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1.
Nature ; 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron are globally relevant variants of concern (VOCs). While individuals infected with Delta are at risk to develop severe lung disease, infection with Omicron often causes milder symptoms, especially in vaccinated individuals1,2. The question arises whether widespread Omicron infections could lead to future cross-variant protection, accelerating the end of the pandemic. Here we show that without vaccination, infection with Omicron induces a limited humoral immune response in mice and humans. Sera from mice overexpressing the human ACE2 receptor and infected with Omicron neutralize only Omicron, but no other VOCs, whereas broader cross-variant neutralization was observed after WA1 and Delta infections. Unlike WA1 and Delta, Omicron replicates to low levels in the lungs and brains of infected animals, leading to mild disease with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and diminished activation of lung-resident T cells. Sera from unvaccinated, Omicron-infected individuals show the same limited neutralization of only Omicron itself. In contrast, Omicron breakthrough infections induce overall higher neutralization titers against all VOCs. Our results demonstrate that Omicron infection enhances preexisting immunity elicited by vaccines but, on its own, may not confer broad protection against non-Omicron variants in unvaccinated individuals.

2.
JCI Insight ; 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846629

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines (from December 2020 through August 2021) were matched with 30 naturally infected women (from March 2020 through January 2021) by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Delta and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher cord nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure.

3.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-334478

ABSTRACT

By connecting people across the globe, social technologies enable people to share information instantaneously and experience “in the moment” events virtually. In the context of COVID-19, sharing localized disaster information allows socially connected friends in other non/low affected areas to learn and virtually feel the “disaster”, which in turn can increase their awareness and enhance their preventive behavior, even when they do not face immediate risk. The goal of this paper is to investigate if and to what extent social connectedness influences people’s preventive behavior, while controlling for physical connectivity, which presents an immediate threat to people physically connected to a highly affected area. To this end, we employ two complementary studies and distinguish local and social information channels and measure physical and social information intensity respectively. The stronger the information signals about COVID from information sources and the higher the connectivity, the stronger the information intensity. In Study 1, we find that, after accounting for the physical information intensity which correlates with physical virus transmission risk in the local area or from geographic neighbors, social information intensity about COVID, as measured by the volume of COVID-19 cases or COVID-related Tweets in socially connected areas, can significantly increase people’s preventive behavior in the focal area. Further, the effect of social information intensity is more pronounced for those individuals living in areas with better digital infrastructure. In Study 2, we provide evidence regarding the mechanism of why and how information shared via social technologies help shape preventive behavior. We find that when social information is expressed in a subjective way, it makes people more likely to feel the virus threat “in the moment” and adopt preventive behavior. Furthermore, social information intensity about COVID significantly increases people’s awareness and perceived risk towards COVID, which in turn lead to more preventive behavior. Our additional analysis suggests that social information intensity plays a significant positive role in preventing the spread of COVID-19. Our paper contributes to the emerging literature on how to enhance societal resilience in facing catastrophic events by highlighting the increasingly important role of social technology in shaping public perception and response.

5.
Cell ; 185(9): 1539-1548.e5, 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748150

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity against Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 259 samples from 128 vaccinated individuals. Following Delta breakthrough infection, titers against WT rose 57-fold and 3.1-fold compared with uninfected boosted and unboosted individuals, respectively, versus only a 5.8-fold increase and 3.1-fold decrease for Omicron breakthrough infection. Among immunocompetent, unboosted patients, Delta breakthrough infections induced 10.8-fold higher titers against WT compared with Omicron (p = 0.037). Decreased antibody responses in Omicron breakthrough infections relative to Delta were potentially related to a higher proportion of asymptomatic or mild breakthrough infections (55.0% versus 28.6%, respectively), which exhibited 12.3-fold lower titers against WT compared with moderate to severe infections (p = 0.020). Following either Delta or Omicron breakthrough infection, limited variant-specific cross-neutralizing immunity was observed. These results suggest that Omicron breakthrough infections are less immunogenic than Delta, thus providing reduced protection against reinfection or infection from future variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
6.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 1189-1197, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739655

ABSTRACT

The dynamic network biomarker (DNB) method has advanced since it was first proposed. This review discusses advances in the DNB method that can identify the dynamic change in the expression signature related to the critical time point of disease progression by utilizing different kinds of transcriptome data. The DNB method is good at identifying potential biomarkers for cancer and other disease development processes that are represented by a limited molecular profile change between the normal and critical stages. We highlight that the cancer tipping point or premalignant state has been widely discovered for different types of cancer by using the DNB method that utilizes bulk or single-cell RNA sequencing data. This method could also be applied to other dynamic research studies and help identify early warning signals, such as the prediction of a pre-outbreak of COVID-19. We also discuss how the identification of reliable biomarkers of cancer and the development of new methods can be utilized for early detection and intervention and provide insights into emerging paths of the widespread biomarker candidate pool for further validation and disease/health management.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 773271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions were implemented in most countries to reduce the transmission of COVID-19. We aimed to describe the incidence of influenza in four countries in the 2019-2020 season and examined the effect of these non-pharmaceutical interventions on the incidence of influenza. METHODS: We used the network surveillance data from 2015 to 2020 to estimate the percentage increase in influenza cases to explore the effect of non-pharmaceutical interventions implemented to control the COVID-19 on the incidence of influenza in China, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. RESULTS: We found that the incidence of influenza has been almost zero and reached a persistent near-zero level for a continuous period of six months since epidemiologic week 14 of 2020 in the four countries. Influenza incidence decreased by 77.71% and 60.50% in the early days of COVID-19 in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in Japan and Singapore, respectively. Furthermore, influenza incidence decreased by 60.50-99.48% during the period of compulsory interventions in the 2019-2020 season compared to the same period in preceding years in the four countries. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the application of non-pharmaceutical interventions, even everyday preventive action, was associated with a reduction of influenza incidence, which highlights that more traditional public health interventions need to be reasserted and universalized to reduce influenza incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
8.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-329182

ABSTRACT

Disasters usually pose a big threat to work continuity and job stability, thus having important consequences for workers’ labor market outcomes (i.e., unemployment, work absence, and lay off). Furthermore, according to the prior literature on disaster management, disaster-induced labor market disruptions tend to affect female workers more because they are more prone to constraints (such as the availability of childcare services and domestic services) and work-family conflict, suggesting increased gender inequality during disasters. In such a case, telework has emerged as a silver lining by providing workers with higher flexibility in work scheduling and helping them alleviate work-family conflict. This paper investigates whether and to what extent telework can reduce the gender inequality induced by disasters, taking the COVID-19 disaster as an example. Results show that: 1) The COVID-19 disaster leads to a larger increase in unemployment, work absence, and layoff for female workers than their male counterparts. 2) Telework can not only effectively mitigate the negative effect of the COVID-19 disaster on the labor market, but also help to reduce the gender inequality in labor market outcomes via two means: i) the higher telework rate among female workers (i.e., endowment effect) and ii) the stronger marginal effect of telework on female workers (i.e., coefficient effect). Taken together, the endowment effect of telework reduces gender inequality by 25.48% and the coefficient effect of telework reduces gender inequality by 31.94%. 3) The mitigating effect of telework is stronger in geographic areas with better digital infrastructure. Our findings are robust to other measures of constraints or alternative telework measures, which suggests that the generalizability of our results to future disasters or disruptions when physical presence in the workplace could be a challenge for workers. Our study contributes to the emerging literature on how information technologies can be leveraged to mitigate the disaster-induced gender inequality in the labor market.

9.
Gender in Management ; 36(7):858-877, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1713849

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The purpose of this study is to explore how gender influences peer assessment in team-building activities in China.Design/methodology/approach>A nine-player Werewolf game was adopted to conduct the experiment. Nine abilities were defined to evaluate players’ performances. Before the game, players filled out a self-assessment questionnaire (five-point Likert scale). After the game, players evaluated other game members’ performances using the same questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear regression.Findings>The results showed that gender bias clearly existed in team-building activities, with men more likely to receive better peer assessment than women. In addition, when women presented themselves as actively as men did, they received less favorable evaluations than men, whereas their failures were more likely to be exaggerated.Practical implications>This study may help build harmonious teams for gender equality, and we give practical suggestions respectively from the perspective of female employees, their managers, and their companies.Originality/value>Given the importance of team-building activities in teamwork, fair evaluations of team-building performances are essential. However, gender influences on peer assessment in team-building activities in China remain unclear. This study adds new and important knowledge to research on gender bias in teams.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311664

ABSTRACT

Background: Early clinical experiences expose students to patient-centered care. However, early incorporation of telehealth communication skills remains limited in health professions education. In this study, we aimed to design and evaluate a telephone-based clinical learning program for students to promote the development of patient-centered communication skills while addressing healthcare disparities experienced by older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: : We utilized workplace learning principles in designing a telephone-based clinical learning pilot program for health professions students at an academic geriatrics primary care clinic. Students conducted three types of telephone calls to patients that 1) assessed for unmet needs (e.g. food, medication, medical supplies, caregiving, social support, and/or access to medical care) (screening call), 2) addressed social isolation (social call), and 3) helped patients set up videoconferencing software to prepare for telehealth appointments (telehealth-training call). We tracked telephone call completion and outcomes via weekly student reports and the electronic health record. To evaluate program efficacy and learning outcomes, students completed an anonymous post-program survey that assessed pre- and post-program knowledge and skills acquisition. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. Results: : Five medical student liaisons led 23 medical and nurse practitioner students in calling 335 patients over 13 weeks. Students successfully reached 247 patients (74%), assisted 25 patients in setting up videoconferencing software, and engaged 30 patients in weekly social calls. Of 21 students who completed the post-program survey, 18 (86%) believed this program provided meaningful clinical exposure. After participation, all students felt comfortable interacting with patients by telephone and 20 (95%) felt confident in relationship-centered communication. Students reported increased knowledge about vulnerabilities in the geriatric population (p = 0.002). Conclusion: This telephone-based program allowed health professions students to support a vulnerable population and gain patient-centered communication skills. This program could be adapted for implementation in multiple contexts as an effective telehealth clinical learning experience, especially for pre-clerkship health professions students who could gain early exposure to telehealth and practice communication and health coaching skills with patients.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327144

ABSTRACT

Virus-like particle (VLP) and live virus assays were used to investigate neutralizing immunity to Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variants in 239 samples from 125 fully vaccinated individuals. In uninfected, non-boosted individuals, VLP neutralization titers to Delta and Omicron were reduced 2.7-fold and 15.4-fold, respectively, compared to wild-type (WT), while boosted individuals (n=23) had 18-fold increased titers. Delta breakthrough infections (n=39) had 57-fold and 3.1-fold titers whereas Omicron breakthrough infections (n=14) had 5.8-fold and 0.32-fold titers compared to uninfected non-boosted and boosted individuals, respectively. The difference in titers (p=0.049) was related to a higher proportion of moderate to severe infections in the Delta cohort (p=0.014). Correlation of neutralizing and spike quantitative antibody titers was decreased with Delta or Omicron compared to WT. Neutralizing antibodies in Delta and Omicron breakthrough infections increase overall, but the relative magnitude of increase is greater in more clinically severe infection and against the specific infecting variant.

13.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 791654, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637681

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, emerging evidence has shown adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death, occurring in pregnant women after getting infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Thyroid hormone disturbance has been unveiled consistently in various studies. As commonly known, thyroid hormone is vital for promoting pregnancy and optimal fetal growth and development. Even mild thyroid dysfunction can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes. We explored and summarized possible mechanisms of thyroid hormone abnormality in pregnant women after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and made a scientific thypothesis that adverse pregnancy outcomes can be the result of thyroid hormone disorder during COVID-19. In which case, we accentuate the importance of thyroid hormone surveillance for COVID-19-infected pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Criminals , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262660, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a great impact on global health, but with relatively few confirmed cases in Taiwan. People in Taiwan showed excellent cooperation with the government for disease prevention and faced social and behavioral changes during this period. This study aimed to investigate people's knowledge of COVID-19, attitudes and practices regarding vaccinations for influenza, pneumococcus and COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional questionnaire survey from September 2020 to October 2020 among adults in northern Taiwan. The four-part questionnaire included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19. RESULTS: Among a total of 410 respondents, 58.5% were categorized as having "good knowledge" responding to COVID-19. Among the total respondents, 86.6% were willing to receive influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and 76% of them acted to receive COVID-19 immunization once the vaccine became available. Compared with the respondents with poor knowledge of COVID-19, those with good knowledge had a more positive attitude toward receiving influenza or pneumococcal immunization (OR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.74-6.12). CONCLUSIONS: Participants with good knowledge of COVID-19 had greater intent to receive immunization for influenza or pneumococcal vaccine. The promotion of correct knowledge of both COVID-19 and immunization preparations is necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Influenza Vaccines , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taiwan/epidemiology , Vaccination Refusal
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296833

ABSTRACT

Pregnancy confers unique immune responses to infection and vaccination across gestation. To date, there is limited data comparing vaccine versus infection-induced nAb to COVID-19 variants in mothers during pregnancy. We analyzed paired maternal and cord plasma samples from 60 pregnant individuals. Thirty women vaccinated with mRNA vaccines were matched with 30 naturally infected women by gestational age of exposure. Neutralization activity against the five SARS-CoV-2 Spike sequences was measured by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped Spike virion assay. Effective nAbs against SARS-CoV-2 were present in maternal and cord plasma after both infection and vaccination. Compared to wild type or Alpha variant Spike, these nAbs were less effective against the Kappa, Delta, and Mu Spike variants. Vaccination during the third trimester induced higher nAb levels at delivery than infection during the third trimester. In contrast, vaccine-induced nAb levels were lower at the time of delivery compared to infection during the first trimester. The transfer ratio (cord nAb level/maternal nAb level) was greatest in mothers vaccinated in the second trimester. SARS-CoV-2 vaccination or infection in pregnancy elicit effective nAbs with differing neutralization kinetics that is impacted by gestational time of exposure. Vaccine induced neutralizing activity was reduced against the Delta, Mu, and Kappa variants. Graphic abstract

16.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296108

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT One of the unique features of SARS-CoV-2 is that it mainly evolved neutrally or under purifying selection during the early pandemic. This contrasts with the preceding epidemics of the closely related SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, both of which evolved adaptively. It is possible that the SARS-CoV-2 exhibits a unique or adaptive feature which deviates from other coronaviruses. Alternatively, the virus may have been cryptically circulating in humans for a sufficient time to have acquired adaptive changes for efficient transmission before the onset of the current pandemic. In order to test the above scenarios, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 sequences from minks ( Neovision vision ) and parenteral human strains. In the early phase of the mink epidemic (April to May 2020), nonsynonymous to synonymous mutation ratios per site within the spike protein was 2.93, indicating a selection process favoring adaptive amino acid changes. In addition, mutations within this protein concentrated within its receptor binding domain and receptor binding motif. Positive selection also left a trace on linked neutral variation. An excess of high frequency derived variants produced by genetic hitchhiking was found during middle (June to July 2020) and early late (August to September 2020) phases of the mink epidemic, but quickly diminished in October and November 2020. Strong positive selection found in SARS-CoV-2 from minks implies that the virus may be not unique in super-adapting to a wide range of new hosts. The mink study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 already went through adaptive evolution in humans, and likely been circulating in humans at least six months before the first case found in Wuhan, China. We also discuss circumstances under which the virus can be well-adapted to its host but fail to induce an outbreak.

17.
Cell ; 184(25): 6022-6036.e18, 2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536466

ABSTRACT

Viral-deletion mutants that conditionally replicate and inhibit the wild-type virus (i.e., defective interfering particles, DIPs) have long been proposed as single-administration interventions with high genetic barriers to resistance. However, theories predict that robust, therapeutic DIPs (i.e., therapeutic interfering particles, TIPs) must conditionally spread between cells with R0 >1. Here, we report engineering of TIPs that conditionally replicate with SARS-CoV-2, exhibit R0 >1, and inhibit viral replication 10- to 100-fold. Inhibition occurs via competition for viral replication machinery, and a single administration of TIP RNA inhibits SARS-CoV-2 sustainably in continuous cultures. Strikingly, TIPs maintain efficacy against neutralization-resistant variants (e.g., B.1.351). In hamsters, both prophylactic and therapeutic intranasal administration of lipid-nanoparticle TIPs durably suppressed SARS-CoV-2 by 100-fold in the lungs, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and prevented severe pulmonary edema. These data provide proof of concept for a class of single-administration antivirals that may circumvent current requirements to continually update medical countermeasures against new variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Male , Mesocricetus , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
18.
Science ; 374(6575): 1626-1632, 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501519

ABSTRACT

Efforts to determine why new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants demonstrate improved fitness have been limited to analyzing mutations in the spike (S) protein with the use of S-pseudotyped particles. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (SC2-VLPs) can package and deliver exogenous transcripts, enabling analysis of mutations within all structural proteins and at multiple steps in the viral life cycle. In SC2-VLPs, four nucleocapsid (N) mutations found universally in more-transmissible variants independently increased messenger RNA delivery and expression ~10-fold, and in a reverse genetics model, the serine-202→arginine (S202R) and arginine-203→methionine (R203M) mutations each produced >50 times as much virus. SC2-VLPs provide a platform for rapid testing of viral variants outside of a biosafety level 3 setting and demonstrate N mutations and particle assembly to be mechanisms that could explain the increased spread of variants, including B.1.617.2 (Delta, which contains the R203M mutation).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Cell Line , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral , Humans , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Plasmids , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Genome Packaging , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468386

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the important risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide, accounting for around 50% of cases. Chronic hepatitis B infection generates an inflammatory microenvironment, in which hepatocytes undergoing repeated cycles of damage and regeneration accumulate genetic mutations predisposing them to cancer. A striking male dominance in HBV-related HCC highlights the influence of sex hormones which interact with viral factors to influence carcinogenesis. HBV is also considered an oncogenic virus since its X and surface mutant proteins showed tumorigenic activity in mouse models. The other unique mechanism is the insertional mutagenesis by integration of HBV genome into hepatocyte chromosomes to activate oncogenes. HCC survival largely depends on tumor stages at diagnosis and effective treatment. However, early diagnosis by the conventional protein biomarkers achieves limited success. A new biomarker, the circulating virus-host chimera DNA from HBV integration sites in HCC, provides a liquid biopsy approach for monitoring the tumor load in the majority of HBV-HCC patients. To maximize the efficacy of new immunotherapies or molecular target therapies, it requires better classification of HCC based on the tumor microenvironment and specific carcinogenic pathways. An in-depth study may benefit both the diagnosis and treatment of HBV-related HCC.

20.
IUCrJ ; 8(Pt 6)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455435

ABSTRACT

Metal binding sites, antigen epitopes and drug binding sites are the hotspots in viral proteins that control how viruses interact with their hosts. virusMED (virus Metal binding sites, Epitopes and Drug binding sites) is a rich internet application based on a database of atomic interactions around hotspots in 7041 experimentally determined viral protein structures. 25306 hotspots from 805 virus strains from 75 virus families were characterized, including influenza, HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Just as Google Maps organizes and annotates points of interest, virusMED presents the positions of individual hotspots on each viral protein and creates an atlas upon which newly characterized functional sites can be placed as they are being discovered. virusMED contains an extensive set of annotation tags about the virus species and strains, viral hosts, viral proteins, metal ions, specific antibodies and FDA-approved drugs, which permits rapid screening of hotspots on viral proteins tailored to a particular research problem. The virusMED portal (https://virusmed.biocloud.top) can serve as a window to a valuable resource for many areas of virus research and play a critical role in the rational design of new preventative and therapeutic agents targeting viral infections.

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