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1.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2020 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745077

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that AKI is common among patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and associated with worse outcomes. However, AKI among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the United States is not well described. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study involved a review of data from electronic health records of patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the Mount Sinai Health System from February 27 to May 30, 2020. We describe the frequency of AKI and dialysis requirement, AKI recovery, and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) with mortality. RESULTS: Of 3993 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, AKI occurred in 1835 (46%) patients; 347 (19%) of the patients with AKI required dialysis. The proportions with stages 1, 2, or 3 AKI were 39%, 19%, and 42%, respectively. A total of 976 (24%) patients were admitted to intensive care, and 745 (76%) experienced AKI. Of the 435 patients with AKI and urine studies, 84% had proteinuria, 81% had hematuria, and 60% had leukocyturia. Independent predictors of severe AKI were CKD, men, and higher serum potassium at admission. In-hospital mortality was 50% among patients with AKI versus 8% among those without AKI (aOR, 9.2; 95% confidence interval, 7.5 to 11.3). Of survivors with AKI who were discharged, 35% had not recovered to baseline kidney function by the time of discharge. An additional 28 of 77 (36%) patients who had not recovered kidney function at discharge did so on posthospital follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and is associated with high mortality. Of all patients with AKI, only 30% survived with recovery of kidney function by the time of discharge.

3.
J Diabetes ; 2020 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684743

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Dec 2019 and has spread globally. Diabetics are at increased risk of infections caused by a variety of pathogens including virus. The present research was aimed to describe clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study of COVID-19 patients with diabetes was conducted in four hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai and Anhui Province. RT-PCR or next generation sequencing was executed to confirm the existence of SARS-CoV-2 from respiratory specimens. RESULTS: 54 diabetics (10.36%) were recruited from 521 COVID-19 patients, with a median age of 63 (IQR, 52-70) years. Among them, 51 were previously diagnosed with diabetes and 3 were newly diagnosed based on HbA1c over 6.5%. For COVID-19, 47 of the 54 patients had an exposure history. Fever (47/54, 87.04%), dry cough (36/54, 66.67%) and expectoration (21/53, 39.62%) were among the top three symptoms. Lung infiltration was bilateral (46/52, 88.46%) and multilobe (47/52, 90.38%), and ground-glass opacity (36/37, 97.30%) was the most common pattern in radiological images. Besides, COVID-19 patients with diabetes were prone to be classified as severe or critical type (46.30%, 25/54) and complicated with acute lung injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury. The proportion of ICU admission and death among the COVID-19 diabetics were 14.81% (8/54) and 12.96% (7/54), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With older age, diabetics diagnosed as COVID-19 were prone to developing into severe type, and exhibited a high rate of ICU admission and mortality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Thromb Res ; 195: 62-68, 2020 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642037

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of suspected critical patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is very important for the treatment of patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of COVID-19 associated coagulopathy (CAC) to preview and triage. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was designed from government designated COVID-19 treatment center. CAC was defined as International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) score ≥2. Data from 117 patients COVID-19 were reviewed on admission. The primary and secondary outcomes were admission to Intensive Care Unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, vital organ dysfunction, discharges of days 14, 21 and 28 from admission and hospital mortality. Among them, admission to ICU was increased progressively from 16.1% in patients with non-CAC to 42.6% in patients with CAC (P < 0.01). Likely, invasive ventilation and noninvasive ventilation were increased from 1.8%, 21.4% in patients with non-CAC to 21.3%, 52.5% in patients with CAC, respectively (P < 0.01). The incidences of acute hepatic injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome in non-CAC and CAC were 28.6% vs. 62.3%, 8.9% vs. 27.9%, respectively (P < 0.01). The discharges of days 14, 21 and 28 from admission were more in non-CAC than those of CAC (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression results showed that ISTH score ≥2 was obviously associated with the admission to ICU (OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.47-11.25 P = 0.007) and the use of mechanical ventilation (OR 5.54, 95% CI 2.01-15.28 P = 0.001) in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: All results show ISTH score ≥2 is an important indicator to preview and triage for COVID-19 patients.

5.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102833, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection could lead to a series of clinical symptoms and severe illnesses, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and fatal organ failure. We report the fundamental pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. METHODS: The autopsy and pathological investigations of specimens were performed on bodies of two deceased cases with COVID-19. Gross anatomy and histological investigation by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained were reviewed on each patient. Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining and Masson staining were performed for the examinations of mucus, fibrin and collagen fiber in lung tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on the slides of lung tissues from two patients. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Flow cytometry analyses were performed to detect the direct binding of S protein and the expression of ACE2 on the cell surface of macrophages. FINDINGS: The main pathological features in lungs included extensive impairment of type I alveolar epithelial cells and atypical hyperplasia of type II alveolar cells, with formation of hyaline membrane, focal hemorrhage, exudation and pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation. The mucous plug with fibrinous exudate in the alveoli and the dysfunction of alveolar macrophages were characteristic abnormalities. The type II alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in alveoli and pulmonary hilum lymphoid tissue were infected by SARS-CoV-2. S protein of SARS-CoV-2 directly bound to the macrophage via the S-protein-ACE2 interaction. INTERPRETATION: Infection of alveolar macrophage by SARS-CoV-2 might be drivers of the "cytokine storm", which might result in damages in pulmonary tissues, heart and lung, and lead to the failure of multiple organs . FUNDING: Shanghai Guangci Translational Medical Research Development Foundation, Shanghai, China.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436947

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
Int J Surg ; 79: 120-124, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-412451

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused great public concern worldwide due to its high rates of infectivity and pathogenicity. The Chinese government responded in a timely manner, alleviated the dilemma, achieved a huge victory and lockdown has now been lifted in Wuhan. However, the outbreak has occurred in more than 200 other countries. Globally, as of 9:56 am CEST on 19 May 2020, there have been 4,696,849 confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 315,131 deaths, reported to Word Health Organization (WHO). The spread of COVID-19 overwhelmed the healthcare systems of many countries and even crashed the fragile healthcare systems of some. Although the situation in each country is different, health workers play a critical role in the fight against COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the status of health worker infections in China and other countries, especially the causes of infection in China and the standardised protocol to protect health workers from the perspective of an anaesthesiologist, in the hope of providing references to reduce medical infections and contain the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology
8.
World J. Clin. Cases ; 9(8): 1705-1712, 2020.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-303416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become an immense public health burden, first in China and subsequently worldwide. Developing effective control measures for COVID-19, especially measures that can halt the worsening of severe cases to a critical status is of urgent importance. CASE SUMMARY A 52-year-old woman presented with a high fever (38.8 °C), chills, dizziness, and weakness. Epidemiologically, she had not been to Wuhan where COVID-19 emerged and did not have a family history of a disease cluster. A blood test yielded a white blood cell count of 4.41 x 109/L (60.6 ± 2.67% neutrophils and 30.4 ± 1.34% lymphocytes). Chest imaging revealed bilateral ground-glass lung changes. Based on a positive nasopharyngeal swab nucleic acid test result and clinical characteristics, the patient was diagnosed with COVID-19. Following treatment with early non-invasive ventilation and a bundle pharmacotherapy, she recovered with a good outcome. CONCLUSION Early non-invasive ventilation with a bundle pharmacotherapy may be an effective treatment regimen for the broader population of patients with COVID-19.

10.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(11): 1380-1388, 2020 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47397

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is now a global health concern.Objectives: We compared the clinical characteristics, laboratory examinations, computed tomography images, and treatments of patients with COVID-19 from three different cities in China.Methods: A total of 476 patients were recruited from January 1, 2020, to February 15, 2020, at three hospitals in Wuhan, Shanghai, and Anhui. The patients were divided into four groups according to age and into three groups (moderate, severe, and critical) according to the fifth edition of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of COVID-19 issued by the National Health Commission of China.Measurements and Main Results: The incidence of comorbidities was higher in the severe (46.3%) and critical (67.1%) groups than in the moderate group (37.8%). More patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers in the moderate group than in the severe and critical groups. More patients had multiple lung lobe involvement and pleural effusion in the critical group than in the moderate group. More patients received antiviral agents within the first 4 days in the moderate group than in the severe group, and more patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids in the critical and severe groups. Patients >75 years old had a significantly lower survival rate than younger patients.Conclusions: Multiple organ dysfunction and impaired immune function were the typical characteristics of patients with severe or critical illness. There was a significant difference in the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers among patients with different severities of disease. Involvement of multiple lung lobes and pleural effusion were associated with the severity of COVID-19. Advanced age (≥75 yr) was a risk factor for mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/virology , Pandemics , Pleural Effusion/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Eur Respir J ; 55(4)2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18270
13.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(6): 655-663, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-9400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To assess the management and safety of epidural or general anesthesia for Cesarean delivery in parturients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and their newborns, and to evaluate the standardized procedures for protecting medical staff. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of parturients diagnosed with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection disease (COVID-19). Their epidemiologic history, chest computed tomography scans, laboratory measurements, and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positivity were evaluated. We also recorded the patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, anesthesia and surgery-related data, maternal and neonatal complications, as well as the health status of the involved medical staff. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics of 17 pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were similar to those previously reported in non-pregnant adult patients. All of the 17 patients underwent Cesarean delivery with anesthesia performed according to standardized anesthesia/surgery procedures. Fourteen of the patients underwent continuous epidural anesthesia with 12 experiencing significant intraoperative hypotension. Three patients received general anesthesia with tracheal intubation because emergency surgery was needed. Three of the parturients are still recovering from their Cesarean delivery and are receiving in-hospital treatment for COVID-19. Three neonates were born prematurely. There were no deaths or serious neonatal asphyxia events. All neonatal SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid tests were negative. No medical staff were infected throughout the patient care period. CONCLUSIONS: Both epidural and general anesthesia were safely used for Cesarean delivery in the parturients with COVID-19. Nevertheless, the incidence of hypotension during epidural anesthesia appeared excessive. Proper patient transfer, medical staff access procedures, and effective biosafety precautions are important to protect medical staff from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Epidural , Anesthesia, General , Cesarean Section , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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