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1.
Agriculture ; 12(8):1159, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023051

ABSTRACT

How to protect the ecological environment is an important international issue for achieving the sustainable development goals. Using survey data of 2628 farmers in 52 administrative villages in 13 prefecture-level cities of the China Land Economic Survey in 2020, probit and multinomial logistic regression models were used to explore the influence of social capital on farmers’ willingness, behavior and the transformation between willingness and behavior. The results show that: (1) The consistency between farmers’ willingness and behavior is low;90.25% of farmers had the willingness to separate waste, but only 48.49% of farmers had actually classified waste, and only 48.22% of farmers had transformed willingness into behavior. (2) Among the three dimensions of social capital, social network, social norm and social trust, all had positive and significant effects on farmers’ willingness and behavior to separate waste. (3) Social network and social norm had a positive and significant impact on the transformation of farmers’ willingness to separate waste into behavior, but social trust was not significant. The research results confirm that the contradiction between farmers’ intention and behavior of waste separation were generally inconsistent in rural areas. At the same time, the results showed that social capital can promote farmers’ willingness and behavior of waste separation and the transformation from a willingness to behavior, which can provide decision-making reference for how to improve farmers’ high willingness and behavior.

2.
Journal of Tropical Medicine ; 20(5):581-586, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1989751

ABSTRACT

This article reviewed the global research advances of corona virus disguise 2019 (COVID-19) from December 1st, 2019 to February 23rd, 2020, including etiology, clinical characteristics, diatomic and treatment and epidemiology. The main issues that remain unclear had been raised.

3.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e055333, 2022 05 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women remains a major global public health problem with harmful consequences for individuals and society. People's lifestyles have been greatly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigated the prevalence of and relationship between IPV and anxiety and depression in pregnant Chinese women during the pandemic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: This investigation was conducted in Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province, China from 15 September to 15 December 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3434 pregnant women were screened with the Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire to evaluate IPV and General Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Pregnant women with perinatal health records at Shenzhen District Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospitals who consented to participate were enrolled. Women with psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia, mania or substance dependence and pregnant women who refused to participate were excluded. Data were analysed with the χ2 test and by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of IPV among pregnant women was 2.2%. Mental violence was the most common type of violence (2.2%), followed by physical (0.6%) and sexual (0.7%) violence. The prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms was 9.8% and 6.9%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, there was a statistically significant association between IPV and prenatal anxiety (OR=4.207, 95% CI: 2.469 to 7.166) and depression (OR=3.864, 95% CI: 2.095 to 7.125). CONCLUSIONS: IPV increased the risk of prenatal anxiety and depression in pregnant women in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts should be made by the government and civil society to promote long-lasting antenatal interventions to ensure the safety and protect the mental health of pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
5.
World J Pediatr ; 18(8): 538-544, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute hepatitis of unknown etiology in children has recently exhibited a global trend of concentrated occurrence. This review aimed to summarize the current available information regarding the outbreak of severe acute hepatitis and introduce our hospital's previous experiences with the diagnosis and treatment of severe acute hepatitis for reference. DATA SOURCES: Websites including the UK Health Security Agency, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, CDC, WHO, and databases including PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase and Web of Science were searched for articles on severe acute hepatitis in children. RESULTS: As of May 26, 2022, a total of 650 cases have been reported in 33 countries; at least 38 (6%) children required liver transplantation, and nine (1%) died. Cases are predominantly aged between 3 and 5 years old, and there are no epidemiological links among them. The common manifestations are jaundice, vomiting and pale stools. Adenovirus tested positive in most cases, and SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses were detected in a few cases, but virus particles were not found in liver tissue. Adenovirus immunohistochemistry showed immunoreactivity in the intrasinusoidal lumen from some liver samples. The hierarchical treatment includes symptomatic and supportive therapy, management of coagulation disorders and hepatic encephalopathy, artificial liver support, and liver transplantation (approximately 6%-10% of cases require liver transplant). CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of this severe acute hepatitis in children is not clear. The clinical features are severe acute hepatitis with significantly elevated liver enzymes. Clinicians need to be alert to children with hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis , Acute Disease , Child , Child, Preschool , Hepatitis/diagnosis , Hepatitis/prevention & control , Hepatitis/therapy , Humans
6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806175

ABSTRACT

Given the high level of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, cold-chain workers are considered priority vaccination groups. To date, many studies have reported on the willingness within distinct populations to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas it has not been reported among cold-chain workers worldwide. To address this void, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to gather general information, COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine among cold-chain workers in Shenzhen, China. Binary logistic analyses were conducted to explore the associations between COVID-19-related KAP factors and the willingness for COVID-19 vaccination. Among 244 cold-chain workers, 76% indicated that they were willing to be vaccinated. Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, comprehending the most effective prevention, understanding the transmission routes, and recognizing the priority vaccination groups were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Regarding attitude factors, perceiving the social harmfulness and severity of COVID-19 were related to a higher willingness to vaccination. Participants considering themselves a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to get vaccinated. For practice factors, attaining more knowledge and higher self-reported compliance with maintaining adequate ventilation were also positively associated with the dependent variable. Agreement on the importance of COVID-19 vaccination was the most frequent reason for accepting the COVID-19 vaccine; additionally, concerns about side effects and insufficient understanding of efficacy were the main factors contributing to vaccine refusal. Enhancing KAP levels related to COVID-19 helps promote vaccine acceptance. Health authorities should promptly implement educational activities following the updated vaccine status among cold-chain workers.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 112997, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the seroreactivity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and its adverse events among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: A total of 60 SLE patients, 70 RA patients and 35 HCs, who received a complete inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cells) regimen, were recruited in the current study. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). RESULTS: There were no significant differences regarding the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and the self-reported vaccination-related adverse events among SLE patients, RA patients and HCs. The inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appeared to be well-tolerated and moderately immunogenic. In addition, case-only analysis indicated that in SLE patients, the disease manifestation of rash and anti-SSA autoantibody were associated with seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2, whereas the uses of ciclosporin and leflunomide had influence on the seroprevalence of IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2. In RA patients, rheumatoid factor (RF) appeared to be associated with the seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Our study reveals that the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination-related adverse effects are similar among SLE, RA and HCs, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for SLE and RA patients to prevent from the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination , Vero Cells
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330164

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has caused serious casualties worldwide. In recent months, the virus has mutated into an increasingly infectious form (Delta variant) and spread rapidly. Methods In the current study, we analyzed the clinical, epidemiological and viral genetic characteristics of the first four imported Delta cases in Anhui Province, China. Results The four imported Delta cases developed chest inflammation, tissue damage and recovered after admission, the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CRP levels showed a first increasing and then decreasing trend. The changes of hs-CRP /CRP and serum neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels were associated with the regression of chest lesions. The combination of genetic sequencing and epidemiological analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection of these four patients may originate from Russia. Conclusions Our study found the certain correlations of serum hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels with the occurrence, development and outcome of COVID-19 delta variant, suggesting that monitoring hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels of COVID-19 delta variant patients at hospital admission may be useful for understanding the severity of patients’ current conditions.

9.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 829273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715010

ABSTRACT

Detection of serum-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody has become a complementary means for the identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As we already know, the neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 decrease during the course of time after convalescence, whereas the duration of antibody responses in the convalescent patients has not been defined clearly. In the current study, we collected 148 serum samples from 37 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities. The neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IgM and IgG against COVID-19 were determined by CLIA Microparticle and microneutralization assay, respectively. The time duration of serum titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recorded. Our results indicate that IgG (94.44%) and Nabs (89.19%) can be detected at low levels within 190-266 days of disease onset. The findings can advance knowledge regarding the antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and provide a method for evaluating the immune response after vaccination.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323695

ABSTRACT

Knowing the residual and future effect of SARS-CoV-2 on recovered COVID-19 patients is critical for optimized long-term patient management. Recent studies focus on the symptoms and clinical indices of recovered patients, but the pathophysiological change is still unclear. To address this question, we examined the metabolomic profiles of recovered asymptomatic (RA), moderate (RM) and severe and critical (RC) patients without previous underlying diseases discharged from the hospital for 3 months, along with laboratory and CT findings. We found that the serum metabolic profiles in recovered COVID-19 patients still conspicuously differed from that in healthy control (HC), especially in the RM, and RC patients. Additionally, these changes bore close relationship with the function of pulmonary, renal, hepatic, microbial and energetic metabolism and inflammation. These findings suggested that RM and RC patients sustained multi-organ and multi-system damage and these patients should be followed up on regular basis for possible organ and system damage.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315380

ABSTRACT

RNA viruses are responsible for many types of zoonotic diseases that post great challenges for public health system. Effective therapeutics against these viral infections remains limited. Here we deployed a computational framework for host-based drug repositioning to predict potential antiviral drug candidates from 2352 approved drugs and 1062 natural compounds embedded in Traditional Chinese Medicine herbs. By systematically interrogating public genetic screening data, we comprehensively catalogued human-specific host dependency genes that are indispensable for the successful viral infection corresponding to 10 families and 29 species of RNA viruses. In addition, we utilized these host dependency genes as potential drug targets, and interrogated extensive drug-target interactions through multiple ways such as database retrieval, literature mining and de novo prediction using artificial intelligence-based algorithms. Repurposed drugs or natural compounds were proposed for combating many viral pathogens such as coronaviruses (e.g., SARS-CoV-2), flaviviruses (e.g., Zika virus) and influenza viruses. This study helps to prioritize promising drug candidates for further therapeutic evaluation against these viral-related diseases.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 733999, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551512

ABSTRACT

Background: To explore the differences in clinical manifestations and infection marker determination for early diagnosis of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and influenza (A and B). Methods: A hospital-based retrospective cohort study was designed. Patients with COVID-19 and inpatients with influenza at a sentinel surveillance hospital were recruited. Demographic data, medical history, laboratory findings, and radiographic characteristics were summarized and compared between the two groups. The chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables, and Kruskal-Wallis H-test was used for continuous variables in each group. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to differentiate the intergroup characteristics. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the predisposing factors. Results: About 23 patients with COVID-19 and 74 patients with influenza were included in this study. Patients with influenza exhibited more symptoms of cough and sputum production than COVID-19 (p < 0.05). CT showed that consolidation and pleural effusion were more common in influenza than COVID-19 (p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that patients with influenza had high values of infection and coagulation function markers, but low values of blood routine and biochemical test markers than patients with COVID-19 (mild or moderate groups) (p < 0.05). In patients with COVID-19, the ROC analysis showed positive predictions of albumin and hematocrit, but negative predictions of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Multivariate analysis revealed that influenza might associate with risk of elevated CRP, PCT, and LDH, whereas COVID-19 might associated with high HBDH. Conclusion: Patients with influenza had more obvious clinical symptoms but less common consolidation lesions and pleural effusion than those with COVID-19. These findings suggested that influenza likely presents with stronger inflammatory reactions than COVID-19, which provides some insights into the pathogenesis of these two contagious respiratory illnesses.

13.
Mol Biomed ; 1(1): 14, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515460

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 has attracted extensive drug searching interets for the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Although currently several of clinically used "old" drugs have been repurposed to this new disease for the urgent clinical investigation, there is still great demand for more effective therapies for the anti-infections. Here we report the discovery that an "old" drug Emetine could potently inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus replication and displayed virus entry blocking effect in Vero cells at low dose. In addition, Emetine could significantly reduce the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) protein level and moderately reduce the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) protein level in the M1 polarized THP-1 macrophages. In vivo animal pharmacokinetics (PK) study revealed that Emetine was enriched in the lung tissue and had a long retention time (over 12 h). With 1 mg/kg single oral dose, the effective concentration of Emetine in lung was up to 1.8 µM (mice) and 1.6 µM (rats) at 12 h, which is over 200-fold higher than the EC50 of the drug. The potent in vitro antiviral replication efficacy and the high enrichment in target tissue, combining with the well documented safety profiles in human indicate that low dose of Emetine might be a potentially effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 infection therapy.

14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 744691, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477873

ABSTRACT

When a major, sudden infectious disease occurs, people tend to react emotionally and display reactions such as tension, anxiety, fear, depression, and somatization symptoms. Social media played a substantial awareness role in developing countries during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to analyze public opinion regarding COVID-19 and to explore the trajectory of psychological status and online public reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic by examining online content from Weibo in China. This study consisted of three steps: first, Weibo posts created during the pandemic were collected and preprocessed on a large scale; second, public sentiment orientation was classified as "optimistic/pessimistic/neutral" orientation via natural language processing and manual determination procedures; and third, qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to reveal the trajectory of public psychological status and online public reactions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public psychological status differed in different periods of the pandemic (from December 2019 to May 2020). The newly confirmed cases had an almost 1-month lagged effect on public psychological status. Among the 15 events with high impact indexes or related to government decisions, there were 10 optimism orientation > pessimism orientation (OP) events (2/3) and 5 pessimism orientation > optimism orientation (PO) events (1/3). Among the top two OP events, the high-frequency words were "race against time" and "support," while in the top two PO events, the high-frequency words were "irrationally purchase" and "pass away." We proposed a hypothesis that people developed negative self-perception when they received PO events, but their cognition was developed by how these external stimuli were processed and evaluated. These results offer implications for public health policymakers on understanding public psychological status from social media. This study demonstrates the benefits of promoting psychological healthcare and hygiene activity in the early period and improving risk perception for the public based on public opinion and the coping abilities of people. Health managers should focus on disseminating socially oriented strategies to improve the policy literacy of Internet users, thereby facilitating the disease prevention work for the COVID-19 pandemic and other major public events.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Older individuals with hypertension are at a high risk of being infected with influenza. However, there have been few studies investigating the influenza vaccination status among older people with hypertension. The present work aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage and determine the predictors of seasonal influenza vaccinations among hypertensive patients aged over 60 years in Shenzhen, China. METHOD: The study used data from an online cross-sectional survey that was conducted in Shenzhen City, China, in October 2020. Frequencies and proportions of all the variables including sociodemographic characteristics and health-related information were described and tabulated based on the influenza vaccination status. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors associated with the influenza vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 5216 older people with hypertension aged above 60 years were recruited. Overall, only 4.7% had received an influenza vaccine in the latest influenza season. Using the action toward being vaccinated as the primary outcome, the multivariable regression analysis showed that participants aged over 80 years (aOR 2.957, 95% CI: 1.784-4.900), obtaining higher education levels (aOR 1.424, 95% CI: 1.060-1.914 for high school, aOR 1.681, 95% CI: 1.066-2.650 for college or above), living with a partner (aOR 1.432, 95% CI: 1.068-1.920), using a family doctor (aOR 2.275, 95% CI: 1.744-2.968), and taking a physical examination 1-2 and ≥3 times each year (aOR 2.107, 95% CI: 1.601-2.772 and aOR 2.118, 95% CI: 1.083-4.143, respectively) were more likely to be vaccinated. In contrast, smokers had less likelihood of having the influenza vaccination than non-smokers (aOR 1.829, 95% CI: 1.208-2.767). CONCLUSIONS: The coverage rate of influenza vaccinations is far away from optimistic among older adults with hypertension. Additional works should be undertaken immediately to improve the influenza vaccination status.

16.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432442

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
17.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 4485-4501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether discharged COVID-19 patients have fully recovered from severe complications, including the differences in the post-infection metabolomic profiles of patients with different disease severities. METHODS: COVID-19-recovered patients, who had no previous underlying diseases and were discharged from Wuhan Union Hospital for 3 months, and matched healthy controls (HCs) were recruited in this prospective cohort study. We examined the blood biochemical indicators, cytokines, lung computed tomography scans, including 39 HCs, 18 recovered asymptomatic (RAs), 34 recovered moderate (RMs), and 44 recovered severe/ critical patients (RCs). A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach was employed to profile the global metabolites of fasting plasma of these participants. RESULTS: Clinical data and metabolomic profiles suggested that RAs recovered well, but some clinical indicators and plasma metabolites in RMs and RCs were still abnormal as compared with HCs, such as decreased taurine, succinic acid, hippuric acid, some indoles, and lipid species. The disturbed metabolic pathway mainly involved the tricarboxylic cycle, purine, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. Moreover, metabolite alterations differ between RMs and RCs when compared with HCs. Correlation analysis revealed that many differential metabolites were closely associated with inflammation and the renal, pulmonary, heart, hepatic, and coagulation system functions. CONCLUSION: We uncovered metabolite clusters pathologically relevant to the recovery state in discharged COVID-19 patients which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of potential organ damage in recovered patients.

18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706830, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399193

ABSTRACT

Background: Adequate understanding and precautionary behaviors are of vital importance to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among different populations have been reported, whereas such information is unavailable in teachers. We aimed to investigate the KAP of teachers associated with COVID-19 during the global outbreak. Methods: A large-scale population-based survey was conducted to gather information on COVID-19-related KAP among Chinese teachers using a self-administered questionnaire. We received 10,658 responses in April 2020, out of which 8,248 were enrolled in the final analysis. Participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics and KAP associated with COVID-19. Results: This work included 4,252 (51.6%) teachers in kindergartens, 2,644 (32.1%) teachers in primary schools, and 1,352 (16.4%) teachers in secondary schools. The knowledge level (mean: 4.46 out of seven points) was relatively lower than the levels of attitudes (mean: 3.27 out of four points) and practices (mean: 4.29 out of five points) toward COVID-19. Knowledge scores significantly varied by the collected demographic variables except education worksite (p < 0.05), whereas practice scores significantly differed in age groups (p < 0.05), education level (p < 0.001), education worksite (p < 0.001), and years of teaching (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that poor knowledge related to COVID-19 was common among men, younger, and less-educated teachers. In contrast, female teachers and those with higher education levels tend to have good practices against COVID-19. Conclusion: The present work suggested the knowledge gaps regarding COVID-19 were needed to be corrected immediately in teachers. Given the critical role of teachers in the education system, health authorities should take gender, age, and education level into account when developing suitable health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(12): 1838-1842, 2020 Dec 30.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389811

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a total of 55 928 327 confirmed cases and 1 344 003 deaths as of November 19, 2020. But so far the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes this pandemic has remained undetermined. The purpose of this study is to review the current research of SARS-CoV-2 and the existing problems therein, which may provide inspiration for further researches. Existing evidence suggested that SARS-CoV-2 may be derived from bat coronavirus 40-70 years ago. During the evolution, this virus underwent extensive variations in the process of mutations and natural selection. Different genomic regions of SARS-CoV-2 may have different selection pressures, but all of which increase the difficulty of tracing the origin of this virus. A wide variety of animals have been considered as potential hosts of SARS-CoV-2, including cats, lions, tigers, dogs and minks. SARS-CoV-2 has a chance to transmit from humans to animals and can be transmitted among animals. Current research evidence has shown that China is not the original source of SARS-CoV-2. It is still unclear how the virus spreads to human, and efforts are still need to be made to explore the origin of SARS-CoV-2, its hosts and intermediate hosts, and the mechanism of its transmission across different species of animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Chiroptera/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Animals , Cats , China , Disease Vectors , Dogs , Evolution, Molecular , Humans
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298504

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
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