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2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 974848, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099265

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been ongoing for more than 2 years, has become one of the largest public health issues. Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is one of the most important interventions to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Our objective is to investigate the relationship between vaccination status and time to seroconversion. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study during the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.617.2 outbreak in Jiangsu, China. Participants who infected with the B.1.617.2 variant were enrolled. Cognitive performance, quality of life, emotional state, chest computed tomography (CT) score and seroconversion time were evaluated for each participant. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA, univariate and multivariate regression analyses, Pearson correlation, and mediation analysis. Results: A total of 91 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 37.3, 25.3, and 37.3% were unvaccinated, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Quality of life was impaired in 30.7% of patients, especially for mental component summary (MCS) score. Vaccination status, subjective cognitive decline, and depression were risk factors for quality-of-life impairment. The chest CT score mediated the relationship of vaccination status with the MCS score, and the MCS score mediated the relationship of the chest CT score with time to seroconversion. Conclusion: Full immunization course with an inactivated vaccine effectively lowered the chest CT score and improved quality of life in hospitalized patients. Vaccination status could influence time to seroconversion by affecting CT score and MCS score indirectly. Our study emphasizes the importance of continuous efforts in encouraging a full vaccination course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Seroconversion , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Quality of Life , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vaccination
3.
iScience ; 25(12): 105479, 2022 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095532

ABSTRACT

The repetitive applications of vaccine boosters have been brought up in face of continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with neutralization escape mutations, but their protective efficacy and potential adverse effects remain largely unknown. Here, we compared the humoral and cellular immune responses of an extended course of recombinant receptor binding domain (RBD) vaccine boosters with those from conventional immunization strategy in a Balb/c mice model. Multiple vaccine boosters after the conventional vaccination course significantly decreased RBD-specific antibody titers and serum neutralizing efficacy against the Delta and Omicron variants, and profoundly impaired CD4+ and CD8+T cell activation and increased PD-1 and LAG-3 expressions in these T cells. Mechanistically, we confirmed that extended vaccination with RBD boosters overturned the protective immune memories by promoting adaptive immune tolerance. Our findings demonstrate potential risks with the continuous use of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine boosters, providing immediate implications for the global COVID-19 vaccination enhancement strategies.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089018

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized through a Notch1-dependent mechanism. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variants impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant-negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL leading to Notch1 upregulation. Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in a mTORC1-dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066600

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients with hypertension have increased hospital complications and mortality rates. Moreover, these patients also have lower antibody titers after receiving the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine. Therefore, patients with hypertension should receive a COVID-19 vaccine booster. To promote the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine booster among hypertensive patients, this study investigated patients' willingness and factors that influence patients with hypertension to receive the COVID-19 vaccine booster. From July 2021 to August, 410 patients with hypertension were surveyed. Overall, 76.8% of patients were willing to receive the COVID-19 vaccine booster, as 82.7% of patients without comorbidities and 72.7% of patients with comorbidities were willing to receive the vaccine booster. The main factors that influenced the willingness of patients with hypertension to receive a booster dose were the preventive effect of the vaccine (χ2 = 52.827, p < 0.05), vaccine safety (χ2 = 42.423, p < 0.05), vaccine knowledge (χ2 = 7.831, p < 0.05), presence of comorbidities (χ2 = 4.862, p < 0.05), disease control (χ2 = 5.039, p < 0.05), and antihypertensive treatments (χ2 = 12.565, p < 0.05). This study's findings highlight the need to promote knowledge about booster vaccination among patients and health management. These measures would improve patients' willingness and knowledge about the vaccine and their health status, which are the main factors that influence patients' intention to receive booster vaccines.

6.
Natl Sci Rev ; 9(9): nwac122, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051501

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has an extremely broad host range that includes hippopotami, which are phylogenetically closely related to whales. The cellular ACE2 receptor is one of the key determinants of the host range. Here, we found that ACE2s from several marine mammals and hippopotami could efficiently bind to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 and facilitate the transduction of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses into ACE2-expressing cells. We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy complex structures of the minke whale ACE2 and sea lion ACE2, respectively, bound to the RBDs, revealing that they have similar binding modes to human ACE2 when it comes to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and SARS-CoV RBD. Our results indicate that marine mammals could potentially be new victims or virus carriers of SARS-CoV-2, which deserves further careful investigation and study. It will provide an early warning for the prospective monitoring of marine mammals.

7.
Sustainability ; 14(19):11997, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2043940

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19, energy conservation is becoming increasingly crucial to the overwhelmed tourism industry, and the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC) is the most energy-consuming factor in the indoor area of scenic spots. As tourist flows are not constant, the intelligent control of an HVAC system is the key to tourist satisfaction and energy consumption management. This paper proposes a noise-reduced and Bayesian-optimized (NRBO) light-gradient-boosting machine (LightGBM) to predict the probability of tourists entering the next scenic spot, hence adopting the feedforward dynamic adaptive adjustment of the ventilation and air conditioning system. The customized model is more robust and effective, and the experimental results in Luoyang City Hall indicate that the proposed system outperforms the baseline LightGBM model and a random-search based method concerning prediction loss by 5.39% and 4.42%, respectively, and saves energy by 23.51%. The study illustrates a promising step in the advancement of tourism energy consumption management and sustainable tourism in the experimental area by improving tourist experiences and conserving energy efficiently, and the software-based system can also be smoothly applied to other indoor scenic spots.

8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 966826, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043536

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy was found in couples seeking artificial reproductive technology (ART) services. As the main vaccine used in China, investigations into the influence of inactivated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines on human fertility is needed. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included data on COVID-19 vaccination, clinical characteristics, and reproductive outcome of 1,000 intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles in 653 couples from March 2021 to March 2022 in a single university hospital-based center for reproductive medicine. The IUI cycles were divided into two categories based on sperm source, including 725 cycles in 492 women undergoing artificial insemination with their husband's sperm (AIH) and 275 cycles in 161 women undergoing artificial insemination with donor sperm (AID). Women were then divided into two groups. The vaccine exposed group included women vaccinated prior to insemination and the unexposed group included women who were not vaccinated or vaccinated after insemination. Reproductive outcomes including ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and miscarriage rate were assessed. Results: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccinated women prior to intrauterine insemination in AIH cycles have comparable ongoing pregnancy rate (11.1 vs. 10.3%, P = 0.73), clinical pregnancy rate (12.5 vs. 11.3%, P = 0.60) as compared with unvaccinated counterparts. Similarly, there were no significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rate (20.9 vs. 28.1%, P = 0.17), clinical pregnancy rate (21.7 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.19) between vaccine exposed and unexposed groups in AID cycles. Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that inactivated COVID-19 vaccination status cannot independently influence the reproductive outcomes of AIH and AID cycles. Subgroup analysis of vaccine exposed cycles showed that doses of vaccination and Interval between the last dose of vaccination and insemination have no influence on the reproductive outcomes of AIH cycles. Conclusions: No negative effects were found on female fertility in IUI cycles following exposure to the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. These findings indirectly reflect the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine toward reproductive health and help to mitigate vaccine hesitancy among people planning to conceive.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Insemination , Male , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Semen , Vaccination
10.
Explor Target Antitumor Ther ; 3(4): 428-444, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026715

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of gene therapy technology and the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics have attracted more and more attention, and the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for emergency authorization. To improve the delivery efficiency of mRNA in vitro and in vivo, researchers have developed a variety of mRNA carriers and explored different administration routes. This review will systematically introduce the types of mRNA vectors, routes of administration, storage methods, safety of mRNA therapeutics, and the type of diseases that mRNA drugs are applied for. Finally, some suggestions are supplied on the development direction of mRNA therapeutic agents in the future.

11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 995129, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022903

ABSTRACT

Given that tourism e-commerce live streaming has become an important driver of tourism development after the outbreak of Covid-19 but limited attention has been paid to this area, this study examines the impacts of tourism e-commerce live streaming features (interactivity, authenticity, and entertainment) on the consumers' purchase intention from the perspectives of consumers' flow experience and trust based on the SOR theory. The authors collected survey data from 357 tourism e-commerce live streaming consumers and used the structural equation model to test the research model. The results reveal that interactivity and authenticity positively affect tourism e-commerce live streaming consumers' purchase intention, but entertainment does not influence purchase intention positively; interactivity, authenticity, and entertainment each positively affects tourism e-commerce live streaming consumers' flow experience and trust; both flow experience and trust positively affect tourism e-commerce live streaming consumers' purchase intention; both flow experience and trust have mediating effects on the relationships between tourism e-commerce live streaming features and consumers' purchase intention. This study extends existing theoretical research on tourism e-commerce live streaming and provides some managerial implications for tourism enterprises and streamers.

12.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0081422, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001773

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmitted between humans and minks, and some mutations in the spike (S) protein, especially in the receptor-binding domain (RBD), have been identified in mink-derived viruses. Here, we examined binding of the mink angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to mink-derived and important human-originating variants, and we demonstrated that most of the RBD variants increased the binding affinities to mink ACE2 (mkACE2). Cryo-electron microscopy structures of the mkACE2-RBD Y453F (with a Y-to-F change at position 453) and mkACE2-RBD F486L complexes helped identify the key residues that facilitate changes in mkACE2 binding affinity. Additionally, the data indicated that the Y453F and F486L mutations reduced the binding affinities to some human monoclonal antibodies, and human vaccinated sera efficiently prevented infection of human cells by pseudoviruses expressing Y453F, F486L, or N501T RBD. Our findings provide an important molecular mechanism for the rapid adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 in minks and highlight the potential influence of the main mink-originating variants for humans. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a broad range of hosts. Mink-derived SARS-CoV-2 can transmit back to humans. There is an urgent need to understand the binding mechanism of mink-derived SARS-CoV-2 variants to mink receptor. In this study, we identified all mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike (S) protein from mink-derived SARS-CoV-2, and we demonstrated the enhanced binding affinity of mink angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to most of the mink-derived RBD variants as well as important human-originating RBD variants. Cryo-electron microscopy structures revealed that the Y453F and F486L mutations enhanced the binding forces in the interaction interface. In addition, Y453F and F486L mutations reduced the binding affinities to some human monoclonal antibodies, and the SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses with Y453F, F486L, or N501T mutations were neutralized by human vaccinated sera. Therefore, our results provide valuable information for understanding the cross-species transmission mechanism of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/veterinary , Mink , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
International Journal of Operations & Production Management ; 42(8):1077-1108, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1973393

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged supply chains (SCs) around the globe unprecedentedly. This study aims to gain insights on the impacts of the pandemic on SCs and their management under consideration of different regional contexts on a global scale.Design/methodology/approach>A Delphi study collects the expertise of global SC academics on the SC vulnerabilities and the measures for responding to disruptions, improving resilience, and restoring operations. Data from three polls are systematically analyzed by content, frequency, and cluster analysis.Findings>The study identifies and ranks ten major issues related to SC vulnerabilities and management strategies for specific SC processes and geographical regions. Detected differences among the considered geographical regions point towards particular challenges and call for specific measures to integrate regional contingencies into SC management. In a regional comparison, China and Iran as well as Africa clearly stand out, but also Europe/North America, India/Pakistan, and Brazil show geographical particularities.Research limitations/implications>The responses are collected against the COVID-19 pandemic, while the findings show differences among the regions thereby arguing for taking regional contingencies into account in managing SCs.Practical implications>SC resilience is a core aim, which was emphasized by the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings provide insights and challenges that managers would have to meet in the different regions covered.Originality/value>This paper contributes to existing knowledge on SC risks and SC resilience in context to extreme situations. Given that events, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, will become more frequent in the future due to climate change and geopolitical tensions, insights into how to manage SCs under extreme conditions and into regional differences are crucial.

14.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 3409-3421, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926353

ABSTRACT

Equine arteritis virus (EAV) and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represent two members of the family Arteriviridae and pose a major threat to the equine- and swine-breeding industries throughout the world. Previously, we and others demonstrated that PRRSV 3C-like protease (3CLpro) had very high glutamic acid (Glu)-specificity at the P1 position (P1-Glu). Comparably, EAV 3CLpro exhibited recognition of both Glu and glutamine (Gln) at the P1 position. However, the underlying mechanisms of the P1 substrate specificity shift of arterivirus 3CLpro remain unclear. We systematically screened the specific amino acids in the S1 subsite of arterivirus 3CLpro using a cyclized luciferase-based biosensor and identified Gly116, His133 and Ser136 (using PRRSV 3CLpro numbering) are important for recognition of P1-Glu, whereas Ser136 is nonessential for recognition of P1-Gln. Molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments highlighted that the PRRSV 3CLpro and EAV 3CLpro formed distinct S1 subsites for the P1 substrate specificity switch. Mechanistically, a specific intermolecular salt bridge between PRRSV 3CLpro and substrate P1-Glu (Lys138/P1-Glu) are invaluable for high Glu-specificity at the P1 position, and the exchange of K138T (salt bridge interruption, from PRRSV to EAV) shifted the specificity of PRRSV 3CLpro toward P1-Gln. In turn, the T139K exchange of EAV 3CLpro showed a noticeable shift in substrate specificity, such that substrates containing P1-Glu are likely to be recognized more efficiently. These findings identify an evolutionarily accessible mechanism for disrupting or reorganizing salt bridge with only a single mutation of arterivirus 3CLpro to trigger a substrate specificity switch.

16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 914193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875442

ABSTRACT

Background: RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulators may be necessary for diverse viral infectious diseases, and serve pivotal roles in various physiological functions. However, the potential roles of m6A regulators in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. Methods: The gene expression profile of patients with or without COVID-19 was acquired from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and bioinformatics analysis of differentially expressed genes was conducted. Random forest modal and nomogram were established to predict the occurrence of COVID-19. Afterward, the consensus clustering method was utilized to establish two different m6A subtypes, and associations between subtypes and immunity were explored. Results: Based on the transcriptional data from GSE157103, we observed that the m6A modification level was markedly enriched in the COVID-19 patients than those in the non-COVID-19 patients. And 18 essential m6A regulators were identified with differential analysis between patients with or without COVID-19. The random forest model was utilized to determine 8 optimal m6A regulators for predicting the emergence of COVID-19. We then established a nomogram based on these regulators, and its predictive reliability was validated by decision curve analysis. The consensus clustering algorithm was conducted to categorize COVID-19 patients into two m6A subtypes from the identified m6A regulators. The patients in cluster A were correlated with activated T-cell functions and may have a superior prognosis. Conclusions: Collectively, m6A regulators may be involved in the prevalence of COVID-19 patients. Our exploration of m6A subtypes may benefit the development of subsequent treatment modalities for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Methylation , RNA/genetics , RNA/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results
17.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 401-405, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840021

ABSTRACT

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the Alarmin family; these proteins are abundantly expressed in neutrophils, form a heterodimer complex, and are secreted in plasma on pathogen infection or acute inflammatory diseases. Recently, both proteins were identified as novel biomarkers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and were shown to play key roles in inducing an aggressive inflammatory response by mediating the release of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, called the "cytokine storm." Although co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV-1 may result in an immunocompromised status, the role of the S100A8/A9 complex in HIV-1 replication in primary T cells and macrophages is still unclear. Here, we evaluated the roles of the proteins in HIV replication to elucidate their functions. We found that the complex had no impact on virus replication in both cell types; however, the subunits of S100A8 and S100A9 inhibit HIV in macrophages. These findings provide important insights into the regulation of HIV viral loads during SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calgranulin A/metabolism , Calgranulin B , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
18.
Res Sq ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1786451

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) evolves in some pediatric patients following acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 by hitherto unknown mechanisms. Whereas acute-COVID-19 severity and outcome were previously correlated with Notch4 expression on regulatory T (Treg) cells, here we show that the Treg cells in MIS-C are destabilized in association with increased Notch1 expression. Genetic analysis revealed that MIS-C patients were enriched in rare deleterious variant impacting inflammation and autoimmunity pathways, including dominant negative mutations in the Notch1 regulators NUMB and NUMBL . Notch1 signaling in Treg cells induced CD22, leading to their destabilization in an mTORC1 dependent manner and to the promotion of systemic inflammation. These results establish a Notch1-CD22 signaling axis that disrupts Treg cell function in MIS-C and point to distinct immune checkpoints controlled by individual Treg cell Notch receptors that shape the inflammatory outcome in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0003722, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779311

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to pose an enormous threat to economic activity and public health worldwide. Previous studies have shown that the nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5, also called 3C-like protease) of alpha- and deltacoronaviruses cleaves Q231 of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), a key kinase in the RIG-I-like receptor pathway, to inhibit type I interferon (IFN) production. In this study, we found that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleaved NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). Notably, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited a stronger ability to cleave NEMO than SARS-CoV nsp5. Sequence and structural alignments suggested that an S/A polymorphism at position 46 of nsp5 in SARS-CoV versus SARS-CoV-2 may be responsible for this difference. Mutagenesis experiments showed that SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) exhibited poorer cleavage of NEMO than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 wild type (WT), while SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) showed enhanced NEMO cleavage compared with the WT protein. Purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 WT and SARS-CoV nsp5 (A46S) proteins exhibited higher hydrolysis efficiencies than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A) and SARS-CoV nsp5 WT proteins in vitro. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 exhibited stronger inhibition of Sendai virus (SEV)-induced interferon beta (IFN-ß) production than SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 (S46A), while introduction of the A46S substitution in SARS-CoV nsp5 enhanced suppression of SEV-induced IFN-ß production. Taken together, these data show that S46 is associated with the catalytic activity and IFN antagonism by SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. IMPORTANCE The nsp5-encoded 3C-like protease is the main coronavirus protease, playing a vital role in viral replication and immune evasion by cleaving viral polyproteins and host immune-related molecules. We showed that both SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 and SARS-CoV nsp5 cleave the NEMO at multiple sites (E152, Q205, and Q231). This specificity differs from NEMO cleavage by alpha- and deltacoronaviruses, demonstrating the distinct substrate recognition of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV nsp5. Compared with SARS-CoV nsp5, SARS-CoV-2 nsp5 encodes S instead of A at position 46. This substitution is associated with stronger catalytic activity, enhanced cleavage of NEMO, and increased interferon antagonism of SARS-CoV-2 nsp5. These data provide new insights into the pathogenesis and transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Interferon Type I , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Interferon Type I/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferon Type I/metabolism , SARS Virus/enzymology , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
20.
Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1771010

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has significantly impacted the world. The sudden decline in electricity load demand caused by strict social distancing restrictions has made it difficult for traditional models to forecast the load demand during the pandemic. Therefore, in this study, a novel transfer deep learning model with reinforcement-learning-based hyperparameter optimization is proposed for short-term load forecasting during the pandemic. First, a knowledge base containing mobility data is constructed, which can reflect the changes in visitor volume in different regions and buildings based on mobile services. Therefore, the sudden decline in load can be analyzed according to the socioeconomic behavior changes during the pandemic. Furthermore, a new transfer deep learning model is proposed to address the problem of limited mobility data associated with the pandemic. Moreover, reinforcement learning is employed to optimize the hyperparameters of the proposed model automatically, which avoids the manual adjustment of the hyperparameters, thereby maximizing the forecasting accuracy. To enhance the hyperparameter optimization efficiency of the reinforcement-learning agents, a new advance forecasting method is proposed to forecast the state-action values of the state space that have not been traversed. The experimental results on 12 real-world datasets covering different countries and cities demonstrate that the proposed model achieves high forecasting accuracy during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems is the property of IOS Press and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

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