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1.
Br J Radiol ; : 20220180, 2023 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of utilizing artificial intelligence (AI) to quantify the extent of pneumonia from chest CT scans, and to determine its ability to predict clinical deterioration or mortality in patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 in comparison to semi-quantitative visual scoring systems. METHODS: A deep-learning algorithm was utilized to quantify the pneumonia burden, while semi-quantitative pneumonia severity scores were estimated through visual means. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration, the composite end point including admission to the intensive care unit, need for invasive mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor therapy, as well as in-hospital death. RESULTS: The final population comprised 743 patients (mean age 65  ±â€¯ 17 years, 55% men), of whom 175 (23.5%) experienced clinical deterioration or death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting the primary outcome was significantly higher for AI-assisted quantitative pneumonia burden (0.739, p = 0.021) compared with the visual lobar severity score (0.711, p < 0.001) and visual segmental severity score (0.722, p = 0.042). AI-assisted pneumonia assessment exhibited lower performance when applied for calculation of the lobar severity score (AUC of 0.723, p = 0.021). Time taken for AI-assisted quantification of pneumonia burden was lower (38 ± 10 s) compared to that of visual lobar (328 ± 54 s, p < 0.001) and segmental (698 ± 147 s, p < 0.001) severity scores. CONCLUSION: Utilizing AI-assisted quantification of pneumonia burden from chest CT scans offers a more accurate prediction of clinical deterioration in patients with COVID-19 compared to semi-quantitative severity scores, while requiring only a fraction of the analysis time. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Quantitative pneumonia burden assessed using AI demonstrated higher performance for predicting clinical deterioration compared to current semi-quantitative scoring systems. Such an AI system has the potential to be applied for image-based triage of COVID-19 patients in clinical practice.

3.
JAMA ; 329(22): 1934-1946, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243721

ABSTRACT

Importance: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with persistent, relapsing, or new symptoms or other health effects occurring after acute infection, termed postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), also known as long COVID. Characterizing PASC requires analysis of prospectively and uniformly collected data from diverse uninfected and infected individuals. Objective: To develop a definition of PASC using self-reported symptoms and describe PASC frequencies across cohorts, vaccination status, and number of infections. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective observational cohort study of adults with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection at 85 enrolling sites (hospitals, health centers, community organizations) located in 33 states plus Washington, DC, and Puerto Rico. Participants who were enrolled in the RECOVER adult cohort before April 10, 2023, completed a symptom survey 6 months or more after acute symptom onset or test date. Selection included population-based, volunteer, and convenience sampling. Exposure: SARS-CoV-2 infection. Main Outcomes and Measures: PASC and 44 participant-reported symptoms (with severity thresholds). Results: A total of 9764 participants (89% SARS-CoV-2 infected; 71% female; 16% Hispanic/Latino; 15% non-Hispanic Black; median age, 47 years [IQR, 35-60]) met selection criteria. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.5 or greater (infected vs uninfected participants) for 37 symptoms. Symptoms contributing to PASC score included postexertional malaise, fatigue, brain fog, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, palpitations, changes in sexual desire or capacity, loss of or change in smell or taste, thirst, chronic cough, chest pain, and abnormal movements. Among 2231 participants first infected on or after December 1, 2021, and enrolled within 30 days of infection, 224 (10% [95% CI, 8.8%-11%]) were PASC positive at 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: A definition of PASC was developed based on symptoms in a prospective cohort study. As a first step to providing a framework for other investigations, iterative refinement that further incorporates other clinical features is needed to support actionable definitions of PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Female , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , COVID-19/complications , Prospective Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fatigue
4.
JAMA ; 329(14): 1170-1182, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303367

ABSTRACT

Importance: Preclinical models suggest dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection may increase the relative activity of angiotensin II compared with angiotensin (1-7) and may be an important contributor to COVID-19 pathophysiology. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of RAS modulation using 2 investigational RAS agents, TXA-127 (synthetic angiotensin [1-7]) and TRV-027 (an angiotensin II type 1 receptor-biased ligand), that are hypothesized to potentiate the action of angiotensin (1-7) and mitigate the action of the angiotensin II. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two randomized clinical trials including adults hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and new-onset hypoxemia were conducted at 35 sites in the US between July 22, 2021, and April 20, 2022; last follow-up visit: July 26, 2022. Interventions: A 0.5-mg/kg intravenous infusion of TXA-127 once daily for 5 days or placebo. A 12-mg/h continuous intravenous infusion of TRV-027 for 5 days or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was oxygen-free days, an ordinal outcome that classifies a patient's status at day 28 based on mortality and duration of supplemental oxygen use; an adjusted odds ratio (OR) greater than 1.0 indicated superiority of the RAS agent vs placebo. A key secondary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality. Safety outcomes included allergic reaction, new kidney replacement therapy, and hypotension. Results: Both trials met prespecified early stopping criteria for a low probability of efficacy. Of 343 patients in the TXA-127 trial (226 [65.9%] aged 31-64 years, 200 [58.3%] men, 225 [65.6%] White, and 274 [79.9%] not Hispanic), 170 received TXA-127 and 173 received placebo. Of 290 patients in the TRV-027 trial (199 [68.6%] aged 31-64 years, 168 [57.9%] men, 195 [67.2%] White, and 225 [77.6%] not Hispanic), 145 received TRV-027 and 145 received placebo. Compared with placebo, both TXA-127 (unadjusted mean difference, -2.3 [95% CrI, -4.8 to 0.2]; adjusted OR, 0.88 [95% CrI, 0.59 to 1.30]) and TRV-027 (unadjusted mean difference, -2.4 [95% CrI, -5.1 to 0.3]; adjusted OR, 0.74 [95% CrI, 0.48 to 1.13]) resulted in no difference in oxygen-free days. In the TXA-127 trial, 28-day all-cause mortality occurred in 22 of 163 patients (13.5%) in the TXA-127 group vs 22 of 166 patients (13.3%) in the placebo group (adjusted OR, 0.83 [95% CrI, 0.41 to 1.66]). In the TRV-027 trial, 28-day all-cause mortality occurred in 29 of 141 patients (20.6%) in the TRV-027 group vs 18 of 140 patients (12.9%) in the placebo group (adjusted OR, 1.52 [95% CrI, 0.75 to 3.08]). The frequency of the safety outcomes was similar with either TXA-127 or TRV-027 vs placebo. Conclusions and Relevance: In adults with severe COVID-19, RAS modulation (TXA-127 or TRV-027) did not improve oxygen-free days vs placebo. These results do not support the hypotheses that pharmacological interventions that selectively block the angiotensin II type 1 receptor or increase angiotensin (1-7) improve outcomes for patients with severe COVID-19. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04924660.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Vasodilator Agents , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensins/administration & dosage , Angiotensins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/mortality , Infusions, Intravenous , Ligands , Oligopeptides/administration & dosage , Oligopeptides/therapeutic use , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/administration & dosage , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1/therapeutic use , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Elife ; 122023 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273482

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a generalist virus, infecting and evolving in numerous mammals, including captive and companion animals, free-ranging wildlife, and humans. Transmission among non-human species poses a risk for the establishment of SARS-CoV-2 reservoirs, makes eradication difficult, and provides the virus with opportunities for new evolutionary trajectories, including the selection of adaptive mutations and the emergence of new variant lineages. Here, we use publicly available viral genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis to systematically investigate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between human and non-human species and to identify mutations associated with each species. We found the highest frequency of animal-to-human transmission from mink, compared with lower transmission from other sampled species (cat, dog, and deer). Although inferred transmission events could be limited by sampling biases, our results provide a useful baseline for further studies. Using genome-wide association studies, no single nucleotide variants (SNVs) were significantly associated with cats and dogs, potentially due to small sample sizes. However, we identified three SNVs statistically associated with mink and 26 with deer. Of these SNVs, ~⅔ were plausibly introduced into these animal species from local human populations, while the remaining ~⅓ were more likely derived in animal populations and are thus top candidates for experimental studies of species-specific adaptation. Together, our results highlight the importance of studying animal-associated SARS-CoV-2 mutations to assess their potential impact on human and animal health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Deer , Animals , Cats , Dogs , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Phylogeny , Mink/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Deer/genetics , Zoonoses , Mutation , Genome, Viral
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 10(1)2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279693

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Initial reports suggest the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2 causes less severe disease compared with the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant, though more widespread vaccination contributed to these findings. Little is known about clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring intensive care during periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance. AIM: To examine and compare characteristics of critically ill adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection during periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of critically ill adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection at one academic hospital in Los Angeles during Delta (15 July 2021-23 September 2021) and Omicron (21 December 2021-27 January 2022) predominance. Patient characteristics were compared between Delta-period and Omicron-period hospitalisations, overall and stratified by vaccination status. RESULTS: 79 adults required intensive care during the Delta predominance period and 116 during the Omicron predominance period. We found similar proportions of intensive care unit admissions occurring in fully vaccinated patients between the two periods, despite Los Angeles County data revealing an almost 60% increase in the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 hospitalisations occurring in fully vaccinated persons. There was no difference in the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Among those who required IMV, the median duration of IMV was shorter overall (Delta=18 days; Omicron=8 days; p=0.006) and among unvaccinated persons (Delta=19 days; Omicron=8.5 days; p=0.018). Among unvaccinated persons, the median intensive care unit length of stay was shorter (Delta=12 days; Omicron=5 days; p=0.037) during Omicron predominance. There was no difference in the proportion of patients who died while hospitalised. CONCLUSIONS: In this single-hospital study, critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection experienced less severe respiratory disease during Omicron predominance, likely due to reduced variant-specific virulence. Vaccination likely reduced development of critical illness in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection during Omicron predominance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals
7.
Anesth Analg ; 136(4): 692-698, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) on outcomes of patients with respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. We sought to assess whether exposure to HFNC before intubation was associated with successful extubation and in-hospital mortality compared to patients receiving intubation only. METHODS: This single-center retrospective study examined patients with COVID-19-related respiratory failure from March 2020 to March 2021 who required HFNC, intubation, or both. Data were abstracted from the electronic health record. Use and duration of HFNC and intubation were examined' as well as demographics and clinical characteristics. We assessed the association between HFNC before intubation (versus without) and chance of successful extubation and in-hospital death using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, prior chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, HCO 3 , CO 2 , oxygen-saturation-to-inspired-oxygen (S:F) ratio, pulse, respiratory rate, temperature, and length of stay before intervention. RESULTS: A total of n = 440 patients were identified, of whom 311 (70.7%) received HFNC before intubation, and 129 (29.3%) were intubated without prior use of HFNC. Patients who received HFNC before intubation had a higher chance of in-hospital death (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-4.05). No difference was found in the chance of successful extubation between the 2 groups (0.70, 0.41-1.20). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with respiratory failure from COVID-19 requiring mechanical ventilation, patients receiving HFNC before intubation had a higher chance of in-hospital death. Decisions on initial respiratory support modality should weigh the risks of intubation with potential increased mortality associated with HFNC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency , Ventilators, Mechanical , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/adverse effects , Cannula , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal
8.
iScience ; 25(10): 105209, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041845

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have unquestionably blunted the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, but host factors such as age, sex, obesity, and other co-morbidities can affect vaccine efficacy. We identified individuals in a relatively healthy population of healthcare workers (CORALE study cohort) who had unexpectedly low peak anti-spike receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibody levels after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Compared to matched controls, "low responders" had fewer spike-specific antibody-producing B cells after the second and third/booster doses. Moreover, their spike-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire had less depth and their CD4+ and CD8+T cell responses to spike peptide stimulation were less robust. Single cell transcriptomic evaluation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed activation of aging pathways in low responder B and CD4+T cells that could underlie their attenuated anti-S-RBD antibody production. Premature lymphocyte aging may therefore contribute to a less effective humoral response and could reduce vaccination efficacy.

9.
J Med Imaging (Bellingham) ; 9(5): 054001, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019653

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Quantitative lung measures derived from computed tomography (CT) have been demonstrated to improve prognostication in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients but are not part of clinical routine because the required manual segmentation of lung lesions is prohibitively time consuming. We aim to automatically segment ground-glass opacities and high opacities (comprising consolidation and pleural effusion). Approach: We propose a new fully automated deep-learning framework for fast multi-class segmentation of lung lesions in COVID-19 pneumonia from both contrast and non-contrast CT images using convolutional long short-term memory (ConvLSTM) networks. Utilizing the expert annotations, model training was performed using five-fold cross-validation to segment COVID-19 lesions. The performance of the method was evaluated on CT datasets from 197 patients with a positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test result for SARS-CoV-2, 68 unseen test cases, and 695 independent controls. Results: Strong agreement between expert manual and automatic segmentation was obtained for lung lesions with a Dice score of 0.89 ± 0.07 ; excellent correlations of 0.93 and 0.98 for ground-glass opacity (GGO) and high opacity volumes, respectively, were obtained. In the external testing set of 68 patients, we observed a Dice score of 0.89 ± 0.06 as well as excellent correlations of 0.99 and 0.98 for GGO and high opacity volumes, respectively. Computations for a CT scan comprising 120 slices were performed under 3 s on a computer equipped with an NVIDIA TITAN RTX GPU. Diagnostically, the automated quantification of the lung burden % discriminate COVID-19 patients from controls with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.96 (0.95-0.98). Conclusions: Our method allows for the rapid fully automated quantitative measurement of the pneumonia burden from CT, which can be used to rapidly assess the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia on chest CT.

10.
QJM ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018084

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection that currently lacks effective preventative or therapeutic measures. Post-viral lung fibrosis due to SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be progressive on selected patients using imaging studies. Persistent infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, a main feature of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary fibrosis, and long-lived circulating inflammatory monocytes might be driving factors promoting the profibrotic milieu in the lung. The upstream signal (s) that regulates the presence of these immune cells (despite complete viral clearance) remains to be explored. Current data indicate that much of the stimulating signals are localized in the lungs. However, an ongoing low-grade systemic inflammation in long COVID-19 symptoms suggests that certain non-pulmonary regulators such as epigenetic changes in hematopoietic stem cells might be critical to the chronic inflammatory response. Since nearly one-third of the world population have been infected, a timely understanding of the underlying pathogenesis leading to tissue remodeling is required. Herein, we review the potential pathogenic mechanisms driving lung fibrosis following SARS-CoV-2 infection based upon available studies and our preliminary findings.

11.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1266-1274, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ensovibep (MP0420) is a designed ankyrin repeat protein, a novel class of engineered proteins, under investigation as a treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if ensovibep, in addition to remdesivir and other standard care, improves clinical outcomes among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with standard care alone. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04501978). SETTING: Multinational, multicenter trial. PARTICIPANTS: Adults hospitalized with COVID-19. INTERVENTION: Intravenous ensovibep, 600 mg, or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Ensovibep was assessed for early futility on the basis of pulmonary ordinal scores at day 5. The primary outcome was time to sustained recovery through day 90, defined as 14 consecutive days at home or place of usual residence after hospital discharge. A composite safety outcome that included death, serious adverse events, end-organ disease, and serious infections was assessed through day 90. RESULTS: An independent data and safety monitoring board recommended that enrollment be halted for early futility after 485 patients were randomly assigned and received an infusion of ensovibep (n = 247) or placebo (n = 238). The odds ratio (OR) for a more favorable pulmonary outcome in the ensovibep (vs. placebo) group at day 5 was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.67 to 1.30; P = 0.68; OR > 1 would favor ensovibep). The 90-day cumulative incidence of sustained recovery was 82% for ensovibep and 80% for placebo (subhazard ratio [sHR], 1.06 [CI, 0.88 to 1.28]; sHR > 1 would favor ensovibep). The primary composite safety outcome at day 90 occurred in 78 ensovibep participants (32%) and 70 placebo participants (29%) (HR, 1.07 [CI, 0.77 to 1.47]; HR < 1 would favor ensovibep). LIMITATION: The trial was prematurely stopped because of futility, limiting power for the primary outcome. CONCLUSION: Compared with placebo, ensovibep did not improve clinical outcomes for hospitalized participants with COVID-19 receiving standard care, including remdesivir; no safety concerns were identified. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adult , Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e059994, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand the demographic and clinical factors associated with variations in longitudinal antibody response following completion of two-dose regiment of BNT162b2 vaccination. DESIGN: This study is a 10-month longitudinal cohort study of healthcare workers and serially measured anti-spike protein IgG (IgG-S) antibody levels using mixed linear models to examine their associations with participant characteristics. SETTING: A large, multisite academic medical centre in Southern California, USA. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 843 healthcare workers met inclusion criteria including completion of an initial two-dose course of BNT162b2 vaccination, complete clinical history and at least two blood samples for analysis. Patients had an average age of 45±13 years, were 70% female and 7% with prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced IgG-S levels remained in the positive range for 99.6% of individuals up to 10 months after initial two-dose vaccination. Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection was the primary correlate of sustained higher postvaccination IgG-S levels (partial R2=0.133), with a 1.74±0.11 SD higher IgG-S response (p<0.001). Female sex (beta 0.27±0.06, p<0.001), younger age (0.01±0.00, p<0.001) and absence of hypertension (0.17±0.08, p=0.003) were also associated with persistently higher IgG-S responses. Notably, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection augmented the associations of sex (-0.42 for male sex, p=0.08) and modified the associations of hypertension (1.17, p=0.001), such that infection-naïve individuals with hypertension had persistently lower IgG-S levels whereas prior infected individuals with hypertension exhibited higher IgG-S levels that remained augmented over time. CONCLUSIONS: While the IgG-S antibody response remains in the positive range for up to 10 months following initial mRNA vaccination in most adults, determinants of sustained higher antibody levels include prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, female sex, younger age and absence of hypertension. Certain determinants of the longitudinal antibody response appear significantly modified by prior infection status. These findings offer insights regarding factors that may influence the 'hybrid' immunity conferred by natural infection combined with vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Demography , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(5): ofac172, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831312

ABSTRACT

Background: In the phase 2/3 BLAZE-1 trial, bamlanivimab and etesevimab together reduced coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related hospitalizations and any-cause mortality in ambulatory patients. Herein, we assess the impact of bamlanivimab and etesevimab treatment on the severity and length of symptoms and health outcomes among patients at increased risk for severe COVID-19. Methods: In the phase 3 portion of BLAZE-1 (NCT04427501), symptomatic patients with increased risk for severe COVID-19 were randomized (2:1) to a single infusion of 700 mg bamlanivimab and 1400 mg etesevimab or placebo. Hospitalization events, vital signs, and symptomatology were monitored throughout the trial. Results: Overall, 769 patients were randomized to bamlanivimab and etesevimab together (n = 511) or placebo (n = 258). The time to sustained symptom resolution was significantly shorter among patients who received bamlanivimab and etesevimab compared with placebo (8 vs 10 days; P < .01). The median time to first sustained symptom resolution of body aches and pain, chills, fatigue, feeling feverish, headache, and shortness of breath was significantly different in patients receiving bamlanivimab and etesevimab compared to placebo (P < .05). The proportion of patients who experienced COVID-19-related hospitalization by day 29 was significantly reduced among the bamlanivimab and etesevimab group compared with placebo (0.8% vs 5.4%; P < .01). The mean duration of hospital stay was numerically shorter among patients who received bamlanivimab and etesevimab (7.3 vs 13.5 days; P = .16), with fewer intensive care admissions. Conclusions: Patients receiving bamlanivimab and etesevimab together resolved their symptoms more rapidly than those receiving placebo. Bamlanivimab and etesevimab treatment was associated with reduced rates of hospitalizations and shorter hospital stays. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT04427501.

16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(6): 217-223, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687590

ABSTRACT

In mid-December 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, surpassed the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant as the predominant strain in California.§ Initial reports suggest that the Omicron variant is more transmissible and resistant to vaccine neutralization but causes less severe illness compared with previous variants (1-3). To describe characteristics of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection during periods of Delta and Omicron predominance, clinical characteristics and outcomes were retrospectively abstracted from the electronic health records (EHRs) of adults aged ≥18 years with positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) SARS-CoV-2 test results admitted to one academic hospital in Los Angeles, California, during July 15-September 23, 2021 (Delta predominant period, 339 patients) and December 21, 2021-January 27, 2022 (Omicron predominant period, 737 patients). Compared with patients during the period of Delta predominance, a higher proportion of adults admitted during Omicron predominance had received the final dose in a primary COVID-19 vaccination series (were fully vaccinated) (39.6% versus 25.1%), and fewer received COVID-19-directed therapies. Although fewer required intensive care unit (ICU) admission and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), and fewer died while hospitalized during Omicron predominance, there were no significant differences in ICU admission or IMV when stratified by vaccination status. Fewer fully vaccinated Omicron-period patients died while hospitalized (3.4%), compared with Delta-period patients (10.6%). Among Omicron-period patients, vaccination was associated with lower likelihood of ICU admission, and among adults aged ≥65 years, lower likelihood of death while hospitalized. Likelihood of ICU admission and death were lowest among adults who had received a booster dose. Among the first 131 Omicron-period hospitalizations, 19.8% of patients were clinically assessed as admitted for non-COVID-19 conditions. Compared with adults considered likely to have been admitted because of COVID-19, these patients were younger (median age = 38 versus 67 years) and more likely to have received at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (84.6% versus 61.0%). Although 20% of SARS-CoV-2-associated hospitalizations during the period of Omicron predominance might be driven by non-COVID-19 conditions, large numbers of hospitalizations place a strain on health systems. Vaccination, including a booster dose for those who are fully vaccinated, remains critical to minimizing risk for severe health outcomes among adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity
17.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 64, 2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677536

ABSTRACT

Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and epithelium lineage labeling have yielded identification of multiple abnormal epithelial progenitor populations during alveolar type 2 (ATII) cell differentiation into alveolar type 1 (ATI) cells during regenerative lung post-fibrotic injury. These abnormal cells include basaloid/basal-like cells, ATII transition cells, and persistent epithelial progenitors (PEPs). These cells occurred and accumulated during the regeneration of distal airway and alveoli in response to both chronic and acute pulmonary injury. Among the alveolar epithelial progenitors, PEPs express a distinct Krt8+ phenotype that is rarely found in intact alveoli. However, post-injury, the Krt8+ phenotype is seen in dysplastic epithelial cells. Fully understanding the characteristics and functions of these newly found, injury-induced abnormal behavioral epithelial progenitors and the signaling pathways regulating their phenotype could potentially point the way to unique therapeutic targets for fibrosing lung diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding these epithelial progenitors as they relate to uncovering regenerative mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Lung Injury , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Epithelial Cells , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Alveoli
18.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:135-135, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1592239

ABSTRACT

To date, one report found a higher incidence and mortality in COVID-19 patients with barotrauma during the winter surge. B Introduction: b Barotrauma is a complication seen in COVID-19 pneumonia seen in 1% of hospitalized patients to 15% in mechanically ventilated patients. B Conclusions: b Our results concurred with an earlier report that the incidence and mortality associated with barotrauma among COVID-19 inpatients during the winter were higher than in the spring. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 790469, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581320

ABSTRACT

Background: Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to SARS-CoV-2 are clinically efficacious when administered early, decreasing hospitalization and mortality in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19. We investigated the effects of receiving mAbs (bamlanivimab alone and bamlanivimab and etesevimab together) after SARS-CoV-2 infection on the endogenous immune response. Methods: Longitudinal serum samples were collected from patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 in the BLAZE-1 trial who received placebo (n=153), bamlanivimab alone [700 mg (n=100), 2800 mg (n=106), or 7000 mg (n=98)], or bamlanivimab (2800 mg) and etesevimab (2800 mg) together (n=111). A multiplex Luminex serology assay measured antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including SARS-CoV-2 protein variants that evade bamlanivimab or etesevimab binding, and SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus neutralization assays were performed. Results: The antibody response in patients who received placebo or mAbs had a broad specificity. Titer change from baseline against a receptor-binding domain mutant (Spike-RBD E484Q), as well as N-terminal domain (Spike-NTD) and nucleocapsid protein (NCP) epitopes were 1.4 to 4.1 fold lower at day 15-85 in mAb recipients compared with placebo. Neutralizing activity of day 29 sera from bamlanivimab monotherapy cohorts against both spike E484Q and beta variant (B.1.351) were slightly reduced compared with placebo (by a factor of 3.1, p=0.001, and 2.9, p=0.002, respectively). Early viral load correlated with the subsequent antibody titers of the native, unmodified humoral response (p<0.0001 at Day 15, 29, 60 and 85 for full-length spike). Conclusions: Patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 treated with mAbs develop a wide breadth of antigenic responses to SARS-CoV-2. Small reductions in titers and neutralizing activity, potentially due to a decrease in viral load following mAb treatment, suggest minimal impact of mAb treatment on the endogenous immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e440-e449, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Based on interim analyses and modeling data, lower doses of bamlanivimab and etesevimab together (700/1400 mg) were investigated to determine optimal dose and expand availability of treatment. METHODS: This Phase 3 portion of the BLAZE-1 trial characterized the effect of bamlanivimab with etesevimab on overall patient clinical status and virologic outcomes in ambulatory patients ≥12 years old, with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and ≥1 risk factor for progressing to severe COVID-19 and/or hospitalization. Bamlanivimab and etesevimab together (700/1400 mg) or placebo were infused intravenously within 3 days of patients' first positive COVID-19 test. RESULTS: In total, 769 patients were infused (median age [range]; 56.0 years [12, 93], 30.3% of patients ≥65 years of age and median duration of symptoms; 4 days). By day 29, 4/511 patients (0.8%) in the antibody treatment group had a COVID-19-related hospitalization or any-cause death, as compared with 15/258 patients (5.8%) in the placebo group (Δ[95% confidence interval {CI}] = -5.0 [-8.0, -2.1], P < .001). No deaths occurred in the bamlanivimab and etesevimab group compared with 4 deaths (all COVID-19-related) in the placebo group. Patients receiving antibody treatment had a greater mean reduction in viral load from baseline to Day 7 (Δ[95% CI] = -0.99 [-1.33, -.66], P < .0001) compared with those receiving placebo. Persistently high viral load at Day 7 correlated with COVID-19-related hospitalization or any-cause death by Day 29 in all BLAZE-1 cohorts investigated. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the use of bamlanivimab and etesevimab (700/1400 mg) for ambulatory patients at high risk for severe COVID-19. Evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants will require continued monitoring to determine the applicability of this treatment. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT04427501.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
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