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1.
Latin American Journal of Pharmacy ; 41(2):413-419, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057856

ABSTRACT

The present study explored the inflammatory response and clinical efficacy of Tanreqing injection in combination with antiviral therapy in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The results demonstrated that the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). Clinical efficacy assessment revealed a significant improvement in the time necessary for image absorption improvement in the treatment group (p < 0.05), while the time taken for fever and muscle soreness symptoms to resolve significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the time taken to obtain a negative COVID-19 test result was significantly shortened (p < 0.05). Tanreqing injection combined with antiviral treatment improved clinical symptoms of COVID-19 faster than when the anti-viral treatments were used alone and this may be related to the reduction in inflammatory response. Copyright © 2022, Colegio de Farmaceuticos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. All rights reserved.

2.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae ; 42(7):53-62, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056466

ABSTRACT

In order to study the pollution levels of PM2.5 and water-soluble inorganic ions(WSIIs)in the towns of southern Gansu, PM2.5 samples were collected quarterly in Cheng County of Gansu from April 2019 to February 2020. Their characteristics of variation were analyzed, and the sources were apportioned using correlation and principal component analysis. The results showed that the mean annual mass concentration of PM2.5 was(57.2±26.9)μg·m-3 in Cheng County of Gansu Province. The seasonal variation of PM2.5 concentration was represented by winter>spring>autumn>summer during the sampling period, and the concentrations in winter were about 1.9 times than that in summer. The annually good air quality rate was 81%, of which 100% in summer. The ranking of WSII concentrations was SO42->NO3->Na+>NH4+>Ca2+>K+>Cl->Mg2+.SNA is the highest water-soluble ions, accounting for 70.1% of the concentration of eight main water-soluble ions. The mean ratio of ρ(NO3-)/ρ(SO42-)was 0.6, indicating that fixed sources such as industrial and agricultural production and fossil fuel combustion emissions, was the major source for particulate pollution. During the 2019 coronavirus epidemic, control measures had a significant impact on the concentration of PM2.5 and SNA in water-soluble ions, and the mean concentration of PM2.5 was reduced by 44.2%. Source apportionment showed that WSIIs in PM2.5 were mainly from fossil fuel combustion, biomass combustion, secondary formation and road construction dust, etc. © 2022 Science Press. All rights reserved.

3.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2022 ; 2022-May:4104-4113, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2029228

ABSTRACT

The topic of source identification has attracted wide attention from researchers. In practice, the source identification method aims to locate the sources of rumors, computer viruses, and epidemics, such as COVID-19. However, there are two main problems with existing propagation source detection methods. First, most source detection methods are based on infinite networks, not in line with reality. Second, sources are often randomly selected in simulations, but different sources often cause significantly different detection results in real-world applications. To this end, we study how does the source location impact the effectiveness of source detection in finite networks. This paper first proposes a diameter-based node division method to classify the nodes based on their structural location. We further offer different evaluation indicators to measure the effectiveness of source detection methods. Then, we conduct systematic experiments on three synthetic networks and two real-world networks. Our experiments demonstrate that the location of the source directly effects detection effectiveness in finite networks for all source detection methods. Specifically, sources closer to the network boundary will lead to worse detection performance. It means that attackers can choose sources close to the network boundary to reduce the probability of detection to achieve a larger spreading scale. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems ; 43(3):2869-2882, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1974614

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has significantly impacted the world. The sudden decline in electricity load demand caused by strict social distancing restrictions has made it difficult for traditional models to forecast the load demand during the pandemic. Therefore, in this study, a novel transfer deep learning model with reinforcement-learning-based hyperparameter optimization is proposed for short-term load forecasting during the pandemic. First, a knowledge base containing mobility data is constructed, which can reflect the changes in visitor volume in different regions and buildings based on mobile services. Therefore, the sudden decline in load can be analyzed according to the socioeconomic behavior changes during the pandemic. Furthermore, a new transfer deep learning model is proposed to address the problem of limited mobility data associated with the pandemic. Moreover, reinforcement learning is employed to optimize the hyperparameters of the proposed model automatically, which avoids the manual adjustment of the hyperparameters, thereby maximizing the forecasting accuracy. To enhance the hyperparameter optimization efficiency of the reinforcement-learning agents, a new advance forecasting method is proposed to forecast the state-action values of the state space that have not been traversed. The experimental results on 12 real-world datasets covering different countries and cities demonstrate that the proposed model achieves high forecasting accuracy during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. © 2022 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-278-S-279, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967265

ABSTRACT

Background: Human-associated microbial communities have been linked to host immune response to respiratory viral infections. Prior investigations have observed shifts in the composition of the gut or respiratory microbiome in severe COVID-19. However, there has been no comprehensive metagenomic evaluation of the interaction between lower respiratory and gut microbiomes and host immune factors in COVID-19. Methods: From April 2020 to May 2021, we prospectively enrolled 153 hospitalized patients with mild (n=12), moderate (n=65), and severe (n=76) COVID-19 infection categorized using established clinical criteria. We longitudinally collected stool (n=270) for metagenomic profiling, and in a subset, we generated comprehensive host-microbiome-molecular profiles by collecting sputum metagenomes (n=87 participants with 212 samples) and blood cytokine levels (n=109 with 181 samples) weekly until hospital discharge. We performed omnibus testing of overall gut and respiratory community structure, species-level differential abundance testing using mixed effects modeling accounting for repeated sampling, hierarchical clustering of paired gut and respiratory metagenomic profiles, and multi-omic machine learning classification of disease severity. Results: Patients with severe COVID-19 tended to be older, were more frequently male, had higher rates of overweight/obesity, and a greater mean Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with severe COVID-19 infection had significantly decreased stool and respiratory microbiome a-diversity irrespective of antibiotic administration. COVID severity accounted for a small proportion of variance in stool (R2=2.4%, p=0.002) and sputum (R2=4.4%, p= 0.03) profiles. Hierarchical clustering of paired gut and respiratory samples from patients with severe COVID revealed the joint expansion of oral-typical taxa typically present during systemic inflammation (i.e., increases in Streptococcus and Peptostreptococus spp. in both gut and sputum). A pro-inflammatory milieu defined by a composite elevation of circulating plasma cytokines (e.g., IL-6, TNF-a, and IL-29 among others) were linked to broad microbial excursions in community structure for both stool and sputum as measured by Bray-Curtis distances. A random forest classifier incorporating either stool or sputum taxonomic features and accounting for age, sex, body mass index, and recent antibiotic use achieved excellent classification of biospecimens from patients with severe vs. non-severe COVID patients (AUROC > 0.80). Conclusions: Alterations of the gut and respiratory microbiome were associated with differences in host immune response and COVID-19 disease severity. Further studies are needed to identify the potential role of human-associated microbial communities as a biomarker for poor patient outcomes in COVID-19 who may warrant escalated levels of care.(Figure Presented) Fig. 1. (A) Using unsupervised feature selection (species abundance > 0.001) inclusive of taxa differentially abundant by non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum testing (nominal p-value < 0.05), (B) we performed random forest classification using a twice-repeated 5-fold crossvalidation scheme to predict COVID-19 disease severity from shotgun metagenomic stool profiles (C) yielding an AUROC of 0.91.

6.
JOURNAL OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM MANAGEMENT ; 51, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1936785

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore Chinese residents' outbound travel intentions and preparations in the post-pandemic world that are influenced by media coverage and risk perception. A conceptual model is proposed to test the structural relationships among media coverage, risk perception, outbound travel intentions and preparations. This study administered an online survey to Chinese residents who had outbound travel experiences, and a total of 441 valid responses were collected for data analysis. The results indicated that media coverage exerted significant impact on cognitive and affective risk perceptions, outbound travel intentions and preparations. Furthermore, cognitive risk perception was positively related to affective risk perception, which significantly influenced outbound travel intentions and preparations. Outbound travel intentions were verified as the determinant of outbound travel preparations. Additionally, the mediating roles of affective risk perception and outbound travel intentions were confirmed. This study is amongst the first to introduce the concept of outbound travel preparations as a new research avenue for post-pandemic outbound travel behaviour.

7.
10th International Congress on Advanced Applied Informatics, IIAI-AAI 2021 ; : 123-128, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922698

ABSTRACT

This paper concerns health rumors that emerged during the outbreak of novel coronavirus. A serious game was designed as an experimental program for the prevention and control of health rumors. This covers two parts that include the TCP model for the games and cognitive questionnaires. The relevant variables of the experimental study are defined and the hypothesis is proposed. Two hundred experimental subjects are selected to participate in the experiments. Through the collection of relevant data in the experiments, statistical observations and comparative analysis are conducted to test whether the experimental hypothesis can be established. In addition, influence factors for the judgment and recognition of health rumors are considered in the comparison and analysis. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics ; 25(SUPPL 1):S16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1913031

ABSTRACT

Background: People with schizophrenia are more likely to become ill with COVID-19 and have poorer COVID-19 outcomes because of pre-existing health conditions and social disadvantage. This risk may be modified by the strength of their connection to the healthcare system. In New York (NY), a state badly impacted by the pandemic, drivers of racial/ethnic healthcare disparities could reduce access to healthcare for minorities relative to white individuals, even if insured. Evidence is limited on the pandemic's impacts on this population's access to behavioral and physical healthcare and whether differences by race/ethnicity exist. Aims of the Study: To examine the early impacts of the pandemic on racial/ethnic differences in access to healthcare among adult NY Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. Methods: We constructed a cohort of Medicaid beneficiaries aged 18-64 with schizophrenia observed in the pre-pandemic period (March 7, 2019-March 6 2020) or in the early post-pandemic period (March 7 - May 15 2020). Outcomes included access to critical behavioral health outpatient care (utilization of routine and specialty services, and antipsychotic drugs) and unavoidable hospitalizations (suicidality, cardiometabolic emergencies, and pneumonia). We estimated logistic regression models for each outcome. The main independent variables were race/ethnicity, time, and their interaction;adjustors included age, sex, disability, and county. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI for differences between minorities and whites were computed. Results: We identifed 23,486,821 and 4,481,176 person-days, preand post-pandemic period respectively, with a majority non-white. Utilization and racial/ethnic differences did not change over time for specialty oupatient care, which favored blacks over whites (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.19, 1.24), or hospitalizations for suicidality and cardiometabolic emergencies. Differences in routine outpatient care and antipsychotic utilization between minorities and whites, largely favoring whites, decreased in the post-pandemic period without closing the gaps. Differences in pneumonia hospitalizations changed over time, with minorities less likely than whites to be hospitalized in the post-pandemic period;e.g., Latinx: pre-period OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.18;post-period OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.87. Discussion and Limitations: We found that access to critical behavioral health care and unavoidable hospitalizations for adults with schizophrenia in NY and differences by race/ethnicity remained largely unchanged following the onset of the pandemic. This constancy is noteworthy given how severely NY and its healthcare system were affected by the pandemic. However, the post-pandemic emergence or widening of racial/ethnic differences in hospitalizations for pneumonia is concerning given the larger burden of COVID- 19 disease observed among minorities. Implications for Health Care Provision and Use: Identifying the provider-level factors that enabled the preservation of access to critical behavioral health and hospitalization care will improve the system's capacity to confront future public health emergencies. Implications for Health Policies: Our findings suggest that policies that aimed to preserve healthcare access were successful;however, policies are needed to address the potential for racial/ethnic differences in access to care for the public health emergency. Implications for Further Research: Future research should assess the impact of variable telehealth adoption on quality and effectiveness of care for this population.

9.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S543-S543, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904675
10.
Stud Mycol ; 101: 417-564, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902874

ABSTRACT

This paper is the fourth contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information about the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms, as well as DNA barcodes for the taxa covered. Moreover, 12 whole-genome sequences for the type or new species in the treated genera are provided. The fourth paper in the GOPHY series covers 19 genera of phytopathogenic fungi and their relatives, including Ascochyta, Cadophora, Celoporthe, Cercospora, Coleophoma, Cytospora, Dendrostoma, Didymella, Endothia, Heterophaeomoniella, Leptosphaerulina, Melampsora, Nigrospora, Pezicula, Phaeomoniella, Pseudocercospora, Pteridopassalora, Zymoseptoria, and one genus of oomycetes, Phytophthora. This study includes two new genera, 30 new species, five new combinations, and 43 typifications of older names. Taxonomic novelties: New genera: Heterophaeomoniella L. Mostert, C.F.J. Spies, Halleen & Gramaje, Pteridopassalora C. Nakash. & Crous; New species: Ascochyta flava Qian Chen & L. Cai, Cadophora domestica L. Mostert, R. van der Merwe, Halleen & Gramaje, Cadophora rotunda L. Mostert, R. van der Merwe, Halleen & Gramaje, Cadophora vinacea J.R. Úrbez-Torres, D.T. O'Gorman & Gramaje, Cadophora vivarii L. Mostert, Havenga, Halleen & Gramaje, Celoporthe foliorum H. Suzuki, Marinc. & M.J. Wingf., Cercospora alyssopsidis M. Bakhshi, Zare & Crous, Dendrostoma elaeocarpi C.M. Tian & Q. Yang, Didymella chlamydospora Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella gei Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella ligulariae Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella qilianensis Qian Chen & L. Cai, Didymella uniseptata Qian Chen & L. Cai, Endothia cerciana W. Wang. & S.F. Chen, Leptosphaerulina miscanthi Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora covidalis M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora globospora M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Nigrospora philosophiae-doctoris M. Raza, Qian Chen & L. Cai, Phytophthora transitoria I. Milenkovic, T. Májek & T. Jung, Phytophthora panamensis T. Jung, Y. Balci, K. Broders & I. Milenkovic, Phytophthora variabilis T. Jung, M. Horta Jung & I. Milenkovic, Pseudocercospora delonicicola C. Nakash., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora farfugii C. Nakash., I. Araki, & Ai Ito, Pseudocercospora hardenbergiae Crous & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora kenyirana C. Nakash., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora perrottetiae Crous, C. Nakash. & C.Y. Chen, Pseudocercospora platyceriicola C. Nakash., Y. Hatt, L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora stemonicola C. Nakash., Y. Hatt., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora terengganuensis C. Nakash., Y. Hatt., L. Suhaizan & I. Nurul Faziha, Pseudocercospora xenopunicae Crous & C. Nakash.; New combinations: Heterophaeomoniella pinifoliorum (Hyang B. Lee et al.) L. Mostert, C.F.J. Spies, Halleen & Gramaje, Pseudocercospora pruni-grayanae (Sawada) C. Nakash. & Motohashi., Pseudocercospora togashiana (K. Ito & Tak. Kobay.) C. Nakash. & Tak. Kobay., Pteridopassalora nephrolepidicola (Crous & R.G. Shivas) C. Nakash. & Crous, Pteridopassalora lygodii (Goh & W.H. Hsieh) C. Nakash. & Crous; Typification: Epitypification: Botrytis infestans Mont., Cercospora abeliae Katsuki, Cercospora ceratoniae Pat. & Trab., Cercospora cladrastidis Jacz., Cercospora cryptomeriicola Sawada, Cercospora dalbergiae S.H. Sun, Cercospora ebulicola W. Yamam., Cercospora formosana W. Yamam., Cercospora fukuii W. Yamam., Cercospora glochidionis Sawada, Cercospora ixorana J.M. Yen & Lim, Cercospora liquidambaricola J.M. Yen, Cercospora pancratii Ellis & Everh., Cercospora pini-densiflorae Hori & Nambu, Cercospora profusa Syd. & P. Syd., Cercospora pyracanthae Katsuki, Cercospora horiana Togashi & Katsuki, Cercospora tabernaemontanae Syd. & P. Syd., Cercospora trinidadensis F. Stevens & Solheim, Melampsora laricis-urbanianae Tak. Matsumoto, Melampsora salicis-cupularis Wang, Phaeoisariopsis pruni-grayanae Sawada, Pseudocercospora angiopteridis Goh & W.H. Hsieh, Pseudocercospora basitruncata Crous, Pseudocercospora boehmeriigena U. Braun, Pseudocercospora coprosmae U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Pseudocercospora cratevicola C. Nakash. & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora cymbidiicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Pseudocercospora dodonaeae Boesew., Pseudocercospora euphorbiacearum U. Braun, Pseudocercospora lygodii Goh & W.H. Hsieh, Pseudocercospora metrosideri U. Braun, Pseudocercospora paraexosporioides C. Nakash. & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora symploci Katsuki & Tak. Kobay. ex U. Braun & Crous, Septogloeum punctatum Wakef.; Neotypification: Cercospora aleuritis I. Miyake; Lectotypification: Cercospora dalbergiae S.H. Sun, Cercospora formosana W. Yamam., Cercospora fukuii W. Yamam., Cercospora glochidionis Sawada, Cercospora profusa Syd. & P. Syd., Melampsora laricis-urbanianae Tak. Matsumoto, Phaeoisariopsis pruni-grayanae Sawada, Pseudocercospora symploci Katsuki & Tak. Kobay. ex U. Braun & Crous. Citation: Chen Q, Bakhshi M, Balci Y, Broders KD, Cheewangkoon R, Chen SF, Fan XL, Gramaje D, Halleen F, Horta Jung M, Jiang N, Jung T, Májek T, Marincowitz S, Milenkovic T, Mostert L, Nakashima C, Nurul Faziha I, Pan M, Raza M, Scanu B, Spies CFJ, Suhaizan L, Suzuki H, Tian CM, Tomsovský M, Úrbez-Torres JR, Wang W, Wingfield BD, Wingfield MJ, Yang Q, Yang X, Zare R, Zhao P, Groenewald JZ, Cai L, Crous PW (2022). Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 4. Studies in Mycology 101: 417-564. doi: 10.3114/sim.2022.101.06.

11.
Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology ; 16:12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1896301

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has exerted a tremendous impact on the psyche of people around the world, especially adolescents. In order to provide a valuable theoretical basis for effective measures to prevent psychological problems in adolescents during public health emergencies in the future, this study examined the mediating effect of coping style (CS, including positive coping style (PCS) and negative coping style (NCS)) and the moderating effect of emotional management ability (EMA) on the relationship between the psychological stress response (PSR) and aggression (AGG) in adolescents during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. The Buss-Warren Aggression Questionnaire, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, and Emotion Management Questionnaire were employed to investigate the mental health of Chinese adolescents from April 10-20 (Time point 1, T1) and May 20-30 (Time point 2, T2), 2020. A total of 1,931 adolescents (aged 10-25 years, M = 19.18 years, 51.4% male) were examined at T1 and 334 adolescents (aged 11-25 years, M = 19.97 years, 48.7% male) were reinvestigated at T2. Overall, 17.6% of the participants at T1 and 16.8% at T2 reported obvious PSR activation. NCS partly mediated the relationship between the PSR and AGG, and the indirect effect was moderated by EMA reported at T2. There were regional differences in the moderated mediation model in low-risk areas at T1. The moderated effects of EMA at T1 and T2 were opposite. Specifically, high EMA resulted in a stronger relationship between NCS and AGG at T1, whereas high EMA resulted in a weaker relationship between NCS and AGG at T2. Psychological reactions resulting from sudden public health events may trigger AGG in younger individuals. However, EMA may have a buffering effect on the onset of AGG. This research expands our understanding of the development of AGG in adolescents during the pandemic.

12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 34(2): 172-178, 2022 Apr 13.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the health-seeking behaviors of imported malaria cases after returning to China, and to investigate the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis, so as to provide the scientific evidence for early identification of imported malaria cases and prevention of severe cases development and secondary transmission. METHODS: The individual demographic features, and the disease onset and the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province in 2019 were captured from the National Notifiable Disease Report System and the Information Management System for Parasitic Disease Control in China. The characteristics of health-seeking behaviors and epidemiological features of imported malaria cases were descriptively analyzed, and the factors affecting the time to initial diagnosis of imported malaria cases after returning to China were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 244 imported malaria cases were reported in Jiangsu Province in 2019, and the time to initial diagnosis of the cases were 1-12 days, with mean time of (1.53 ± 1.65) days, with median time of one day. The highest number of malaria cases seeking healthcare services were found on the day of developing primary symptoms (76 cases, 31.1%), followed by on the second day (68 cases, 27.9%), on the third day (46 cases, 18.9%), and 54 cases (22.1%) received initial diagnosis 3 days following presence of primary symptoms, including 3 cases with initial diagnosis at more than one week. High proportions of imported malaria cases with a delay in the time to initial diagnosis were seen in migrant workers who returned to China in January (14 cases, 5.7%) and December (13 cases, 5.3%) and those aged between 41 and 50 years (32 cases, 13.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed relative short time to initial diagnosis among imported malaria cases returning to China on March [odds ratio (OR) = 0.16, P = 0.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.03, 0.85)] and those with a history of overseas malaria parasite infections [OR = 0.36, P = 0.001, 95% CI: (0.19, 0.67)]. CONCLUSIONS: Timely health-seeking behaviors should be improved among imported malaria cases in Jiangsu Province, patients with a history of overseas malaria infections require faster health-seeking activities.


Subject(s)
Malaria , Transients and Migrants , Adult , China/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/parasitology , Middle Aged
13.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):54-55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880082

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to significant disruptions in the provision of routine medical services. Myriad pandemic-related factors such as access to healthcare facilities, virtual care delivery, social distancing, changes in sexual behaviors, and periodic swab shortages may have affected detection rates for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Thus, we evaluated trends in testing and diagnoses of chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV from 2017 to 2020 in a large integrated health system in the United States. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using electronic health records among individuals ages ≥12 years enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC) system. For each year from 2017 to 2020, we assessed the rates per 100,000 person-years of tests conducted and new positive results for genital and extragenital chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV. Case definitions for chlamydia and gonorrhea included newly positive laboratory results in the absence of any other positive test within the past 30 days, or a positive test after a negative test within a 30-day period. Case definitions for syphilis included any new four-fold increase in RPR titer compared to the immediate prior RPR titer obtained within a 1-year period. We used Poisson regression to estimate rate ratios (RR) for each outcome, comparing pre-pandemic periods (January 2017 to February 2020) to the pandemic period (March to December 2020). Results: The study included a population of more than 4 million KPSC members yearly. During the pre-pandemic period, rates of testing remained stable or modestly increased, whereas case rates increased for syphilis and chlamydia, and decreased for gonorrhea and HIV (Table 1). Compared to the pre-pandemic period, testing rates were significantly lower from March to December 2020 for all STIs and HIV (range of RR 0.69-0.83). HIV/STI diagnosis rates were 7-29% lower during the pandemic for HIV (RR 0.74 [0.66-0.83]), chlamydia (RR 0.71 [95% CI.70-0.73]), and gonorrhea (RR 0.93 [0.89-0.96]), but higher for syphilis (RR 1.32 [1.27, 1.37]). Conclusion: We observed profound reductions in testing and diagnosis rates for chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic in Southern California compared to the pre-pandemic period. Despite lower pandemic period testing rates, syphilis diagnoses increased. These findings suggest the pandemic had an adverse impact on identification of STIs, which may impede efforts to curb STIs and the HIV epidemic.

14.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1006-1007, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857652

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 4.7 million deaths worldwide to date and still continues globally unabated. Numerous studies have linked the mortality in COVID-19 to aggressive immune response and cytokine storm. However, little is known about the cytokine profiles of individual immune cells that are directly involved in tissue damage. Here we investigate intracellular cytokines in individual T and NK cells of COVID-19 patients. Design: We studied 50 blood samples from 22 COVID-19 patients, 4 with mild, 6 moderate and 12 severe disease. There were 6 healthy controls. We performed high-dimensional 30-color spectral flow cytometry to characterize the immune cell subsets. For cytokine study, cells were stimulated for 6 hours, and stained for surface antigens and intracellular cytokines (IL1b, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12, IL17a, IL21, INFg, GnzB, TNFa, and GMCSF). Data ware acquired on FACSymphony 50-parameter analyzer and analysis performed using FlowJo. Results: Our studies revealed significant differences in lymphocyte cytokine profiles between COVID+ and healthy controls (Fig 1). CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells exhibited increased percentages of IL2+ and IFNg+ cells, indicating a shift towards Th1 reaction. Granzyme B is highly upregulated in all T and NK cell subsets, demonstrating highly armed cytotoxic cells in COVID patients. The most prominent changes were noted in NK cells, 7 cytokines were highly expressed, most are proinflammatory cytokines. Of particular interest are IL-21 and GMCSF, both are known to play important roles in inflammatory cell recruitment, activation and renewal, which can lead to augmented tissue inflammation and injury. These changes were already evident in patients with mild disease, but there is heightened cytokine production in severe cases. Conclusions: Using high-dimensional flow cytometry we demonstrated for the first time significantly increased production of multiple proinflammatory cytokines and cytotoxic molecules in individual T and NK cells of COVID-19 patients. NK cells are most drastically activated. It is conceivable that when recruited to the target tissue such as lung, these highly primed cells will play a major role in tissue injury and ultimately organ failure via their direct cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. This is consistent with previous reports of increased NK cells in the COVID lungs. Analysis of NK cell cytokine profiles may serve to predict disease progression, and reveal new targets for immune-therapy for severe COVID patients. (Table Presented).

15.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):1847-1847, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848469
16.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2110-2110, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848468
17.
Libr. Hi Tech ; : 24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1794876

ABSTRACT

Purpose During the current global epidemic, e-learning and mobile learning have been rapidly developed in the field of entrepreneurship education. The effect of these learning methods remains to be confirmed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of mobile business simulation games in entrepreneurship education. Design/methodology/approach From May 2020 to July 2020, the authors adopted a quasi-experimental design to explore the effect of mobile business simulation games in entrepreneurship education. The authors set up an experimental group to participate in mobile business simulation games, with a total of 105 students, and set up a control group of 100 students. At the beginning and end of the experiment, data on entrepreneurial attitude, self-efficacy, entrepreneurial intention and other related variables were collected. Paired sample T-test and regression analysis were used to analyze the results. Findings The authors found that mobile business simulation games can improve entrepreneurial attitudes and self-efficacy, but cannot change entrepreneurial intentions. The paired sample T-test in the experimental group showed that the entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial self-efficacy of the participants were significantly improved, but the entrepreneurial intention did not change significantly. The above three variables did not change significantly in the control group. The research results also show that flow experience is very important in mobile business simulation games, which can improve entrepreneurial attitude and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. Originality/value The authors' findings confirm the positive effects of mobile business simulation games in entrepreneurship education, which can improve entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial self-efficacy. But the disadvantage of mobile business simulation games is that they cannot increase entrepreneurial intention. In addition, the flow experience needs to be valued in mobile business simulation games. The research in this paper has implications for how mobile learning can be used in entrepreneurship education during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, research is of great value on how mobile business simulation games can be improved.

19.
4th International Conference on Computing and Big Data, ICCBD 2021 ; : 68-74, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1784901

ABSTRACT

Social media has become an important data resource for knowledge discovery and data mining in multiple disciplines. With the exploding amount of social media data, how to efficiently and effectively exploit values and insights from such overwhelming amount of data has become an emerging area. Recently, various natural language processing techniques have been developed, e.g., word embedding, deep neural network and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), for studies such as sentiment analysis, traffic event detection, nature disaster assessment and COVID-19 tweet analysis. In this paper, topic modeling through LDA was used to conduct text mining on a large real-world COVID-19 tweet dataset, which contains more than 524 million multilingual tweets and covers 218 countries over a period of 3 months. We conducted extensive experiments and visualise insights discovered through this unsupervised process. © 2021 ACM.

20.
Journal of Virology ; 96(1):11, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1756184

ABSTRACT

Over the past 20 years, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV), and SARS-CoV-2 emerged, causing severe human respiratory diseases throughout the globe. Developing broad-spectrum drugs would be invaluable in responding to new, emerging coronaviruses and to address unmet urgent clinical needs. Main protease (Mpro;also known as 3CL(pro)) has a major role in the coronavirus life cycle and is one of the most important targets for anti-coronavirus agents. We show that a natural product, noncovalent inhibitor, shikonin, is a pan-main protease inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, human coronavirus (HCoV)-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E with micromolar half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Structures of the main protease of different coronavirus genus, SARS-CoV from the betacoronavirus genus and HCoV-NL63 from the alphacoronavirus genus, were determined by X-ray crystallography and revealed that the inhibitor interacts with key active site residues in a unique mode. The structure of the main protease inhibitor complex presents an opportunity to discover a novel series of broad-spectrum inhibitors. These data provide substantial evidence that shikonin and its derivatives may be effective against most coronaviruses as well as emerging coronaviruses of the future. Given the importance of the main protease for coronavirus therapeutic indication, insights from these studies should accelerate the development and design of safer and more effective antiviral agents. IMPORTANCE The current pandemic has created an urgent need for broad-spectrum inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. The main protease is relatively conservative compared to the spike protein and, thus, is one of the most promising targets in developing anticoronavirus agents. We solved the crystal structures of the main protease of SARSCoV and HCoV-NL63 that bound to shikonin. The structures provide important insights, have broad implications for understanding the structural basis underlying enzyme activity, and can facilitate rational design of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus ligands as new therapeutic agents.

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