virus (RV)-specific humoral immunity in a healthy population (n = 98) of adolescents and young adults at two timepoints: ~7 and ~17 years after two doses of MMR-II® vaccination. Levels of circulating antibodies specific to RV were measured by ELISA and an immune-colorimetric neutralization assay. RV-specific memory B cell responses were also measured by ELISpot. RESULTS: Rubella-specific IgG antibody titers, neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B cell responses declined with increasing time since vaccination; however, these decreases were relatively moderate. Memory B cell responses exhibited a greater decline in men compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, rubella-specific humoral immunity declines following vaccination, although subjects' antibody titers remain well above the currently recognized threshold for protective immunity. Clinical correlates of protection based on neutralizing antibody titer and memory B cell ELISpot response should be defined.

Immunity, Humoral , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Rubella/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/pharmacology , Rubella/prevention & control , Time Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult