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1.
International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation ; : 102783, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1819516

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 virus has caused and continues to cause unprecedented impacts on the life trajectories of millions of people globally. Recently, to combat the transmission of the virus, vaccination campaigns around the world have become prevalent. However, while many see such campaigns as positive (e.g., protecting lives), others see them as negative (e.g., the side effects that are not fully understood scientifically), resulting in diverse sentiments towards vaccination campaigns. In addition, the diverse sentiments have seldom been systematically quantified let alone their dynamic changes over space and time. To shed light on this issue, we propose an approach to analyze vaccine sentiments in space and time by using supervised machine learning combined with word embedding techniques. Taking the United States as a test case, we utilize a Twitter dataset (approximately 11.7 million tweets) from January 2015 to July 2021 and measure and map vaccine sentiments (Pro-vaccine, Anti-vaccine, and Neutral) across the nation. In doing so, we can capture the heterogeneous public opinions within social media discussions regarding vaccination among states. Results show how positive sentiment in social media has a strong correlation with the actual vaccinated population. Furthermore, we introduce a simple ratio between Anti and Pro-vaccine as a proxy to quantify vaccine hesitancy and show how our results align with other traditional survey approaches. The proposed approach illustrates the potential to monitor the dynamics of vaccine opinion distribution online, which we hope, can be helpful to explain vaccination rates for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
BioMed Research International ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1807688

ABSTRACT

Background. It is of vital importance to determine the safety of drugs. Pregnant women, as a special group, need to evaluate the effects of drugs on pregnant women as well as the fetus. The use of drugs during pregnancy may be subject to fetal toxicity, thus affecting the development of the fetus or even leading to stillbirth. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a toxicity rating for drugs used during pregnancy in 1979. These toxicity ratings are denoted by the letters A, B, C, D, and X. However, the query of drug pregnancy category has yet to be well established as electronic service. Results. Here, we presented PregTox, a publicly accessible resource for pregnancy category information of 1114 drugs. The PregTox database also included chemical structures, important physico-chemical properties, protein targets, and relevant signaling pathways. An advantage of the database is multiple search options which allow systematic analyses. In a case study, we demonstrated that a set of chemical descriptors could effectively discriminate high-risk drugs from others (area under ROC curve reached 0.81). Conclusions. PregTox can serve as a unique drug safety data source for drug development and pharmacological research.

3.
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy ; 150:112997, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1803595

ABSTRACT

Background This study aimed to investigate the seroreactivity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and its adverse events among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, and healthy controls (HCs). Methods A total of 60 SLE patients, 70 RA patients and 35 HCs, who received a complete inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (Vero cells) regimen, were recruited in the current study. Serum IgG and IgM antibodies against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were determined by using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA). Results There were no significant differences regarding the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and the self-reported vaccination-related adverse events among SLE patients, RA patients and HCs. The inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appeared to be well-tolerated and moderately immunogenic. In addition, case-only analysis indicated that in SLE patients, the disease manifestation of rash and anti-SSA autoantibody were associated with seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2, whereas the uses of ciclosporin and leflunomide had influence on the seroprevalence of IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2. In RA patients, rheumatoid factor (RF) appeared to be associated with the seroprevalence of IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2. Conclusion Our study reveals that the seroprevalences of IgG and IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and vaccination-related adverse effects are similar among SLE, RA and HCs, suggesting that COVID-19 vaccine is safe and effective for SLE and RA patients to prevent from the pandemic of COVID-19.

4.
Med Phys ; 2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Artificial intelligence (AI) has been proved to be a highly efficient tool for COVID-19 diagnosis, but the large data size and heavy label force required for algorithm development and the poor generalizability of AI algorithms, to some extent, limit the application of AI technology in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to develop an AI algorithm with high robustness using limited chest CT data for COVID-19 discrimination. METHODS: A three dimensional algorithm that combined multi-instance learning (MIL) with the long and short-term memory (LSTM) architecture (3DMTM) was developed for differentiating COVID-19 from community acquired pneumonia (CAP) while logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and a three dimensional convolutional neural network (3D CNN) set for comparison. Totally, 515 patients with or without COVID-19 between December 2019 and March 2020 from 5 different hospitals were recruited and divided into relatively large (150 COVID-19 and 183 CAP cases) and relatively small datasets (17 COVID-19 and 35 CAP cases) for either training or validation and another independent dataset (37 COVID-19 and 93 CAP cases) for external test. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, precision, accuracy, F1 score, and G-Mean were utilized for performance evaluation. RESULTS: In the external test cohort, the relatively large data-based 3DMTM-LD achieved an AUC of 0.956 (95%CI, 0.929∼0.982) with 86.2% and 98.0% for its sensitivity and specificity. 3DMTM-SD got an AUC of 0.937 (95%CI, 0.909∼0.965) while the AUC of 3DCM-SD decreased dramatically to 0.714 (95%CI, 0.649∼0.780) with training data reduction. KNN-MMSD, LR-MMSD, SVM-MMSD and 3DCM-MMSD benefited significantly from the inclusion of clinical information while models trained with relatively large dataset got slight performance improvement in COVID-19 discrimination. 3DMTM, trained with either CT or multi-modal data, presented comparably excellent performance in COVID-19 discrimination. CONCLUSIONS: The 3DMTM algorithm presented excellent robustness for COVID-19 discrimination with limited CT data. 3DMTM based on CT data performed comparably in COVID-19 discrimination with that trained with multi-modal information. Clinical information could improve the performance of KNN, LR, SVM and 3DCM in COVID-19 discrimination, especially in the scenario with limited data for training. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330164

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it has caused serious casualties worldwide. In recent months, the virus has mutated into an increasingly infectious form (Delta variant) and spread rapidly. Methods In the current study, we analyzed the clinical, epidemiological and viral genetic characteristics of the first four imported Delta cases in Anhui Province, China. Results The four imported Delta cases developed chest inflammation, tissue damage and recovered after admission, the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and CRP levels showed a first increasing and then decreasing trend. The changes of hs-CRP /CRP and serum neutralizing antibodies (Nab) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) levels were associated with the regression of chest lesions. The combination of genetic sequencing and epidemiological analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant infection of these four patients may originate from Russia. Conclusions Our study found the certain correlations of serum hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels with the occurrence, development and outcome of COVID-19 delta variant, suggesting that monitoring hs-CRP/CRP and Nab levels of COVID-19 delta variant patients at hospital admission may be useful for understanding the severity of patients’ current conditions.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 829273, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715010

ABSTRACT

Detection of serum-specific SARS-CoV-2 antibody has become a complementary means for the identification of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). As we already know, the neutralizing antibody titers in patients with COVID-19 decrease during the course of time after convalescence, whereas the duration of antibody responses in the convalescent patients has not been defined clearly. In the current study, we collected 148 serum samples from 37 confirmed COVID-19 cases with different disease severities. The neutralizing antibodies (Nabs), IgM and IgG against COVID-19 were determined by CLIA Microparticle and microneutralization assay, respectively. The time duration of serum titers of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recorded. Our results indicate that IgG (94.44%) and Nabs (89.19%) can be detected at low levels within 190-266 days of disease onset. The findings can advance knowledge regarding the antibody detection results for COVID-19 patients and provide a method for evaluating the immune response after vaccination.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324820

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which spread globally in early 2020. Asymptomatic carriers of the virus contribute to the propagation of this disease, and the existence of asymptomatic infection has caused widespread fear and concern in the control of this pandemic. Methods: : In this study, we investigated the origin and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 in Anhui’s two clusters, analyzed the role and infectiousness of asymptomatic patients in disease transmission, and characterized the complete spike gene sequences in the Anhui strains. Results: : We conducted an epidemiological investigation of two clusters caused by asymptomatic infections sequenced the spike gene of viruses isolated from 12 patients. All cases of the two clusters we investigated had clear contact histories, both from Wuhan, Hubei province. The viruses isolated from two outbreaks in Anhui were found to show a genetically close link to the virus from Wuhan. In addition, new single nucleotide variations were discovered in the spike gene. Conclusions: : Both clusters may have resulted from close contact and droplet-spreading and asymptomatic infections were identified as the initial cause. We also analyzed the infectiousness of asymptomatic cases and the challenges to the current epidemic to provided information for the development of control strategies.

8.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 197: 113771, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536447

ABSTRACT

Due to the similar clinical symptoms of influenza (Flu) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a looming infection threat of concurrent Flu viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In this work, we introduce a customized isothermal amplification integrated lateral flow strip (LFS) that is capable performing duplex reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) and colorimetric LFS in a sequential manner. With customized amplification primer sets targeted to SARS-CoV-2 (opening reading frame 1a/b and nucleoprotein genes) and Flu viruses (Flu A and Flu B), the platform allows the rapid and simultaneous visual screening of SARS-CoV-2 and Flu viruses (Flu A and Flu B) without cross reactivity, false positives, and false negatives. Moreover, it maximally eases the detection, reduces the detection time (1 h), and improves the assay performance to detect as low as 10 copies of the viral RNA. Its clinical application is powerfully demonstrated with 100% accuracy for evaluating 15 SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical samples, 10 Flu viruses-positive clinical samples, and 5 negative clinical samples, which were pre-confirmed by standard qRT-PCR. We envision this portable device can meet the increasing need of online monitoring the serious infectious diseases that substantially affects health care systems worldwide.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432442

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 715464, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430698

ABSTRACT

The mutants resulted from the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic have showed resistance to antibody neutralization and vaccine-induced immune response. The present study isolated and identified two novel SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) from convalescent COVID-19 patients. These two nAbs (XG81 and XG83) were then systemically compared with nine nAbs that were reconstructed by using published data, and revealed that, even though these two nAbs shared targeting epitopes on spike protein, they were different from any of the nine nAbs. Compared with XG81, XG83 exhibited a higher RBD binding affinity and neutralization potency against wild-typed pseudovirus, variant pseudoviruses with mutated spike proteins, such as D614G, E484Q, and A475V, as well as the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. To explore potential broadly neutralizing antibodies, heavy and light chains from all 18 nAbs (16 published nAbs, XG81 and XG83) were cross-recombined, and some of the functional antibodies were screened and studied for RBD binding affinity, and neutralizing activity against pseudovirus and the authentic SARS-CoV-2 virus. The results demonstrated that several recombined antibodies had a more potent neutralization activity against variant pseudoviruses compared with the originally paired Abs. Taken together, the novel neutralizing antibodies identified in this study are a likely valuable addition to candidate antibody drugs for the development of clinical therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV-2 to minimize mutational escape.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Line , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 693775, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394758

ABSTRACT

Small number of SARS-CoV-2 epidemic lineages did not efficiently exhibit a neutralization profile, while single amino acid mutation in the spike protein has not been confirmed in altering viral antigenicity resulting in immune escape. To identify crucial mutations in spike protein that escape humoral immune response, we evaluated the cross-neutralization of convalescent plasmas and RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against various spike protein-based pseudoviruses. Three of 24 SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses containing different mutations in spike protein, including D614G, A475V, and E484Q, consistently showed an altered sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent plasmas. A475V and E484Q mutants are highly resistant to neutralization by mAb B38 and 2-4, suggesting that some crucial mutations in spike protein might evolve SARS-CoV-2 variants capable of escaping humoral immune response.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Substitution/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Convalescence , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Humoral , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding
12.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform ; 25(7): 2363-2373, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328981

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia is a disease that causes an existential health crisis in many people by directly affecting and damaging lung cells. The segmentation of infected areas from computed tomography (CT) images can be used to assist and provide useful information for COVID-19 diagnosis. Although several deep learning-based segmentation methods have been proposed for COVID-19 segmentation and have achieved state-of-the-art results, the segmentation accuracy is still not high enough (approximately 85%) due to the variations of COVID-19 infected areas (such as shape and size variations) and the similarities between COVID-19 and non-COVID-infected areas. To improve the segmentation accuracy of COVID-19 infected areas, we propose an interactive attention refinement network (Attention RefNet). The interactive attention refinement network can be connected with any segmentation network and trained with the segmentation network in an end-to-end fashion. We propose a skip connection attention module to improve the important features in both segmentation and refinement networks and a seed point module to enhance the important seeds (positions) for interactive refinement. The effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated on public datasets (COVID-19CTSeg and MICCAI) and our private multicenter dataset. The segmentation accuracy was improved to more than 90%. We also confirmed the generalizability of the proposed network on our multicenter dataset. The proposed method can still achieve high segmentation accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Deep Learning , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Databases, Factual , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5998-6007, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298504

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, we investigated the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of a young patient infected by avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in Anhui Province, East China, and analyzed genomic features of the pathogen in 2020. Through the cross-sectional investigation of external environment monitoring (December 29-31, 2020), 1909 samples were collected from Fuyang City. It was found that the positive rate of H5N6 was higher than other areas obviously in Tianma poultry market, where the case appeared. In addition, dual coinfections were detected with a 0.057% polymerase chain reaction positive rate the surveillance years. The virus was the clade 2.3.4.4, which was most likely formed by genetic reassortment between H5N6 and H9N2 viruses. This study found that the evolution rates of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of the virus were higher than those of common seasonal influenza viruses. The virus was still highly pathogenic to poultry and had a preference for avian receptor binding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/virology , Influenza, Human/virology , Animals , Child, Preschool , China , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Influenza A virus/classification , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poultry/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics
14.
J Virol Methods ; 295: 114185, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Viral nucleic acid detection by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the current standard method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, due to low viral load in some COVID-19 patients, false negative results from this method have been repeatedly reported. METHOD: In this study, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of digital PCR (dPCR) in simulated samples and clinical samples with qPCR assay through a series of vigorous tests. RESULTS: The results showed that dPCR was more sensitive than qPCR especially for samples with low viral load (≤3 copies). In addition, dPCR had similar specificity as qPCR and could effectively distinguish other human coronaviruses and influenza virus from SARS-CoV-2. More importantly, dPCR was more sensitive than qPCR in detecting the virus in the "negative" samples from recurrent COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, dPCR could serve as a powerful complement to the current qPCR method for SARS-CoV-2 detection, especially for the samples with extremely low viral load, such as recurrent COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , COVID-19/virology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 930, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962806

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a newly emerging disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which spread globally in early 2020. Asymptomatic carriers of the virus contribute to the propagation of this disease, and the existence of asymptomatic infection has caused widespread fear and concern in the control of this pandemic. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the origin and transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 in Anhui's two clusters, analyzed the role and infectiousness of asymptomatic patients in disease transmission, and characterized the complete spike gene sequences in the Anhui strains. RESULTS: We conducted an epidemiological investigation of two clusters caused by asymptomatic infections sequenced the spike gene of viruses isolated from 12 patients. All cases of the two clusters we investigated had clear contact histories, both from Wuhan, Hubei province. The viruses isolated from two outbreaks in Anhui were found to show a genetically close link to the virus from Wuhan. In addition, new single nucleotide variations were discovered in the spike gene. CONCLUSIONS: Both clusters may have resulted from close contact and droplet-spreading and asymptomatic infections were identified as the initial cause. We also analyzed the infectiousness of asymptomatic cases and the challenges to the current epidemic to provided information for the development of control strategies.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Disease Hotspot , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, RNA
17.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-691

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 has caused a huge outbreak in China and multiple countries since it emerged in Wuhan, China in December, 2019. The virus caused diseases

18.
Infection ; 48(4): 543-551, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Taizhou, China. METHODS: A single center retrospective observational study was performed between Jan 1, 2020 and Mar 11, 2020 at Taizhou Public Health Medical Center, Zhejiang, China. All patients with confirmed Corona Virus Disease 2019 were enrolled, and their clinical data were gathered by reviewing electronic medical records. Outcomes of severely ill patients and non-severely ill patients were compared. RESULTS: Of 145 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, the average age was 47.5 years old (standard deviation, 14.6) and 54.5% were men. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (15.2%), followed by diabetes mellitus (9.7%). Common symptoms included dry cough (81.4%), fever (75.2%), anorexia (42.8%), fatigue (40.7%), chest tightness (32.4%), diarrhea (26.9%) and dizziness (20%). According to imaging examination, 79.3% patients showed bilateral pneumonia, 18.6% showed unilateral pneumonia, 61.4% showed ground-glass opacity, and 2.1% showed no abnormal result. Compared with non-severely ill patients, severely ill patients were older (mean, years, 52.8 vs. 45.3, p < 0.01), had a higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (16.3% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.08), had a higher body mass index (mean, 24.78 vs. 23.20, p = 0.02) and were more likely to have fever (90.7% vs. 68.6%, p = 0.01), anorexia (60.5% vs. 35.3%, p = 0.01), chest tightness (60.5% vs.20.6%, p < 0.01) and dyspnea (7.0% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Of the 43 severely ill patients, 6 (14%) received high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy, and 1 (2.3%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: Older patients or patients with comorbidities such as obesity or diabetes mellitus were more likely to have severe condition. Treatments of COVID-19 is still experimental and more clinical trials are needed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Electronic Health Records , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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