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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335490

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to explore whether Lymphocyte-C-reactive protein ratio (LCR) can differentiate disease severity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its value as an assistant screening tool for admission to the hospital and the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 184 adult COVID-19 patients from the COVID-19 Treatment Center in Heilongjiang Province at the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University between January 2020 and March 2021 were included in this study. Patients were divided into asymptomatic infection group, mild group, moderate group, severe group, and critical group according to the Diagnosis and Treatment of New Coronavirus Pneumonia (9th edition). Demographic and clinical data including gender, age, comorbidities, severity of COVID-19, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil proportion (NEUT%), lymphocyte count (LYMPH), lymphocyte percentage (LYM%), red blood cell distribution width (RDW), platelet (PLT), C-reaction protein (CRP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum creatinine (SCr), albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DBIL), indirect bilirubin (IBIL), and D-Dimer were obtained and collated from medical records at admission, from which sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score and LCR were calculated, and all above indicators were compared among groups. Multiple clinical parameters, including LYMPH, CRP and LCR, showed significant differences among groups. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups included age, number of comorbidities, WBC, LCR, and AST. Among these factors, number of comorbidities showed the greatest effect, and only WBC and LCR were protective factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into moderate, severe and critical groups was 0.176. The cut-off value of LCR, and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 1780.7050, 84.6% and 66.2%, respectively. The related factors to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups included number of comorbidities, PLT, LCR, and SOFA score. Among these factors, SOFA score showed the greatest effect, and LCR was the only protective factor. The area under ROC curve of LCR to classify COVID-19 patients into severe and critical groups was 0.106. The cut-off value of LCR and the sensitivity and specificity of ROC curve were 571.2200, 81.3% and 90.0%, respectively. In summary, LCR can differentiate disease severity of COVID-19 patients and serve as a simple and objective assistant screening tool for hospital and ICU admission.

2.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1825859

ABSTRACT

The dynamic interactions between RNAs and proteins play crucial roles in regulating diverse cellular processes. Proteome‐wide characterization of these interactions in their native cellular context remains desirable but challenging. Herein, we developed a photocatalytic crosslinking (PhotoCAX) strategy coupled with mass spectrometry (PhotoCAX‐MS) and RNA sequencing (PhotoCAX‐seq) for the study of the composition and dynamics of protein‐RNA interactions. By integrating the blue light‐triggered photocatalyst with a dual‐functional RNA–protein crosslinker (RP‐linker) and the phase separation‐based enrichment strategy, PhotoCAX‐MS revealed a total of 2044 RBPs in human HEK293 cells. We further employed PhotoCAX to investigate the dynamic change of RBPome in macrophage cells upon LPS‐stimulation, as well as the identification of RBPs interacting directly with the 5′ untranslated regions of SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Angewandte Chemie International Edition is the property of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766184

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Previous observational studies have found that the susceptibility of COVID-19 and the risk of severe COVID-19 are not increased in patients with celiac disease (CeD). However, the findings of observational studies are prone to bias due to reverse causation and confounding, especially in the case of a newly-emerged disease. In this study, we aimed to further clarify the underlying relationship by both observational and Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis. METHODS: The observational study was conducted in the UK Biobank (UKB) cohort. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of COVID-19 susceptibility and severe COVID-19. To understand the causality between CeD and COVID-19 susceptibility and severe COVID-19, we performed a two-sample MR analysis. RESULTS: Our observational study showed that CeD patients had a lower susceptibility of COVID-19 (OR=0.699, p=0.006), while CeD was not significantly associated with severe COVID-19 (p>0.05). The findings from our MR study further demonstrated that the susceptibility to both COVID-19 (OR=0.963, p=0.006) and severe COVID-19 (OR=0.919, p=0.049) were lower in CeD patients, although the former seemed to be specific to the UKB cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that it may be unnecessary to take extra COVID-19 precaution in CeD patients.

4.
iScience ; 25(4): 104043, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734555

ABSTRACT

With the rapid emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants, development of vaccines with broad and potent protectivity has become a global priority. Here, we designed a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-unmodified mRNA (mRNA-LNP) vaccine encoding the trimerized receptor-binding domain (RBD trimer) and showed its robust capability in inducing broad and protective immune responses against wild-type and major variants of concern (VOCs) in the mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The protectivity was correlated with RBD-specific B cell responses especially the long-lived plasma B cells in bone marrow, strong ability in triggering BCR clustering, and downstream signaling. Monoclonal antibodies isolated from vaccinated animals demonstrated broad and potent neutralizing activity against VOCs tested. Structure analysis of one representative antibody identified a novel epitope with a high degree of conservation among different variants. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the RBD trimer mRNA vaccine serves as a promising vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2 variants and beyond.

5.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has witnessed more than 4.5 million deaths as of the time of writing. Whether nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk for severe COVID-19 remains unclear. We sought to address this question using 2-sample Mendelian randomization (TSMR) analysis approaches in large cohorts. METHODS: We performed large-scale TSMR analyses to examine whether there is a causal relationship between NAFLD, serum alanine aminotransferase, grade of steatosis, NAFLD Activity Score, or fibrosis stage and severe COVID-19. To maximize the power of this analysis, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with NAFLD. We also examined the impact of 20 major comorbid factors of NAFLD on severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Univariate analysis of the UK Biobank data demonstrated a significant association between NAFLD and severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR], 3.06; P = 1.07 × 10-6). However, this association disappeared after demographic and comorbid factors were adjusted (OR, 1.57; P = .09). TSMR study indicated that NAFLD (OR, 0.97; P = .61), alanine aminotransferase level (OR, 1.03; P = .47), grade of steatosis (OR, 1.08; P = .41), NAFLD Activity Score (OR, 1.02; P = .39), and fibrosis stage (OR, 1.01; P = .87) were not associated with severe COVID-19. Among all NAFLD-related comorbid factors, body mass index (OR, 1.73; P = 7.65 × 10-9), waist circumference (OR, 1.76; P = 2.58 × 10-5), and hip circumference (OR, 1.33; P = 7.26 × 10-3) were the only ones demonstrated a causal impact on severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence supporting that NAFLD is a causal risk factor for severe COVID-19. Previous observational associations between NAFLD and COVID-19 are likely attributed to the correlation between NAFLD and obesity.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(11): e2122954119, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721790

ABSTRACT

SignificanceSARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve through emerging variants, more frequently observed with higher transmissibility. Despite the wide application of vaccines and antibodies, the selection pressure on the Spike protein may lead to further evolution of variants that include mutations that can evade immune response. To catch up with the virus's evolution, we introduced a deep learning approach to redesign the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to target multiple virus variants and obtained an antibody that broadly neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Complementarity Determining Regions , Deep Learning , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(13): 5702-5707, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713118

ABSTRACT

The rapid emergence and spread of escaping mutations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly challenged our efforts in fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic. A broadly neutralizing reagent against these concerning variants is thus highly desirable for the prophylactic and therapeutic treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We herein report a covalent engineering strategy on protein minibinders for potent neutralization of the escaping variants such as B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.617.1 (Kappa), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) through in situ cross-linking with the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). The resulting covalent minibinder (GlueBinder) exhibited enhanced blockage of RBD-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (huACE2) interaction and more potent neutralization effect against the Delta variant than its noncovalent counterpart as demonstrated on authentic virus. By leveraging the covalent chemistry against escaping mutations, our strategy may be generally applicable for restoring and enhancing the potency of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and other rapidly evolving viral targets.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323623

ABSTRACT

Background: In current pandemic of COVID-19, approximately 15% to 30% of critically ill COVID-19 patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with a high mortality. Extracorporeal membrane of oxygenation (ECMO) provides direct support for both lung and heart in ARDS. However, the role of ECMO in COVID-19 related ARDS was still controversial. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) management, risk factors for mortality, 180-day short term prognosis of the COVID-19 related severe ARDS patients receiving ECMO treatment. Methods: : From Feb 2 nd , 2020 to April 27 th , 2020, we included adult COVID-19 related ARDS patients admitted to intensive care unit in Tongji Hospital. Totally, 53 patients were retrospectively analyzed. They were divided into ECMO (mechanical ventilation with ECMO, n=16) and non-ECMO group (mechanical ventilation, n=37). The primary outcome was all-cause 60-day mortality. The secondary outcomes were complications on ECMO, successful weaning from ECMO, and all-cause 180-day mortality. Results: : The all-cause 60-day mortality was 37.5% (6/16) in ECMO group and 86.5% (32/37) in non-ECMO group (HR, 0.196;95% CI, 0.053-0.721;p=0.014). 10 (62.5%) patients were successfully weaned from ECMO. The all-cause 180-day mortality was 56.3% (9/16) in ECMO group and 33 (89.2%, 33/37) in non-ECMO group (HR, 0.298;95% CI, 0.130-0.680;p=0.004). All the patients in ECMO group suffered from at least one device-related complication with coagulopathy (81.3%) being most frequently seen. Up to 180-day follow up after disease onset, the ECMO-treated survivors maintained good quality of life without severe complications or disabilities. Hypercapnia, thrombopenia, myocardial injury and elevation of IL-8 and IL-10 during ECMO treatment were strongly associated with death. Conclusion: This study showed the COVID-19 patients significantly benefited from ECMO treatment during severe ARDS, which supported the application of ECMO as an indicated strategy in the management of COVID-19 related ARDS.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most serious catastrophe since the Second World War. To more accurately observe the epidemic under the influence of policies and provide policy adjustments before the official presidential transition in the United States, we use a three-layer superimposed Long-Short-Term-Memory (LSTM) model to predict the epidemic development trend to mid-January, 2021. The proposed model provides more accuracy and stability relative to Susceptible-Exposed-Infective-Recovered (SEIR), modified stacked au-to-encoder, and single-layer LSTM models. The performance effects of the measures in China and five countries with severe epidemics are analysed and summarised. The model shows that the error rate of China, five countries and the world is less than 1.4%. According to forecasts, the epidemic situations in the United States, India, and Brazil, caused by untimely, inappropriate policies, lax regulations and insufficient public cooperation, remain very severe, with cases continuing to increase by tens of thousands. The number of cumulative confirmed cases worldwide will exceed 84.58 million by mid-January, 2021;however, the mortality rate will gradually decrease. Based on analysis of measures (including China’s effective prevention and control policies), we found that there are performed tremendous different efficiency even using same positive policy for different countries because of various cooperation between people and governments. It is essential to maintain self-protection to prevent the epidemic from deterioration or regenerating, especially, wearing mask and maintaining a safe distance.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310369

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is currently spreading widely around the world, causing huge threats on public safety and global society. This study analyzes the spatiotemporal spread pattern of the COVID-19 in China, reveals China’s epicenters of the epidemic through spatial clustering, and delineates the substantial effect of distance to Wuhan on the COVID-19 spread. The results show that the daily new COVID-19 cases mostly occurred in and around Wuhan before March 6, and then moved to the Grand Bay Area (Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macau). The total COVID-19 cases in China were mainly distributed in the east of the Huhuanyong Line, where the epicenters account for more than 60% of the country’s total on 24 January and 7 February, half on 31 January, and more than 70% from 14 February. The total cases finally stabilized around 84,000, and the inflection point for Wuhan was on 14 February, one week later than those of Hubei (outside Wuhan) and China (outside Hubei). The generalized additive model-based analysis shows that population density and distance to provincial cities significantly associated with the total number of the cases, while distances to prefecture cities and inter-city traffic stations, and population inflow from Wuhan after 24 January, had no strong relationships with the total number of cases. The results and findings should provide valuable insights for understanding the changes in the COVID-19 transmission and controlling the global COVID-19 spread.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308272

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a severe novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (Coronavirus Disease 2019,COVID-19) has occurred in Wuhan, China, and has rapidly spread to the country and around the world. This study intends to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in a surrounding city of Wuhan. Methods: : A retrospective study was conducted on 208 cases of COVID -19 patients from February 11, 2020 to February 29, 2020 in Xiaogan dongnan Hospital, collected basic information, history of exposure, medical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory indicators and pulmonary imaging Data, and analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of all patients. According to the clinical classification criteria, 208 patients were divided into light group and ordinary group, and the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of the two groups were compared. Results: : Among 208 patients in this study, with a median age of 50.5 years (IQR,36-64.7,range,10-91 years), among which 107 (51.4%) were males and 101 (48.6%) were females. 51 (24.5%) had a clear exposure to COVID-19 infection within 2 weeks before admission, and 40 (19.2%) had a history of residence or exposure in Wuhan within 2 weeks before admission. Among all the patients, there were 16 (7.7%) with pulmonary diseases, 41 (19.7%) with hypertension, 11 (5.3%) with coronary heart disease, 13 (6.3%) with diabetes, 12(5.8%) with a history of alcohol consumption, and 12(5.8%) with a history of smoking. Among all clinical symptoms, 146 cases (70.2%) of fever, the highest temperature range was 37.3℃-41℃ before admission, 115 (55.3%) cases of cough, and 57 (27.4%) cases of chest tightness, 47 (22.6%) cases of fatigue, 28 (13.5%) cases of inappetence, 9 (4.3%) cases of diarrhea, 7 (3.4%) cases of nasal congestion or runny nose , and 5 ( 2.4%) cases of pharyngalgia. Analysis of the laboratory results of 208 patients showed that 42 (20.2%) cases had decreased white blood cell count, and 61 (29.3%) cases had decreased lymphocyte count. There were 154 (74%) cases with elevated CRP, 50 (24%) cases with elevated fasting blood glucose, and 23 (11.1%) cases with elevated LDH (>245U/L). The comparison of clinical characteristics between the light group and the common group showed that the median age of the light group was 44.8 years (IQR 30-58), the median age of the common group was 53.1 years (IQR 38.8-67) (P<0.01). The symptoms of fever [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05], fatigue [53(80.3%) vs 93(65.5%),P<0.05] and inappetence [4(6.1%) vs 24(16.9%),P<0.05] in the light group were less than those in the common group. The white blood cell count (5.48 vs 6.37, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (1.40 vs 1.61, P<0.05) and HDL-C (1.5 vs 1.3, P<0.05) of the common group were lower than that of the light group, while CRP (26.5 vs 22.1, P<0.01), AST (22.9 vs 18.5, P<0.05), fasting blood glucose (5.8 vs 5.6, P<0.05), LDH (196.8 vs 157.9, P<0.001) of the common group were higher than that of the light group. Conclusion: COVID-19 infection is mainly in middle-aged and elderly patients, patients with other diseases are more susceptible to infection. The main symptoms of COVID-19 infection were fever, cough, chest tightness, fatigue, and inappetence. Decreased lymphocyte count, increased CRP concentration, increased LDH concentration and decreased HDL-C concentration were the laboratory features of COVID-19 infection, and were important indicators to assess the severity of COVID-19 disease.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308240

ABSTRACT

We propose a high dimensional Bayesian inference framework for learning heterogeneous dynamics of a COVID-19 model, with a specific application to the dynamics and severity of COVID-19 inside and outside long-term care (LTC) facilities. We develop a heterogeneous compartmental model that accounts for the heterogeneity of the time-varying spread and severity of COVID-19 inside and outside LTC facilities, which is characterized by time-dependent stochastic processes and time-independent parameters in $\sim$1500 dimensions after discretization. To infer these parameters, we use reported data on the number of confirmed, hospitalized, and deceased cases with suitable post-processing in both a deterministic inversion approach with appropriate regularization as a first step, followed by Bayesian inversion with proper prior distributions. To address the curse of dimensionality and the ill-posedness of the high-dimensional inference problem, we propose use of a dimension-independent projected Stein variational gradient descent method, and demonstrate the intrinsic low-dimensionality of the inverse problem. We present inference results with quantified uncertainties for both New Jersey and Texas, which experienced different epidemic phases and patterns. Moreover, we also present forecasting and validation results based on the empirical posterior samples of our inference for the future trajectory of COVID-19.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307178

ABSTRACT

This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.

14.
Mathematics ; 10(3):445, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1686878

ABSTRACT

Using a rare disaster risk database from almost the last one hundred years, we examine the differences in the reaction of asset prices to rare disaster risk between commodity and financial assets. We first employ time-varying parameter VAR (TVP-VAR) models to investigate the role of rare disaster risk in the price dynamics of major asset markets. The results indicate that disaster risk generally has a more intense and persistent impact on crude oil and stock markets when compared to gold and bond markets. However, the role of rare disaster risk differs substantially between commodity and financial assets, as well as between the short and long term. Moreover, when using a nonparametric causality-in-quantiles method to detect causal relationships, we provide evidence of the nonlinear causality effect of rare disaster risks on asset volatilities, and not their returns, except for crude oil. In addition, we demonstrate that augmenting a diversified portfolio of stock or bonds with gold can significantly increase its risk-adjusted performance. The findings have important implications for investors as well as policymakers.

15.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 759257, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686452

ABSTRACT

The clinical management of patients with COVID-19 and cancer is a Gordian knot that has been discussed widely but has not reached a consensus. We introduced two-sample Mendelian randomization to investigate the causal association between a genetic predisposition to cancers and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity. Moreover, we also explored the mutation landscape, expression pattern, and prognostic implications of genes involved with COVID-19 in distinct cancers. Among all of the cancer types we analyzed, only the genetic predisposition to lung adenocarcinoma was causally associated with increased COVID-19 severity (OR = 2.93, ß = 1.074, se = 0.411, p = 0.009) with no obvious heterogeneity (Q = 17.29, p = 0.24) or symmetry of the funnel plot. In addition, the results of the pleiotropy test demonstrated that instrument SNPs were less likely to affect COVID-19 severity via approaches other than lung adenocarcinoma cancer susceptibility (p = 0.96). Leave-one-out analysis showed no outliers in instrument SNPs, whose elimination rendered alterations in statistical significance, which further supported the reliability of the MR results. Broad mutation and differential expression of these genes were also found in cancers, which may provide valuable information for developing new treatment modalities for patients with both cancer and COVID-19. For example, ERAP2, a risk factor for COVID-19-associated death, is upregulated in lung squamous cancer and negatively associated with patient prognosis. Hence, ERAP2-targeted treatment may simultaneously reduce COVID-19 disease severity and restrain cancer progression. Our results highlighted the importance of strengthening medical surveillance for COVID-19 deterioration in patients with lung adenocarcinoma by showing their causal genetic association. For these patients, a delay in anticancer treatment, such as chemotherapy and surgery, should be considered.

16.
J Exp Criminol ; : 1-28, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study examines the variation in the daily incidence of eight acquisitive crimes: automobile theft, electromobile theft, motorcycle theft, bicycle theft, theft from automobiles, pickpocketing, residential burglary, and cyber-fraud before the lockdown and the duration of the lockdown for a medium-sized city in China. METHODS: Regression discontinuity in time (RDiT) models are used to test the effect of the lockdown measures on crime by examining the daily variation of raw counts and rate. RESULTS: It is indicated that in contrast to numerous violent crime categories such as domestic violence where findings have repeatedly found increases during the COVID-19 pandemic, acquisitive crimes in this city were reduced during the lockdown period for all categories, while "cyber-fraud" was found more resilient in the sense that its decrease was not as salient as for most other crime types, possibly due to people's use of the internet during the lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide further support to opportunity theories of crime that are contingent upon the need for a motivated offender to identify a suitable target in physical space.

17.
J Exp Criminol ; : 1, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588751

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1007/s11292-021-09486-7.].

18.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296272

ABSTRACT

New SARS-CoV-2 variants continue to emerge from the current global pandemic, some of which can replicate faster and with greater transmissibility and pathogenicity. In particular, UK501Y.V1 identified in UK, SA501Y.V2 in South Africa, and BR501Y.V3 in Brazil are raising serious concerns as they spread quickly and contain spike protein mutations that may facilitate escape from current antibody therapies and vaccine protection. Here, we constructed a panel of 28 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses bearing single or combined mutations found in the spike protein of these three variants, as well as additional nine mutations that within or close by the major antigenic sites in the spike protein identified in the GISAID database. These pseudoviruses were tested against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including some approved for emergency use to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection, and convalescent patient plasma collected early in the pandemic. SA501Y.V2 pseudovirus was the most resistant, in magnitude and breadth, against mAbs and convalescent plasma, followed by BR501Y.V3, and then UK501Y.V1. This resistance hierarchy corresponds with Y144del and 242-244del mutations in the N-terminal domain as well as K417N/T, E484K and N501Y mutations in the receptor binding domain (RBD). Crystal structural analysis of RBD carrying triple K417N-E484K-N501Y mutations found in SA501Y.V2 bound with mAb P2C-1F11 revealed a molecular basis for antibody neutralization and escape. SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3 also acquired substantial ability to use mouse and mink ACE2 for entry. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate major antigenic shifts and potentially broadening the host range of SA501Y.V2 and BR501Y.V3, which pose serious challenges to our current antibody therapies and vaccine protection.

19.
Sustainability ; 13(20):11308, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1480958

ABSTRACT

Based on the data of the 283 prefecture-level cities in China from 2003 to 2018, this paper examines the impact of Internet development on environmental quality. The results show that China’s urban PM2.5 has a significant spatial spillover effect. In general, the Internet has a significant negative direct effect on urban environmental pollution, which means that the development of the Internet can improve urban environmental quality. This result remains robust under different methods. As the Internet has evolved over the years, its influence on environmental quality has increased and became more and more significant. In terms of regions, the spatial spillover effect of PM2.5 shows a pattern of eastern region < central region < western region < northeast region, where the eastern region is the only region with a statistically significant negative value for the coefficient, which indicates the direct effects of Internet development on the environmental quality. In addition, the statistic testing on mediating effect shows that the Internet’s effect on urban environment quality is mainly transmitted through the upgrading of industrial structure. With the industrial structure being used as the threshold variable, the influence of Internet development on environmental quality could be divided into two stages.

20.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; 36(4):624-633, 2020.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1406942

ABSTRACT

In recent years, more and more new pathogenic respiratory viruses have been discovered, which has caused great problems for the prevention and control of port inspection and quarantine agencies. To establish detection systems for nine respiratory pathogens including influenza A virus (FluA) . influenza B virus (FluA) Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV-1 HPIV-2, HMV-3 HPTV-4), Corona virus (NL63, 0C43, 229E, HKUI, MERS), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) . Human paratyphovirus (HMPV) human bocavirus (Hbov), Adenovirus(Adv) and Rhinovirus(Rhv). The human 3 actin gene was selected as the target gene to design the internal primer and probe. Primers and probes based on conservative regions of 9 respiratory pathogens were designed. Appropriate RT -PCR Mastermix based on the Ultra Fast Real-time PCR G2 -4 platform were selected. The primer and probe concentrations were optimized and the sensitivity and specificity of the primers and probes were verified by the optimized amplification system. Retrospective examination was carried out on 100 clinical specimens examined by Nantong International Travel Health Clinic in 2018. A rapid amplification RT-PCR Mastermix was selected with optimized upper primer, downstream primer and probe of 16 respiratory pathogens at concentrations of 500 nmol/L, 500 nmol/L and 250 nmol/L, respectively. The upstream primers, downstream primers, and probes of the internal gene were at concentrations of 300 nmol/L, 300rtmol/L. and 150 nmol/L. respectively. Under this amplification system, the minimum detection limit for 9 respiratory pathogens was 1.0 X 103copies/mL, without cross-reaction . The accuracy of 100 clinical samples was 10094. Thus, a microfluid chip amplification system for rapid detection of 9 respiratory viruses was established, which can he used to qualitatively detect nine kinds of viral nucleic acids within 25 min.

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